Prayer is an invocation or act that seeks to activate a rapport with an object of worship a deity, through deliberate communication. In the narrow sense, the term refers to an act of supplication or intercession directed towards a deity, or a deified ancestor. More prayer can have the purpose of thanksgiving or praise, in comparative religion is associated with more abstract forms of meditation and with charms or spells. Prayer can take a variety of forms: it can be part of a set liturgy or ritual, it can be performed alone or in groups. Prayer may take the form of a hymn, formal creedal statement, or a spontaneous utterance in the praying person. Today, most major religions involve prayer in another; the English term prayer is from Medieval Latin precaria "petition, prayer". The Vulgate Latin is oratio, which translates Greek προσευχή in turn the Septuagint translation of Biblical Hebrew תְּפִלָּה tĕphillah. Various spiritual traditions offer a wide variety of devotional acts. There are morning and evening prayers, graces said over meals, reverent physical gestures.
Some Christians fold their hands. Some Native Americans regard dancing as a form of prayer; some Sufis whirl. Hindus chant mantras. Jewish prayer may involve bowing. Muslims practice salat in their prayers. Quakers keep silent; some pray according to standardized rituals and liturgies, while others prefer extemporaneous prayers. Still others combine the two. Friedrich Heiler is cited in Christian circles for his systematic Typology of Prayer which lists six types of prayer: primitive, Greek cultural, philosophical and prophetic; some forms of prayer require a prior ritualistic form of cleansing or purification such as in ghusl and wudhu. Prayer may be done and individually, or it may be done corporately in the presence of fellow believers. Prayer can be incorporated into a daily "thought life", in which one is in constant communication with a god; some people pray throughout all, happening during the day and seek guidance as the day progresses. This is regarded as a requirement in several Christian denominations, although enforcement is not possible nor desirable.
There can be many different answers to prayer, just as there are many ways to interpret an answer to a question, if there in fact comes an answer. Some may experience physical, or mental epiphanies. If indeed an answer comes, the time and place it comes is considered random; some outward acts that sometimes accompany prayer are: anointing with oil. One less noticeable act related to prayer is fasting. A variety of body postures may be assumed with specific meaning associated with them: standing. Prayers may be recited from memory, read from a book of prayers, or composed spontaneously as they are prayed, they may be chanted, or sung. They may be with musical accompaniment or not. There may be a time of outward silence. There are prayers to fit specific occasions, such as the blessing of a meal, the birth or death of a loved one, other significant events in the life of a believer, or days of the year that have special religious significance. Details corresponding to specific traditions are outlined below.
Anthropologically, the concept of prayer is related to that of surrender and supplication. The traditional posture of prayer in medieval Europe is kneeling or supine with clasped hands, in antiquity more with raised hands; the early Christian prayer posture was standing, looking up to heaven, with outspread arms and bare head. This is the pagan prayer posture. Certain Cretan and Cypriote figures of the Late Bronze Age, with arms raised, have been interpreted as worshippers, their posture is similar to the "flight" posture, a crouching posture with raised hands, observed in schizophrenic patients and related to the universal "hands up" gesture of surrender. The kneeling posture with clasped hands appears to have been introduced only with the beginning high medieval period adopted from a gesture of feudal homage. Although prayer in its literal sense is not used in animism, communication with the spirit world is vital to the animist way of life; this is accomplished through a shaman who, through a trance, gains access to the spirit world and shows the spirits' thoughts to the people.
Other ways to receive messages from the spirits include using astrology or contemplating fortune tellers and healers. Some of the oldest extant literature, such as the Sumerian temple hymns of Enheduanna are liturgy addressed to deities and thus technically "prayer"; the Egyptian Pyramid Texts of about the same period contain spells or incantations addressed to the gods. In the loosest sense, in the form of magical thinking combined with animism, prayer has been argued as representing a human cultural universal, which would have been present since the emergence of behavioral modernity, by anthropologists such as Sir Edward Burnett Tylor a
The Roman Missal is the liturgical book that contains the texts and rubrics for the celebration of the Mass in the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church. Before the high Middle Ages, several books were used at Mass: a Sacramentary with the prayers, one or more books for the Scriptural readings, one or more books for the antiphons and other chants. Manuscripts came into being that incorporated parts of more than one of these books, leading to versions that were complete in themselves; such a book was referred to as a Missale Plenum. In 1223 Saint Francis of Assisi instructed his friars to adopt the form, in use at the Papal Court, they adapted this missal further to the needs of their itinerant apostolate. Pope Gregory IX considered, but did not put into effect, the idea of extending this missal, as revised by the Franciscans, to the whole Western Church, its use spread throughout Europe after the invention of the printing press. Printing favoured the spread of other liturgical texts of less certain orthodoxy.
