Catacomb of Callixtus
The Catacomb of Callixtus is one of the Catacombs of Rome on the Appian Way, most notable for containing the Crypt of the Popes, which once contained the tombs of several popes from the 2nd to 4th centuries. The Catacomb is believed to have been created by future Pope Callixtus I a deacon of Rome, under the direction of Pope Zephyrinus, enlarging pre-existing early Christian hypogea. Callixtus himself was entombed in the Catacomb of Calepodius on the Aurelian Way; the crypt fell into disuse and decay as the relics it contained were translated from the catacombs to the various churches of Rome. The Catacomb and Crypt were rediscovered in 1854 by the pioneering Italian archaeologist Giovanni Battista de Rossi; the catacomb forms part of an ancient funerary complex, the Complesso Callistiano, that occupies thirty hectares. The boundaries of this are taken as being the Via Appia Antica, the Via Ardeatina and the Vicolo delle Sette Chiese; the area of the catacomb proper is about fifteen hectares, it goes down for five levels.
A rough estimate puts the length of passageways at about twenty kilometres, the occupancy at about half a million bodies. This catacomb's most ancient parts are the crypt of Lucina, the region of the Popes and the region of Saint Cecilia, where some of the most sacred memories of the place are preserved. A modern staircase, on the site of an ancient one, was built by Pope Damasus I, giving access to the region of the Popes, in, to be found the Crypt of the Popes, where nine pontiffs and eight representatives of the ecclesiastical hierarchy had been buried - along its walls are the original Greek inscriptions for the pontiffs Pontian, Fabian, Lucius I and Eutychian. In the far wall Pope Sixtus II was buried, after he was killed during the persecution of Valerian. In the adjoining crypt is the grave of Saint Cecilia, whose relics were removed by Pope Paschal I in 821: the early 9th-century frescoes on the walls represent Saint Cecilia praying, the bust of the Redeemer and Pope Urban I. A short distance away, an arcade dating to the end of the 2nd century gives access to the cubicula of the sacraments, with their frescoes from the first half of the 3rd century hinting at baptism, the Eucharist and the resurrection of the flesh.
In the region of Saints Gaius and Eusebius are some crypts set apart, opposite each other, with the tombs of Pope Gaius and Pope Eusebius, who died in Sicily where he had been exiled by Maxentius and whose body was translated to Rome during the pontificate of Militiades. Along "passage O" north of the Crypt of the Popes are, in succession, the crypt of the martyrs Calogerus and Parthenius and the double cubiculum of Severus, which contains a rhythmic inscription in which a bishop of Rome is first called pope and first professes belief in the final resurrection. In a region further from there, the so-called "Crypt of Lucina", is the burial of Pope Cornelius, whose tomb still has its original inscription giving him the title of martyr and, on its sides, splendid paintings with figures in 7th and 8th century Byzantine style representing popes Sixtus II and Cornelius and the African bishops Cyprian and Ottatus. In a nearby cubiculum are some of the most ancient burials, after AD 175, with Roman frescoes of the Good Shepherd and orantes and two fish with a basket of loaves behind it, a symbol of the Eucharist.
At its peak, the fifteen hectare site would have held the remains of sixteen popes and fifty martyrs. Nine of those popes were buried in the Crypt of the Popes itself, to which Pope Damasus I built a staircase in the 4th century. Among the discovered Greek language inscriptions are those associated with: Pope Pontian, Pope Anterus, Pope Fabian, Pope Lucius I, Pope Eutychian. A more lengthy inscription to Pope Sixtus II by Furius Dionisius Filocalus has been discovered. Outside the Crypt of the Popes, the region of Saints Gaius and Eusebius is so named for the facing tombs of Pope Gaius and Pope Eusebius. In another region, there is a tomb attributed to Pope Cornelius, bearing the inscription "CORNELIVS MARTYR" attributed to Filocalus. A plaque placed by Pope Sixtus III lists the following popes: Sixtus II, Cornelius, Pontianus, Gaius, Melchiades, Urban I, Anterus, a list not including any 2nd century tombs; the Crypt of the Popes filled up in the 4th century, causing other popes to be buried in related catacombs, such as the Catacomb of Priscilla, the Catacomb of Balbina, the Catacomb of C
Four Marks of the Church
The Four Marks of the Church known as the Attributes of the Church, is a term describing four distinctive adjectives—"one, holy and apostolic"—of traditional Christian ecclesiology as expressed in the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed completed at the First Council of Constantinople in AD 381: " in one, holy and apostolic Church." This ecumenical creed is today recited in the liturgy of the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Churches, the Oriental Orthodox Churches, the Church of the East, the Moravian Church, the Lutheran Churches, the Methodist Churches, the Presbyterian Churches, the Anglican Communion and by members of many Reformed Churches. While many doctrines, based on both tradition and different interpretations of the Bible, distinguish one denomination from another explaining why there are so many different ones, the Four Marks, when defined the same way, represent a summary of what many clerical authorities have considered to be the most important affirmations of the Christian faith.
