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Pope Stephen II

Pope Stephen II a Roman aristocrat was Bishop of Rome from 26 March 752 to his death in 757. He succeeded Pope Zachary following the death of Pope-elect Stephen. Stephen II marks the historical delineation between the Frankish Papacy. Rome was facing invasion by the Kingdom of the Lombards. Pope Stephen II traveled all the way to Paris to seek assistance against the Lombard threat from Pepin the Short. Pepin had been anointed a first time in 751 in Soissons by Boniface, archbishop of Mainz, but named his price. With the Frankish nobles agreeing to campaign in Lombardy, the Pope consecrated Pepin a second time in a lavish ceremony at the Basilica of St Denis in 754, bestowing upon him the additional title of Patricius Romanorum in the first recorded crowning of a civil ruler by a Pope. Pepin defeated the Lombards – taking control of northern Italy – and made a gift of the properties constituting the Exarchate of Ravenna to the pope leading to the establishment of the Papal States. In 751, the Lombard king Aistulf captured the Exarchate of Ravenna, turned his attention to the Duchy of Rome.

Relations were strained in the mid-8th century between the papacy and the Eastern Roman emperors over the support of the Isaurian Dynasty for iconoclasm. Maintaining political control over Rome became untenable as the Eastern Roman Empire itself was beset by the Abbasid Caliphate to the south and Bulgars to the northwest. Constantinople could send no troops, Emperor Constantine V Copronymus, in answer to the repeated requests for help of the new pope, Stephen II, could only offer him the advice to act in accordance with the ancient policy of Rome, to pit some other Germanic tribe against the Lombards. Stephen turned to Pepin the Younger, the crowned King of the Franks, traveled to Paris to plead for help in person against the surrounding Lombard and Muslim threats. On 6 January 754, Stephen re-consecrated Pepin as king. In return, Pepin assumed the role of ordained protector of the Church and set his sights on the Lombards, as well as addressing the threat of Islamic Al-Andalus. Pepin invaded Italy twice to settle the Lombard problem and delivered the territory between Rome and Ravenna to the papacy, but left the Lombard kings in possession of their kingdom.

Prior to Stephen's alliance with Pepin, Rome had constituted the central city of the Duchy of Rome, which composed one of two districts within the Exarchate of Ravenna, along with Ravenna itself. At Quiercy the Frankish nobles gave their consent to a campaign in Lombardy. Catholic tradition asserts that and there Pepin executed in writing a promise to give to the Church certain territories that were to be wrested from the Lombards, which would be referred to as the Papal States. Known as the Donation of Pepin, no actual document has been preserved, but 8th century sources quote from it. Stephen anointed Pepin as King of the Franks at Saint-Denis in a memorable ceremony, evoked in the coronation rites of French kings until the end of the ancien regime in 1789. In return, in 756, Pepin and his Frankish army forced the Lombard king to surrender his conquests, Pepin conferred upon the pope the territories belonging to Ravenna cities such as Forlì with their hinterlands, laying the Donation of Pepin upon the tomb of Saint Peter, according to traditional accounts.

The gift included Lombard conquests in the Romagna and in the duchies of Spoleto and Benevento, the Pentapolis in the Marche. For the first time, the Donation made the pope a temporal ruler over a strip of territory that extended diagonally across Italy from the Tyrrhenian to the Adriatic. Over these extensive and mountainous territories the medieval popes were unable to exercise effective sovereignty, given the pressures of the times, the new Papal States preserved the old Lombard heritage of many small counties and marquisates, each centered upon a fortified rocca. Pepin confirmed his Donation in Rome in 756, in 774 Charlemagne confirmed the donation of his father. Annales laureshamenses List of Catholic saints List of popes Paolo Delogu: Stefano II. In: Massimo Bray: Enciclopedia dei Papi, Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, Vol. 1, Rome, 2000, OCLC 313504669, pp. 660–665. Ekkart Sauser. "Stephan II.". In Bautz, Traugott. Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon. 10. Herzberg: Bautz. Cols.