The Council of Trent recognized. The first printed Missale Romanum, containing the Ordo Missalis secundum consuetudinem Curiae Romanae, was produced in Milan in 1474. A whole century passed before the appearance of an edition published by order of the Holy See. During that interval, the 1474 Milanese edition was followed by at least 14 other editions: 10 printed in Venice, 3 in Paris, 1 in Lyon. For lack of a controlling authority, these editions differ, sometimes seriously. Annotations in the hand of Cardinal Gugliemo Sirleto in a copy of the 1494 Venetian edition show that it was used for drawing up the 1570 official edition of Pope Pius V. In substance, this 1494 text is identical with that of the 1474 Milanese edition. Implementing the decision of the Council of Trent, Pope Pius V promulgated, in the Apostolic Constitution Quo primum of 14 July 1570, an edition of the Roman Missal, to be in obligatory use throughout the Latin Church except where there was a traditional liturgical rite that could be proved to be of at least two centuries’ antiquity.
Some corrections to Pope Pius V's text proved necessary, Pope Clement VIII replaced it with a new typical edition of the Roman Missal on 7 July 1604. A further revised typical edition was promulgated by Pope Urban VIII on 2 September 1634. Beginning in the late seventeenth century and neighbouring areas saw a flurry of independent missals published by bishops influenced by Jansenism and Gallicanism; this ended when Bishop Pierre-Louis Parisis of Langres and Abbot Guéranger initiated in the nineteenth century a campaign to return to the Roman Missal. Pope Leo XIII took the opportunity to issue in 1884 a new typical edition that took account of all the changes introduced since the time of Pope Urban VIII. Pope Pius X undertook a revision of the Roman Missal, published and declared typical by his successor Pope Benedict XV on 25 July 1920. Though Pope Pius X's revision made few corrections and additions to the text of the prayers in the Roman Missal, there were major changes in the rubrics, changes which were not incorporated in the section entitled "Rubricae generales", but were instead printed as an additional section under the heading "Additiones et variationes in rubricis Missalis."
In contrast, the revision by Pope Pius XII, though limited to the liturgy of only five days of the Church's year, was much bolder, requiring changes to canon law, which until had prescribed that, with the exception of Midnight Mass for Christmas, Mass should not begin more than one hour before dawn or than one hour after midday. In the part of the Missal thus revised, he anticipated some of the changes affecting all days of the year after the Second Vatican Council; these novelties included the first official introduction of the vernacular language into the liturgy for renewal of baptismal promises within the Easter Vigil celebration. Pope Pius XII issued no new typical edition of the Roman Missal, but authorized printers to replace the earlier texts for Palm Sunday, Holy Thursday, Good Friday, the Easter Vigil with those that he began to introduce in 1951 and that he made universally obligatory in 1955; the Pope removed from the Vigil of Pentecost the series of six Old Testament readings, with their accompanying Tracts and Collects, but these continued to be printed until 1962.
Acceding to the wishes of many of the bishops, Pope Pius XII judged it expedient to reduce the rubrics of the missal to a simpler form, a simplification enacted by a decree of the Sacred Congregation of Rites of 23 March 1955. The changes this made in the General Roman Calendar are indicated in General Roman Calendar of Pope Pius XII. In the following year, 1956, while preparatory studies were being conducted for a general liturgical reform, Pope Pius XII surveyed the opinions of the bishops on the liturgical improvement of the Roman breviary. After duly weighing the answers of the bishops, he judged that it was time to attack the problem of a general and systematic revision of the rubrics of the breviary and missal; this question he referred to the special committee of experts appointed to study the general liturgical reform. His successor, Pope John XXIII, issued a new typical edition of the Roman Missal in 1962; this incorporated th
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Boston
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Boston is an ecclesiastical territory or Archdiocese of the Roman Catholic Church in the New England region of the United States. It comprises several counties of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, it is led by a prelate archbishop who serves as pastor of the mother church, Cathedral of the Holy Cross in the South End of Boston. As of 2017, there are 288 parishes in the archdiocese. In 2007, the archdiocese estimated that more than 1.8 million Catholics were in the territory, of whom about 315,000 attended Mass. The original Diocese of Boston was canonically erected on April 8, 1808 by Pope Pius VII, it took its territories from the larger historic Diocese of Baltimore and consisted of the states of Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont. In the nineteenth century, as Catholicism grew exponentially in New England, the Diocese of Boston was carved into smaller new dioceses: on November 28, 1843, Pope Gregory XVI erected the Diocese of Hartford.