The ideas behind the Four Marks have been in the Christian Church since early Christianity. Allusions to them can be found in the writings of 2nd century early Church Father and bishop Ignatius of Antioch, they were not established in doctrine until the First Council of Constantinople in 381 as an antidote to certain heresies that had crept into the Church in its early history. There the Council elaborated on the Nicene Creed, established by the First Council of Nicea 56 years before by adding to the end a section that included the affirmation: " in one, holy and apostolic Church." The phrase has remained in versions of the Nicene Creed to this day. In some languages, for example, the Latin "catholica" was substituted by "Christian" before the Reformation, though this was an anomaly and continues in use by some Protestant churches today. Hence, "holy catholic" becomes "holy Christian."Roman Catholics believe the description "one, holy and apostolic Church" to be applicable only to the Roman Catholic Church.
They hold that "Christ established here on earth only one Church" and they believe in "the full identity of the Church of Christ with the Catholic Church". While "there are numerous elements of sanctification and of truth which are found outside her structure", these, "as gifts properly belonging to the Church of Christ, impel towards Catholic Unity"; the eastern Churches not in full communion with the Catholic Church thereby "lack something in their condition as particular Churches". The communities born out of the 16th-century Protestant Reformation "do not enjoy apostolic succession in the sacrament of Orders, are, deprived of a constituent element of the Church."The Eastern Orthodox Church, in disagreement with the Roman Catholic, regards itself as the historical and organic continuation of the original Church founded by Christ and his apostles. The Oriental Orthodox Church disagrees with both and claims to be the historical and organic continuation of the original Church founded by Christ and his apostles, the "One, Holy and Apostolic" Church of the ancient Christian creeds and the only Church that has always kept the true Christology and faith declared by the first three councils, Nicaea and Ephesus affirmed by the Church Fathers and the Holy Tradition.
The Augsburg Confession found within the Book of Concord, a compendium of belief of the Lutheran Churches, teaches that "the faith as confessed by Luther and his followers is nothing new, but the true catholic faith, that their churches represent the true catholic or universal church." When the Lutherans presented the Augsburg Confession to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor in 1530, they believe to have "showed that each article of faith and practice was true first of all to Holy Scripture, also to the teaching of the church fathers and the councils." As such, the Lutheran Churches traditionally hold. "There is one body and one Spirit just as you were called to the one hope that belongs to your call, one Lord, one faith, one baptism, one God and Father of all, over all and through all and in all." This list in the Pauline letters of factors making Christians one body, one church, is doubtless not meant to be exhaustive, says Francis Aloysius Sullivan, but it affirms the oneness of the body, the church, through what Christians have in common, what they have communion in.
Elsewhere, Paul the Apostle says: "There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free, there is no male and female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus". This statement was about Christians as individuals, but it applied to them as groups, as local churches, whether composed of Jewish or Gentile Christians. In 1 Cor. 15:9, Paul spoke of himself as having persecuted "the church of God", not just the local church in Jerusalem but the same church that he addresses at the beginning of that letter as "the church of God, in Corinth". In the same letter, he tells Christians: "You are the body of Christ and individually members of it", declares that, "just as the body is one and has many members, all the members of the body, though many, are one body, so it is with Christ"; the word holy means set apart for a special purpose for God. Christians understand the holiness of the universal Church to derive from Christ's holiness; the word "catholic" is derived from the Greek adjective καθολικός, meaning "general", "universal".