1351–1354. ISBN 3-88309-062-X. Rudolf Schieffer. "Stephan II". Lexikon des Mittelalters, VIII: Stadt bis Werl. Stuttgart and Weimar: J. B. Metzler. Col. 116–117. ISBN 3-89659-908-9. Catholic Encyclopedia: Papal States, section 3: Collapse of the Byzantine Power in Central Italy Medieval Sourcebook

Prevertebral ganglia

Prevertebral ganglia are sympathetic ganglia which lie between the paravertebral ganglia and the target organ. Similar to the paravertebral ganglia, the prevertebral ganglia are the nodules where preganglionic neurons synapse with their postganglionic counterparts; the nerves that synapse in the prevertebral ganglia innervate the pelvic viscera. Some of the targets present in the pelvic viscera include the enteric nervous system, as well as the renal system and any other organs present in the abdomen. Nerves arising from the lateral horn of the spinal cord are those of the autonomic nervous system, they exit through the ventral root of the spinal cord, continue through the ventral rami. At that point, they branch to go through the white ramus communicans of the paravertebral body. Unlike the thoracic and cutaneous nerves, the ANS nerves destined for the pelvic viscera continue through the paravertebral ganglia without synapsing. Instead of synapsing, they continue through splanchnic nerves until they reach a prevertebral ganglia.

Once inside the prevertebral ganglia, the individual neurons comprising the nerve synapse with their postganglionic neuron. The postganglionic nerve proceed to innervate their targets; these include 1. The celiac ganglia, 2. Superior mesenteric ganglia, 3. Inferior mesenteric ganglia. Autonomic ganglion Prevertebral plexus Thomas M. Essentials of Human Physiology. Section 6/6ch2/s6ch2_30

Screenwriter's salary

Minimum salaries for union screenwriters are set by the Writers Guild of America. Non-union screenwriters may write for free. Against: A word used to describe a script's unproduced price relative to its value if approved for production—for example, if a script is sold for $300,000, but the writer gains an extra $200,000 if it leads to production, the screenwriter's salary is described as "$300,000 against $500,000". Option: If a script is not purchased, it may be optioned. An option is money paid in exchange for the right to produce—and therefore to purchase outright—a screenplay, treatment, or other work within a certain period. Feature assignment: The writer writes the script on assignment under contract with a studio, production company, or individual. Pitch: The writer works up a five- to twenty-minute presentation of a prospective movie and presents it to buyers in a short meeting. Rewriting: The writer rewrites someone else's script for pay; the writer pitches his "take". Spec script: Short for "speculative" or "on speculation" as in.

The writer writes the script without being paid, subsequently, tries to sell it. A typical screenwriter's purchase agreement will contain the following: Guarantee: Literally, the money the writer is guaranteed to receive, whether the script is produced or not; this amount is divided into steps with payments and due dates. For example, a "three step deal" might include:Step One: First Draft Commencement First Draft Delivery Step Two: First Rewrite Commencement First Rewrite Completion Step Three: Polish Commencement Polish Completion The guaranteed money is sometimes referred to as the "front-end." Optional Steps: The deal may define optional steps that the studio can trigger at their discretion. For example:Step Four: Second Rewrite Commencement Second Rewrite Completion Step Five: Second Polish Commencement Second Polish Completion Bonus/Bonuses: Also known as the "back-end". A production bonus is paid once the script goes into production, or, if there is more than one writer, after the final credit is determined.

A typical contract will specify a smaller production bonus for shared credit. There may be bonuses contingent upon budget or grosses; the cousin of the bonus is the "penalty", which might be paid by the writer if, for example, the script has not been put into production by a set date. 1900: One of America's first screenwriters, New York journalist Roy McCardell, is hired to write ten scenarios for $15 each. 1949: Ben Hecht is paid $10,000 a week. Claims David O. Selznick paid him $3,500 a day. 1984: Shane Black sells the screenplay to Lethal Weapon for $250,000. 1989: During the 1988 strike, John Raffo, sold his female-courier-has-to-take-a-cure-across-state-lines sci-fi spec script Pincushion to Columbia for $500,000. 1990: Kathy McWorter, promoted by her agent as a 21-year-old wunderkind, though in fact she was 28 years old, sells her sex comedy The Cheese Stands Alone for $1 million. This was followed by nuclear-terrorist technothriller The Ultimatum by Laurence Dworet and Robert Roy Pool and WWII action comedy Hell Bent... and Back! by Doug Richardson and Rick Jaffa, both of which sold for a million dollars.