On February 12, 1875, Pope Pius IX elevated the diocese to the rank of an archdiocese. In the 1920s, Cardinal William O'Connell moved the chancery from offices near Holy Cross Cathedral in the South End to 127 Lake Street in Brighton. "Lake Street" became the office of the Archdiocese. At the beginning of the 21st century the archdiocese was shaken by accusations of sexual abuse by clergy that culminated in the resignation of its archbishop, Cardinal Bernard Francis Law, on December 13, 2002. In September 2003, the archdiocese settled over 500 abuse-related claims for $85 million. Victims received an average of $92,000 each and the perpetrators included 140 priests and two others. In June 2004, the archbishop's residence and the chancery in Brighton and surrounding lands were sold to Boston College, in part to defray costs associated with abuse cases; the offices of the Archdiocese were moved to Massachusetts. The diocesan seminary, Saint John's Seminary, remains on the property in Brighton; the diocesan newspaper The Pilot has been published in Boston since 1829.
The Archdiocese's Catholic Television Center, founded in 1955, produces programs and operates the cable television network CatholicTV. From 1964 to 1966, it owned and operated a broadcast television station under the call letters WIHS-TV; the Archdiocese of Boston is metropolitan see for the Ecclesiastical province of Boston. This means; the suffragan dioceses in the province are the Diocese of Burlington, Diocese of Fall River, Diocese of Manchester, Diocese of Portland, Diocese of Springfield in Massachusetts, the Diocese of Worcester. The Archdiocese of Boston is divided into five pastoral regions, each headed by an episcopal vicar; the following are lists of the Bishops and Archbishops of Boston, Auxiliaries of Boston, their years of service. Included are other priests of this diocese who served elsewhere as bishop. Jean-Louis Lefebvre de Cheverus appointed Bishop of Montauban and Archbishop of Bordeaux Benedict Joseph Fenwick, S. J. John Bernard Fitzpatrick John Joseph Williams. F. M. Cap. John Brady Joseph Gaudentius Anderson John Bertram Peterson, appointed Bishop of Manchester Francis Spellman, appointed Archbishop of New York Richard J. Cushing, appointed Archbishop of Boston Louis Francis Kelleher John Wright, appointed Bishop of Pittsburgh and Prefect of the Congregation for the Clergy Thomas Francis Markham Eric Francis MacKenzie Jeremiah Francis Minihan Thomas Joseph Riley Daniel A. Cronin, appointed Bishop of Fall River and Archbishop of Hartford Lawrence Joseph Riley Joseph Francis Maguire, appointed Coadjutor Bishop and Bishop of Springfield in Massachusetts Joseph John Ruocco John Joseph Mulcahy Thomas Vose Daily, appointed Bishop of Palm Beach and Bishop of Brooklyn John Michael D'Arcy, appointed Bishop of Fort Wayne-South Bend Daniel Anthony Hart, appointed Bishop of Norwich Alfred C.
Hughes, appointed Bishop of Baton Rouge and Archbishop of New Orleans Robert J. Banks, appointed Bishop of Green Bay Roberto Octavio González Nieves, O. F. M. Appointed Coadjutor Bishop and Bishop of Corpus Christi and Archbishop of San Juan in Puerto Rico John R. McNamara John P. Boles John Brendan McCormack, appointed Bishop of Manchester William F. Murphy, appointed Bishop of Rockville Centre Emilio S. Allué, S. D. B. Francis Xavier Irwin Richard Joseph Malone, appointed Bishop of Portland and Bishop of Buffalo Richard Lennon, appointed Bishop of Cleveland Walter James Edyvean Robert Francis Hennessey John Anthony Dooher Peter John Uglietto Arthur L. Kennedy Robert P. Deeley, appointed Bishop of Portland Mark William O'Connell R
Seán Patrick O'Malley
Seán Patrick O'Malley is an American cardinal of the Catholic Church serving as the Archbishop of Boston. O'Malley is a member of the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin known as the Capuchins. O'Malley was elevated to the cardinalate in 2006, he was considered a papabile contender to succeed Pope Benedict XVI, who resigned on February 28, 2013, until Pope Francis was chosen on March 13, 2013. On April 13, 2013, Francis appointed O'Malley as one of eight cardinals of the Council of Cardinal Advisers to help the Pope govern the Catholic Church and reform its central administration. Since March 22, 2014, O'Malley has served as President the Pontifical Commission for the Protection of Minors. On January 14, 2017, Francis appointed O'Malley to the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. Seán Patrick O'Malley was born as Patrick O'Malley on June 29, 1944, in Lakewood, the son of Theodore and Mary Louise O'Malley. Both parents were of Irish descent. O'Malley, his sister, his older brother grew up in South Hills of Pittsburgh, Reading, Pennsylvania.
