Pope Sixtus V

Pope Sixtus V or Xystus V, born Felice Piergentile, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 24 April 1585 to his death in 1590. As a youth, he joined the Franciscan order, where he displayed talents as a scholar and preacher, enjoyed the patronage of Pius V, who made him a cardinal; as Pope, he energetically rooted out corruption and lawlessness across Rome, launched a far-sighted rebuilding programme that continues to provoke controversy, as it involved the destruction of antiquities. The cost of these works was met by heavy taxation, his foreign policy was regarded as over-ambitious, he excommunicated both Elizabeth I of England and Henry IV of France. He is recognized as a significant figure of the Counter-Reformation. Felice Piergentile was born on 13 December 1521 at Grottammare, in the Papal States, to Francesco Piergentile, Mariana da Frontillo, his family was poor. Felice adopted Peretti as his family name in 1551, was known as "Cardinal Montalto". According to the biographer and church historian Isidoro Gatti, the Peretti family came from Piceno, today's Marche, in Italy.

Another possibility is that the Montalto name originates from his father having come from the village of that name, in fact near Peretti's village of Grottamare. Motoki Nomachi, holds that he was of Dalmatian Slavic origin, according to Sava Nakićenović, he hailed from the Svilanović family from Kruševice in the Bay of Kotor; the theory that his family originated in Kruševice is supported by the fact that the Pope used three pears for his coat of arms. According to this theory, Peretti may be an Italian rendition of the Slavic surname, as Peretti itself links to pears. About 1552 he was noticed by Cardinal Rodolfo Pio da Carpi, Protector of the Franciscan order, Cardinal Ghislieri and Cardinal Caraffa, from that time his advancement was assured, he was sent to Venice as inquisitor general, but was so severe and conducted matters in such a high-handed manner that he became embroiled in quarrels. The government asked for his recall in 1560. After a brief term as procurator of his order, he was attached to the Spanish legation headed by Ugo Cardinal Boncampagni in 1565, sent to investigate a charge of heresy levelled against Bartolomé Carranza, Archbishop of Toledo.

The violent dislike he conceived for Boncampagni exerted a marked influence upon his subsequent actions. He hurried back to Rome upon the accession of Pius V, who made him apostolic vicar of his order, cardinal. During the pontificate of his political enemy Gregory XIII, Cardinal Montalto, as he was called, lived in enforced retirement, occupied with the care of his property, the Villa Montalto, erected by Domenico Fontana close to his beloved church on the Esquiline Hill, overlooking the Baths of Diocletian; the first phase was enlarged after Peretti became pope and was able to clear buildings to open four new streets in 1585–6. The villa contained two residences, the Palazzo Sistino or "di Termini" and the casino, called the Palazzetto Montalto e Felice. Displaced Romans were furious, resentment of this act was still felt centuries when the decision was taken to build the central pontifical railroad station in the area of the Villa, marking the beginning of its destruction. Cardinal Montalto's other concern was with his studies, one of the fruits of, an edition of the works of Ambrose.

As pope he supervised the printing of an improved edition of Jerome's Vulgate – said to be "as splendid a translation of the Bible into Latin as the King James version is into English." Though not neglecting to follow the course of affairs, Felice avoided every occasion of offence. This discretion contributed not a little to his election to the papacy on 24 April 1585, with the title of Sixtus V. One of the things that commended his candidacy to certain cardinals may have been his physical vigour, which seemed to promise a long pontificate; the terrible condition in which Pope Gregory XIII had left the ecclesiastical states called for prompt and stern measures. Sixtus proceeded with an ferocious severity against the prevailing lawlessness. Thousands of brigands were brought to justice: within a short time the country was again quiet and safe, it was claimed that there were more heads on spikes across the Ponte Sant'Angelo than melons for sale in the marketplace. And clergy and nuns were executed.

Next Sixtus set to work to repair the finances. By the sale of offices, the establishment of new "Monti" and by levying new taxes, he accumulated a vast surplus, which he stored up against certain specified emergencies, such as a crusade or the defence of the Holy See. Sixtus prided himself upon his hoard, but the method by which it had been amassed was financially unsound: some of the taxes proved ruinous, the withdrawal of so much money from circulation could not fail to cause distress. Immense sums were spent upon public works, in carrying through the comprehensive planning that had come to fruition during his retirement, bringing water to the waterless hills in the Acqua Felice, feeding twenty-seven new fountains. Inspired by the ideal of the Renaissance city, Pope Sixtus V's ambitious urban reform programme transformed the old environment to emulate the "long straight streets, wide regular spaces, u

Reza Mansouri

Reza Mansouri is an Iranian physicist, an influential figure in Iranian science in the late 20th century. Reza Mansouri received his Ph. D. in 1972 from the University of Vienna under Roman Ulrich Sexl. He was an Assistant Professor there for five years, he is one of the leading figures of scientific policy-making in Iran and was Deputy Science Minister from 2001 to 2005. Iran’s participation in several international scientific collaborations such as SESAME and Large Hadron Collider particle accelerator at CERN in Geneva would have been impossible without his efforts. Mansouri has a number of publications focusing on scientific development in Iran, he has been awarded scientific prizes, among them the acclaimed Abdus Salam prize. He is Professor of physics at Sharif University of Technology and a visiting professor at McGill University. Mansouri has been the president of The Physical Society of Iran, he is one of the founders of Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics and head of its Astronomy School, responsible for Iran's 3.4 meter national telescope.