It is associated with the Greek adverb καθόλου, meaning "according to the whole", "entirely", or "in general", a combination of the preposition κατά meaning "according to" and the adjective ὅ
Jacques Paul Migne
Jacques Paul Migne was a French priest who published inexpensive and distributed editions of theological works and the texts of the Church Fathers, with the goal of providing a universal library for the Catholic priesthood. He was born at Saint-Flour and studied theology at Orléans, he was ordained in 1824 and placed in charge of the parish of Puiseaux, in the diocese of Orléans, where his uncompromisingly Catholic and royalist sympathies did not coincide with local patriotism and the new regime of the Citizen-King. In 1833, after falling out with his bishop over a pamphlet he had published, he went to Paris, on 3 November started a journal, L'Univers religieux, which he intended to keep free of political influence, it gained 1,800 subscribers and he edited it for three years. Migne believed in the power of the press and the value of information distributed. In 1836 he opened his great publishing house, Imprimerie Catholique, at Petit-Montrouge, in Paris's outlying 14th arrondissement, he published numerous religious works in rapid succession meant for lesser clergy at prices that ensured wide circulation.
The best known of these are: Scripturae sacrae cursus completus which assembled a wide repertory of commentaries on each of the books of the Bible, Theologiae cursus, each of them in 28 vols, 1840–45. The three great series that have made his reputation were Patrologiae cursus completus, Latin series in 221 vols.. Though scholars have always criticised them, these hastily edited and distributed texts have only been replaced during a century and a half with more critically edited modern editions. Though the cheap paper of the originals has made them fragile today, the scope of the Patrologia still makes it unique and valuable, when modern editions do not yet exist, it is a far more complete collection of Patristic and literature than anything that has appeared subsequently or is to. To create so much so Migne reprinted the best or latest earlier editions available to him. In the PG the Latin translations were made in the renaissance before any Greek text had been printed, so do not match the Greek text accurately.
The indexes themselves are useful for locating references in the patristic writings. The collection is available through archive.org. His publishing house was complemented during the Second Empire by painter artists' workhalls for the decoration of churches: three of their main works, in the style of Eugène Delacroix, still remain in the choir of the church of Saint John the Baptist of Audresselles in Pas de Calais, France. Migne bypassed the bookselling establishment with direct subscriptions, his Imprimerie Catholique developed into the largest held press in France. However, on the night of 12–13 February 1868, a devastating fire, which began in the printing plant, destroyed Migne's establishment, producing religious objects. Despite his insurance contracts, Migne was only able to retrieve a pittance. Shortly afterwards Mgr Georges Darboy, Archbishop of Paris, forbade the continuance of the business and suspended him from his priestly functions; the Franco-Prussian War of 1870 inflicted further losses.
From the curia of Pope Pius IX came a decree condemning the use of Mass stipends to purchase books, which called out Migne and his publications. Migne died without having regained his former prosperity and his Imprimerie Catholique passed in 1876 into the hands of Garnier Frères; the Patrologia Latina and the Patrologia Graeca, are among the great 19th century contributions to the scholarship of patristics and the Middle Ages. Within the Roman Catholic Church, Migne's editions put many original texts for the first time into the hands of the priesthood. Works written by or about Jacques Paul Migne at Wikisource Brief biography independent research Migne Patrologia Graeca Index of Authors / Download links Faulkner University Patristics Project A growing collection of English translations of patristic texts and high-resolution scans from the comprehensive Patrologia compiled by J. P. Migne. Documenta Catholica Omnia PDF's of much of the Patrologia Latina PL at Google Book Search Polytonic Greek OCR of PG from the Lace repository at Mount Allison University: vol.