At age 12, he entered St. Fidelis Minor Seminary in Herman, a boarding school for students who were considering joining the Franciscan order. While there, in addition to studying the normal high school subjects, he studied Spanish, Greek and Hebrew, he was active in theatre. After graduating from St. Fidelis, he attended Capuchin College in Washington, DC, the Catholic University of America, where he is now a member of the Board of Trustees. On July 14, 1965, at the age of 21, O'Malley professed his vows in the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin and took the name Seán in honor of St. John the Apostle. After he was ordained a deacon, he spent a brief period in Chile, he was ordained a priest on August 29, 1970, at age 26, by Bishop John Bernard McDowell, an auxiliary bishop of the Diocese of Pittsburgh. After ordination he graduated from The Catholic University of America with a master's degree in religious education and a Ph. D. in Spanish and Portuguese literature. O'Malley served as a professor at The Catholic University from 1969 to 1973.
In 1973, he was asked to minister to Latinos living in the Washington, DC, area at the Spanish Catholic Center. The Center was founded in 1967 by the Archdiocese of Washington, it was headed by Spanish missionaries Fr. Rutílio and Sister Ana María, it is an organization which provided educational and legal help to immigrants. He founded El Pregonero, the first Spanish newspaper in the DC area. In 1978, Cardinal William Wakefield Baum appointed him episcopal vicar for the Portuguese and Haitian communities, he became the executive director of the archdiocesan Office of Social Ministry, he was named knight commander of the Order of Infante D. Henrique by Portugal in 1985 for his service to the Portuguese people, he says his daily prayers in Spanish. O'Malley was appointed coadjutor bishop of the Diocese of Saint Thomas on May 30, 1984, by Pope John Paul II, he received his episcopal consecration on the following August 2 by Bishop Edward John Harper, with Archbishop James Hickey and Bishop Eugene Marino serving as co-consecrators.
He served as coadjutor for one year and succeeded Harper as Bishop of Saint Thomas on October 16, 1985, upon Harper's resignation. While in the Virgin Islands, he worked with the homeless and opened a home for people with AIDS, he was made an honorary chaplain of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta in 1991. On June 16, 1992, O'Malley was chosen to head the Diocese of Fall River, he was installed on August 11, 1992. As Bishop, O'Malley first attempted to settle the sexual abuse scandal in the Fall River diocese. In the Palm Beach diocese, Bishop O'Malley tried to overcome the abuse scandal there, he worked with the Portuguese and Hispanic population, which make up a large percentage of the Catholics in the United States. In 1998 John Paul II appointed O'Malley to the Special Assembly for Oceania of the Synod of Bishops. Known as a fixer in various Roman Catholic dioceses plagued by sexual abuse scandals, he became the Archbishop of Boston in 2003, succeeding Cardinal Bernard Law who had resigned as a consequence of the sexual abuse scandal there.
Pope Benedict XVI elevated O'Malley to the rank of Cardinal-Priest in the consistory of March 24, 2006. O'Malley was assigned the titular church of Rome; the following May, O'Malley was named as a member of both the Congregation for the Clergy and the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life in the Roman Curia. In late September 2009, he became a member of the Presidential Council of the Pontifical Council for the Family, on the same day as an American couple and a professor of law at the University of St. Thomas in St. Paul, were named as consultors. On September 19, 2006, O'Malley became the first cardinal with a personal blog; as of Christmas 2006 he began offering a regular podcast as well. He views the podcasts as "yet another tool can use to reach the young people in our Church who more and more are turning to the Internet for their information." O'Malley participated in the 2013 papal conclave, which elected Pope Francis, is eligible to participate in future papal conclaves that are held before his 80th birthday on June 29, 2024.