Abdus-Salam prize Science in Iran Intellectual movements in Iran List of publications

Citrus leprosis disease

Citrus leprosis is an economically important viral disease affecting citrus crops. This emerging disease is distributed in South and Central America, from Argentina to Mexico; the disease is associated with up to three different non-systemic viruses, which cause similar symptoms in the citrus hosts and are transmitted by the same vector, mites of the genus Brevipalpus. Citrus leprosis virus nuclear type is found in the nuclei and cytoplasm of infected cells, while Citrus leprosis virus cytoplasmic type is found in the endoplasmic reticulum. In 2012, a new virus causing similar symptoms was found in Colombia and it was named Citrus leprosis virus cytoplasmic type 2 due to its close proximity to CiLV-C; the cytoplasmic type viruses are the most prevalent and distributed of the three species. CiLV-N has short, rod-shaped particles, 120 to 130 nanometers long and 35 to 40 nm wide, occurring in the nucleus or cytoplasm of the infected cells, associated with the presence of viroplasm in the nucleus.

The CiLV-N genome is a bipartite, negative-sense, single stranded RNA. Both RNAs have 3'-terminal poly tails. CiLV-N RNA1 contains five Open Reading Frames encoding the nucleocapsid protein, putative phosphoprotein, cell-to-cell movement protein, matrix protein, glycoprotein. CiLV-N RNA2 contains one ORF encoding the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase replication module; the size and structure of the CiLV-N genome resembles the genome organization of Orchid fleck virus and is to be a member of the newly proposed genus Dichorhavirus. CiLV-C has 50 to 55 wide. CiLV-C has a bipartite, positive-sense, single stranded, RNA genome. Both RNAs had 3'-terminal poly tails. CiLV-C RNA1 contains two ORFs, encoding a 286 kiloDaltons polyprotein, putatively involved in virus replication, with four conserved domains: methyltransferase, helicase, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. CiLV-C RNA2 contains four ORFs, encoding 15, 61, 32, 24 kDa proteins; the 32-kDa protein is involved in cell-to-cell movement of the virus, but none of the other proteins showed any conserved protein domain.

CiLV-C2 is associated with short bacilliform virions, 100 to 110 nm long and 40 to 50 nm wide The genome of CiLV-C2 is composed of RNA1 and RNA2. Both RNAs had 3'-terminal poly tails; the structure of the CiLV-C2 genome resembles the genome organization of CiLV-C. CiLV-C2 RNA1 have two ORFs encoding a large polyprotein, putative involve in virus replication, with five conserved domains. CiLV-C2 RNA2 contains five ORFs that encoded five proteins: 15, 7, 61, 32, 24 kDa, similar to those predicted protein masses for CiLV-C; the 32 kDa protein has a conserved cell-to-cell movement protein domain, the small hypothetical protein, not present in CiLV-C, has a putative trans-membrane domain. CiLV-N belongs to the proposed genus Dichorhavirus, related to the family Rhabdoviridae, which has Orchid fleck virus as the type member. CiLV-C is the type member of the new accepted genus Cilevirus. CiLV-C2 has been proposed as a new member of the genus Cilevirus. CiLV-N, CiLV-C, CiLV-C2 are transmitted by false spider mites or flat mites, belonging to the genus Brevipalpus.

Three mites species within this genus have been reported as CiLV vectors: B. californicus Banks, B. obovatus Donnadieu, B. phoenicis Geijskes, the latter is considered the main vector. The three mites species have a broad host range and are distributed. All active stages of the mite can acquire and transmit the virus, although it has been reported that larvae transmit the virus more efficiently, it is known that there is no transovarial transmission from female to its descendants, that after acquisition, the mite remains viruliferous during entire life-span, but it is not clear if the virus replicates inside the vector. CiLV produces localized symptoms in leaves and fruits. In leaves, characteristic lesions are circular, chlorotic or necrotic, colored light yellow to dark brown. In older lesions, a darker central point can be observed. In young stems, lesions are small and shallow. In old stems lesions can join together and appearing larger. In fruits and depressed lesions are found in large numbers and affecting only the external part.

Commercial losses result from fruits falling. Some differences in symptoms produced by CiLV-C and CiLV-N have been reported. Lesions caused by CiLV-C shows additional halos; this disease is considered an important problem in citriculture in countries where it has been established, is considered the major viral disease in citrus in Brazil. Damage by leprosis in plants and in orange production has caused an annual cost of US$90 million for miticides to control the disease, this represents about 40% of fertilizer and pesticide expenses a