45, vol. 46 Works by Jacques-Paul Migne at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Jacques Paul Migne at Internet Archive
The Roman Empire was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization. Ruled by emperors, it had large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, the Caucasus. From the constitutional reforms of Augustus to the military anarchy of the third century, the Empire was a principate ruled from the city of Rome; the Roman Empire was ruled by multiple emperors and divided in a Western Roman Empire, based in Milan and Ravenna, an Eastern Roman Empire, based in Nicomedia and Constantinople. Rome remained the nominal capital of both parts until 476 AD, when Odoacer deposed Romulus Augustus after capturing Ravenna and the Roman Senate sent the imperial regalia to Constantinople; the fall of the Western Roman Empire to barbarian kings, along with the hellenization of the Eastern Roman Empire into the Byzantine Empire, is conventionally used to mark the end of Ancient Rome and the beginning of the Middle Ages. The previous Republic, which had replaced Rome's monarchy in the 6th century BC, became destabilized in a series of civil wars and political conflict.
In the mid-1st century BC Julius Caesar was appointed as perpetual dictator and assassinated in 44 BC. Civil wars and proscriptions continued, culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesar's adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC; the following year Octavian conquered Ptolemaic Egypt, ending the Hellenistic period that had begun with the conquests of Alexander the Great of Macedon in the 4th century BC. Octavian's power was unassailable and in 27 BC the Roman Senate formally granted him overarching power and the new title Augustus making him the first emperor; the first two centuries of the Empire were a period of unprecedented stability and prosperity known as the Pax Romana. It reached its greatest territorial expanse during the reign of Trajan. A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus. In the 3rd century, the Empire underwent a crisis that threatened its existence, but was reunified under Aurelian. In an effort to stabilize the Empire, Diocletian set up two different imperial courts in the Greek East and Latin West.
Christians rose to power in the 4th century following the Edict of Milan in 313 and the Edict of Thessalonica in 380. Shortly after, the Migration Period involving large invasions by Germanic peoples and the Huns of Attila led to the decline of the Western Roman Empire. With the fall of Ravenna to the Germanic Herulians and the deposition of Romulus Augustulus in 476 AD by Odoacer, the Western Roman Empire collapsed and it was formally abolished by emperor Zeno in 480 AD; the Eastern Roman Empire, known in the post-Roman West as the Byzantine Empire, collapsed when Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks of Mehmed II in 1453. Due to the Roman Empire's vast extent and long endurance, the institutions and culture of Rome had a profound and lasting influence on the development of language, architecture, philosophy and forms of government in the territory it governed Europe; the Latin language of the Romans evolved into the Romance languages of the medieval and modern world, while Medieval Greek became the language of the Eastern Roman Empire.
Its adoption of Christianity led to the formation of Christendom during the Middle Ages. Greek and Roman art had a profound impact on the late medieval Italian Renaissance, while Rome's republican institutions influenced the political development of republics such as the United States and France; the corpus of Roman law has its descendants in many legal systems of the world today, such as the Napoleonic Code. Rome's architectural tradition served as the basis for Neoclassical architecture. Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, though it did not expand outside the Italian peninsula until the 3rd century BC, it was an "empire" long before it had an emperor. The Roman Republic was not a nation-state in the modern sense, but a network of towns left to rule themselves and provinces administered by military commanders, it was ruled, not by annually elected magistrates in conjunction with the senate. For various reasons, the 1st century BC was a time of political and military upheaval, which led to rule by emperors.
The consuls' military power rested in the Roman legal concept of imperium, which means "command". Successful consuls were given the honorary title imperator, this is the origin of the word emperor since this title was always bestowed to the early emperors upon their accession. Rome suffered a long series of internal conflicts and civil wars from the late second century BC onward, while extending its power beyond Italy; this was the period of the Crisis of the Roman Republic. Towards the end of this era, in 44 BC, Julius Caesar was perpetual dictator before being assassinated; the faction of his assassins was driven from Rome and defeated at the Battle of Philippi in 42 BC by an army led by Mark Antony and Caesar's adopted son Octavian. Antony and Octavian's division of the Roman world between themselves did not last and Octavian's forces defeated those of Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, ending the Final War of the Roman Republic. In 27 BC the Senate and People of Rome made Octavian princeps ("first citi
Pope Damasus I
Pope Damasus I was Bishop of Rome, from October 366 to his death in 384. He presided over the Council of Rome of 382 that determined the canon or official list of Sacred Scripture, he spoke out against major heresies in the church and encouraged production of the Vulgate Bible with his support for St. Jerome, he helped reconcile the relations between the Church of Rome and the Church of Antioch, encouraged the veneration of martyrs. As well as various prose letters and other pieces Damasus was the author of Latin verse. Alan Cameron describes his epitaph for a young girl called Projecta as "a tissue of tags and clichés shakily strung together and squeezed into the meter". Damasus has been described as "the first society Pope", was a member of a group of Iberian Christians related to each other, who were close to the Iberian Theodosius I. A number of images of "DAMAS" in gold glass cups represent him and seem to be the first contemporary images of a pope to survive, though there is no real attempt at a likeness.