As of September 2011, O'Malley is the only Capuchin member of the College of Cardinals. On April 13, 2013, he was appointed to a group of eight cardinals established by Pope Francis a month after his election, to advise him and to study a plan for revising the Apostolic Constitution on the Roman Curia, Pastor bonus; the group's first meeting was scheduled for October 1–3, 2013. The Pope was in contact
In religion, a relic consists of the physical remains of a saint or the personal effects of the saint or venerated person preserved for purposes of veneration as a tangible memorial. Relics are an important aspect of some forms of Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam and many other religions. Relic derives from the Latin reliquiae, meaning "remains", a form of the Latin verb relinquere, to "leave behind, or abandon". A reliquary is a shrine. In ancient Greece, a city or sanctuary might claim to possess, without displaying, the remains of a venerated hero as a part of a hero cult. Other venerable objects associated with the hero were more to be on display in sanctuaries, such as spears, shields, or other weaponry; the sanctuary of the Leucippides at Sparta claimed to display the egg of Leda. The bones were not regarded as holding a particular power derived from the hero, with some exceptions, such as the divine shoulder of Pelops held at Olympia. Miracles and healing were not attributed to them; the bones of Orestes and Theseus were supposed to have been stolen or removed from their original resting place and reburied.
On the advice of the Delphic Oracle, the Spartans searched for the bones of Orestes and brought them home, without which they had been told they could not expect victory in their war against the neighboring Tegeans. Plutarch says that the Athenians were instructed by the oracle to locate and steal the relics of Theseus from the Dolopians; the body of the legendary Eurystheus was supposed to protect Athens from enemy attack, in Thebes, that of the prophet Amphiaraus, whose cult was oracular and healing. Plutarch narrates transferrals similar to that of Theseus for the bodies of the historical Demetrius I of Macedon and Phocion the Good The bones or ashes of Aesculapius at Epidaurus, of Perdiccas I at Macedon, were treated with the deepest veneration; as with the relics of Theseus, the bones are sometimes described in literary sources as gigantic, an indication of the hero's "larger than life" status. On the basis of their reported size, it has been conjectured that such bones were those of prehistoric creatures, the startling discovery of which may have prompted the sanctifying of the site.
The head of the poet-prophet Orpheus was supposed to have been transported to Lesbos, where it was enshrined and visited as an oracle. The 2nd-century geographer Pausanias reported that the bones of Orpheus were kept in a stone vase displayed on a pillar near Dion, his place of death and a major religious center; these too were regarded as having oracular power, which might be accessed through dreaming in a ritual of incubation. The accidental exposure of the bones brought a disaster upon the town of Libretha, whence the people of Dion had transferred the relics to their own keeping. According to the Chronicon Paschale, the bones of the Persian Zoroaster were venerated, but the tradition of Zoroastrianism and its scriptures offer no support of this. In Hinduism, relics are less common than in other religions since the physical remains of most saints are cremated; the veneration of corporal relics may have originated with the śramaṇa movement or the appearance of Buddhism, burial practices became more common after the Muslim invasions.
However one prominent example is the preserved body of the 11th century religious philosopher and proponent of Qualified Non-Dualism Swami Ramanuja in a separate shrine inside Sri Rangam Temple. In Buddhism, relics of the Buddha and various sages are venerated. After the Buddha's death, his remains were divided into eight portions. Afterward, these relics were enshrined in stupas; some relics believed to be original remains of the body of the Buddha still survive, including the much-revered Sacred Relic of the tooth of the Buddha in Sri Lanka. A stupa is a building created for the relics. Many Buddhist temples have stupas and the placement of relics in a stupa became the initial structure around which the whole temple would be based. Today, many stupas hold the ashes or ringsel of prominent/respected Buddhists who were cremated. In rare cases the whole body is conserved, for example in the case of Dudjom Rinpoche, after his death his physical body was moved a year from France and placed in a stupa in one of his main monasteries near Boudhanath, Nepal in 1988.
Pilgrims may view his body through a glass window in the stupa. The Buddha's relics are considered to show people that enlightenment is possible, to remind them that the Buddha was a real person, to promote good virtue. One of the earliest sources that purports to show the efficacy of relics is found in 2 Kings 13:20–21: 20 Elisha died and was buried. Now Moabite raiders used to enter the country every spring. 21 Once while some Israelites were burying a man they saw a band of raiders. When the body touched Elisha's bones, the man stood up on his feet. Cited is the veneration of Polycarp's relics recorded in the Martyrdom of Polycarp. With regard to relics that are objects, an cited passage is Acts 19:11–12, which says that Paul's handkerchiefs were imbued by God with healing power. In the gospel accounts of Jesus healing the bleeding woman and again at Gospel of Mark 6:56, those who touched Jesus's garment were healed; the practice of venerating relics seems to have been taken for granted by writers like Augustine, St. Ambrose, Gregory of Nyssa, St. Chrysostom, St. Gregory Nazian
The term chapel refers to a Christian place of prayer and worship, attached to a larger nonreligious institution or, considered an extension of a primary religious institution. It may be part of a larger structure or complex, such as a college, palace, funeral home, synagogue or mosque, located on board a military or commercial ship, or it may be an free-standing building, sometimes with its own grounds. Chapel has referred to independent or nonconformist places of worship in Great Britain—outside the established church; until the Protestant Reformation, a chapel denoted a place of worship, either at a secondary location, not the main responsibility of the local parish priest, or that belonged to a person or institution. The earliest Christian places of worship are now referred to as chapels, as they were not dedicated buildings but rather a dedicated chamber within a building. Most larger churches had one or more secondary altars, which if they occupied a distinct space, would be called a chapel.
In Russian Orthodox tradition, the chapels were built underneath city gates, where most people could visit them. The most famous example is the Iberian Chapel. Although chapels refer to Christian places of worship, they are commonly found in Jewish synagogues and do not denote a specific denomination. In England—where the Church of England is established by law—non-denominational or inter-faith chapels in such institutions may nonetheless be consecrated by the local Anglican bishop. Non-denominational chapels are encountered as part of a non-religious institution such as a hospital, university or prison. Many military installations have chapels for the use of military personnel under the leadership of a military chaplain; the earliest Christian places of worship were not dedicated buildings but rather a dedicated chamber within a building, such as a room in an individual's home. Here one or two people could pray without being part of a communion/congregation. People who like to use chapels may find it peaceful and relaxing to be away from the stress of life, without other people moving around them.
The word, like the associated word, chaplain, is derived from Latin. More the word "chapel" is derived from a relic of Saint Martin of Tours: traditional stories about Martin relate that while he was still a soldier, he cut his military cloak in half to give part to a beggar in need; the other half he wore over his shoulders as a "small cape". The beggar, the stories claim, was Christ in disguise, Martin experienced a conversion of heart, becoming first a monk abbot bishop; this cape came into the possession of the Frankish kings, they kept the relic with them as they did battle. The tent which kept the cape was called the capella and the priests who said daily Mass in the tent were known as the capellani. From these words, via Old French, we get the names "chapel" and "chaplain"; the word appears in the Irish language in the Middle Ages, as Welsh people came with the Norman and Old English invaders to the island of Ireland. While the traditional Irish word for church was eaglais, a new word, séipéal, came into usage.
In British history, "chapel" or "meeting house", was the standard designation for church buildings belonging to independent or Nonconformist religious societies and their members. It was a word associated with the pre-eminence of independent religious practice in rural regions of England and Wales, the northern industrial towns of the late 18th and 19th centuries, centres of population close to but outside the City of London; as a result, "chapel" is sometimes used as an adjective in the UK to describe the members of such churches. A proprietary chapel is one that belonged to a private person. In the 19th century they were common being built to cope with urbanisation, they were set up by evangelical philanthropists with a vision of spreading Christianity in cities whose needs could no longer be met by the parishes. Some functioned more with a wealthy person building a chapel so they could invite their favorite preachers, they are anomalies in the English ecclesiastical law, having no parish area, but being able to have an Anglican clergyman licensed there.
Many Anglican Churches were Proprietary Chapels. Over the years they have been converted into normal Parishes. While the usage of the word "chapel" is not limited to Christian terminology, it is most found in that context. Nonetheless, the word's meaning can vary by denomination, non-denominational chapels can be found in many hospitals and the United Nations headquarters. Chapels can be found for worship in Judaism; the word "chapel" is in common usage in the United Kingdom, in Wales, for Nonconformist places of worship. In the UK, due to the rise in Nonconformist chapels during the late 18th and early 19th centuries, by the time of the 1851 census, more people attended the independent chapels than attended the state religion's Anglican churches. In Roman Catholic Church canon law, a chapel, technically called an "oratory", is a building or part thereof dedicated to the celebration of services the Mass, not a parish church; this may be a private chapel, for the use of one person or a select group.