"Damas" appears including a Florus who may be Projecta's father. It has been suggested that Damasus or another of the group commissioned and distributed these to friends or supporters, as part of a programme "insistently inserting his episcopal presence in the Christian landscape", he is recognized as a saint by the Catholic Church. His life coincided with the rise of Emperor Constantine I and the reunion and re-division of the Western and Eastern Roman Empires, associated with the legitimization of Christianity and its adoption as the official religion of the Roman state in 380; the reign of Gratian, which coincided with Damasus' papacy, forms an important epoch in ecclesiastical history, since during that period, Catholic Christianity for the first time became dominant throughout the empire. Under the influence of Ambrose, Gratian prohibited pagan worship at Rome, refused to wear the insignia of the pontifex maximus as unbefitting a Christian, removed the Altar of Victory from the Senate at Rome and confiscated its revenues, despite protests from the pagan members of the Senate.
Emperor Gratian forbade legacies of real property to the Vestals and abolished other privileges belonging to them and to the pontiffs. Pope Damasus I was born in Rome around 305. Damasus' parents were Antonius, who became a priest at the Church of St. Lawrence in Rome, his wife Laurentia. Both parents come from the region of Lusitania. Damasus began his ecclesiastical career as a deacon in his father's church, where he went on to serve as a priest; this became the basilica of Saint Lawrence outside the Walls in Rome. During Damasus' early years, Constantine I rose to rule the Western Roman Empire; as emperor, he issued the Edict of Milan, which granted religious freedom to Christians in all parts of the Roman Empire. A crisis precipitated by the rejection of religious freedom by Licinius, Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire, in favor of paganism resulted in a civil war in 324 that placed Constantine in control of a reunited Empire; this led to the establishment of Christian religious supremacy in Constantinople and led to a See in that city which sought to rival the authority of the Roman See.
Damasus was most in his twenties at the time. When Pope Liberius was banished by Emperor Constantius II to Berea in 354, Damasus was archdeacon of the Roman church and followed Liberius into exile, though he returned to Rome. During the period before Liberius' return, Damasus had a great share in the government of the church. In the early Church, bishops were customarily elected by the people of the diocese. While this simple method worked well in a small community of Christians unified by persecution, as the congregation grew in size, the acclamation of a new bishop was fraught with division, rival claimants and a certain class hostility between patrician and plebeian candidates unsettled some episcopal elections. At the same time, 4th-century emperors expected each new pope-elect to be presented to them for approval, which sometimes led to state domination of the Church's internal affairs. Following the death of Pope Liberius on 24 September 366, Damasus succeeded to the Papacy amidst factional violence.
The deacons and laity, supported Liberius' deacon Ursinus. The upper-class former partisans of Felix, who had ruled during Liberius' exile, supported the election of Damasus; the two were elected simultaneously. J. N. D. Kelly states that Damasus hired a gang of thugs that stormed the Julian Basilica, carrying out a three-day massacre of the Ursinians. Thomas Shahan says details of this scandalous conflict are related in the prejudiced "Libellus Precum", a petition to the civil authority on the part of Faustinus and Marcellinus, two anti-Damasan presbyters; such was the violence and bloodshed that the two prefects of the city were called in to restore order, after a first setback, when they were driven to the suburbs and a massacre of 137 was perpetrated in the basilica of Sicininus, the prefects banished Ursinus to Gaul. There was further violence which continued after Ursinus was exiled again. Another ancient narrative of events, the "Gesta", provides more detail, it describes Ursinus as being the valid successor to Liberius, Damasus as following a heretical interloper, Felix.
This account records that an armed force instigated by Damas