A reliquary is a container for relics. These may be the purported or actual physical remains of saints, such as bones, pieces of clothing, or some object associated with saints or other religious figures; the authenticity of any given relic is a matter of debate. Relics have long been important to Buddhists, Christians and many other religions. In these cultures, reliquaries are presented in shrines, churches, or temples to which the faithful make pilgrimages in order to gain blessings; the term is sometimes used loosely of containers for the body parts of non-religious figures. The use of reliquaries became an important part of Christian practices from at least the 4th century in the Eastern Churches, which adopted the practice of moving and dividing the bodies of saints much earlier than the West in part because the new capital of Constantinople, unlike Rome, lacked buried saints. Relics are venerated in the Oriental Orthodox, Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic and some Anglican Churches. Reliquaries provide a means of displaying relics.
While taking the form of caskets, they range in size from simple pendants or rings to elaborate ossuaries. Since the relics themselves were considered "more valuable than precious stones and more to be esteemed than gold," it was only appropriate that they be enshrined in containers crafted of or covered with gold, silver and enamel. Ivory was used in the Middle Ages for reliquaries; these objects constituted a major form of artistic production across Europe and Byzantium throughout the Middle Ages. Many were designed with portability in mind being exhibited in public or carried in procession on the saint's feast day or on other holy days. Pilgrimages centered on the veneration of relics; the faithful venerate relics by bowing before the reliquary or kissing it. Those churches which observe the veneration of relics make a clear distinction between the honor given to the saints and the worship, due to God alone; the feretrum was a medieval form of reliquary or shrine containing the sacred effigies and relics of a saint.
The most magnificent example is that known as the Shrine of the Three Kings in Cologne Cathedral. After the storming of Milan in 1162 the supposed relics of the Magi were carried off and brought to Cologne, where a magnificent silver casket, nearly 6 feet long, 4.5 feet high was constructed for them. This superb piece of silversmith's work resembles in outward form a church with a nave and two aisles. In the late Middle Ages the craze for relics, many now fraudulent, became extreme, was criticized by many otherwise conventional churchmen. 16th-century reformers such as Martin Luther opposed the use of relics since many had no proof of historic authenticity, they objected to the cult of saints. Many reliquaries in northern Europe, were destroyed by Calvinists or Calvinist sympathizers during the Reformation, being melted down or pulled apart to recover precious metals and gems. Nonetheless, the use and manufacture of reliquaries continues to this day in Roman Catholic and Orthodox Christian countries.
Post-Reformation reliquaries have tended to take the form of glass-sided caskets to display relics such as the bodies of saints. The earliest reliquaries were boxes, either box-shaped or based on an architectural design, taking the form of a model of a church with a pitched roof; these latter are known by the French term chasse, typical examples from the 12th to 14th century have wooden frameworks with gilt-copper plaques nailed on, decorated in champlevé enamel. Limoges was the largest centre of production. Relics of the True Cross became popular from the 9th century onwards and were housed in magnificent gold and silver cross-shaped reliquaries, decorated with enamels and precious stones. From about the end of the 10th century, reliquaries in the shape of the relics they housed became popular; the bones of saints were housed in reliquaries that recalled the shape of the original body part, such as an arm or a foot. Many Eastern Orthodox reliquaries housing tiny pieces of relics have circular or cylindrical slots in which small disks of wax-mastic in which the actual relic is embedded.
A philatory is a transparent reliquary designed to contain and exhibit the bones and relics of saints. This style of reliquary has a viewing portal by. During the Middle Ages, the monstrance form used for consecrated hosts, was sometimes used for reliquaries; these housed the relic in a rock crystal or glass capsule mounted on a column above a base, enabling the relic to be displayed to the faithful. Reliquaries in the form of large pieces of metalwork jewellery appeared around this time, housing tiny relics such as pieces of the Holy Thorn, notably the Holy Thorn Reliquary now in the British Museum. In Buddhism, stupa are an important form of reliquary, may be included in a larger complex known as a chaitya. In China and throughout East and Southeast Asia, these take the form of a pagoda. In Theravada Buddhism, relics are known as cetiya.