None of these movies have been produced so far. 1992: Sherry Lansing is hired to run Paramount and spends $3.6 million in less than a week, $2.5 million for a two-page outline of Jade by Joe Eszterhas, $1.1 million for the script Milk Money by John Mattson. Both deals are records for outlines and romantic comedy specs. 2005: Terry Rossio and Bill Marsilii are paid $3 million against $5 million for the script of Deja Vu. Some of the highest amounts paid to writers for spec screenplays: $5 million: Deja Vu by Terry Rossio and Bill Marsilii$2 million: Arthur & Lancelot by David Dobkin$1 million: Milk Money by John Mattson Epsilon by Rhett Reese and Paul Wernick The Imitation Game by Graham Moore, at "seven figures" to Warner Brothers Spec Script Sales Analysis 2008: Top Sales

Lizeth González

Lizeth Carolina González Romero Colombian model is a winner of several beauty contests, among which are, Magdalena 2010 and Miss World Banana Queen holds the title of National Virreina, who won in the Miss Colombia 2010. Lizeth Carolina González Romero. Born in Plato, she is the daughter of Vilma Romero Navarro. She has two brothers and Lauren, she has knowledge of Italian. In her spare time is devoted to swimming and pilates, she was elected Miss Magdalena On November 15, 2010, 24 candidates from all departments of Colombia attended the Auditorium of the Convention Center Getsmani "Julio Cesar Turbay Ayala" in Cartagena, where was held the evening of election and coronation of Miss Colombia 2010, where Natalia Navarro Galvis crown to her successor Catalina Robayo, representative of the Valle del Cauca. In the various rounds Lizeth like Catalina 9.80 average score leaving them as potential escostaldas favorite of the night by Miss Huila, Natalia Valenzuela, Ms. Bolivar, Tatiana Najera and Miss Diana Mina Bogotá.

In Colombia it is customary representation of the National Virreina in the Miss International beauty pageant which only supports candidates with 24 years of age on the date of the event, preventing Lizeth participate in this reign, giving you the chance to 1 st National Princess Natalia Valenzuela to represent Colombia. Gonzalez represented Colombia at Top Model of the World 2011 contest had been won by the Colombian Carolina Rodriguez Ferrero, The winner was the Romanian Loredana Salant, where Lizeth achieving a place in semifinals being among the top 10 ranked 9 On 23 September this year in Ecuador Machala took out the competition World Banana Queen 2011, where 16 candidates from different countries where wins, as was the German viceroy Johanna Acs, Miss Argentina's friendship was Piñanelli Valentina, Miss Photogenic was the Canadian Shaota Elishia

Walter P. Lane

Walter Paye Lane was a Confederate general during the American Civil War who served in the armies of the Republic of Texas and the United States of America. Lane was born in Ireland; the Lane family emigrated to Fairview in Guernsey County, Ohio, in 1821, moved to Kentucky in 1825. In 1836 Lane moved to Texas to participate in its war for independence against Mexico. After Texas had gained its independence, Lane lived in San Augustine County in East Texas and San Antonio, where he served as a Texas Ranger. In 1846 Lane joined the First Regiment, Texas Mounted Riflemen, as a first lieutenant to fight in the Mexican–American War. Lane fought with honors at the Battle of Monterey and was given the rank of major and command of his own battalion. After the Mexican–American War, Lane wandered about doing various things in Arizona and Peru before opening a mercantile business in Marshall, Texas, in 1858; when the Civil War broke out, Lane was among the first Texans to call for secession. Lane's military reputation was so great that the first volunteer Confederate company raised in Harrison County was named for him, though Lane would join the 3rd Texas Cavalry.

Lane participated in the battles of Wilson's Creek, Chustenahlah, Pea Ridge and both the Siege of Corinth and Second Battle of Corinth. Lane led the 3rd Texas at the battle of Franklin and was commended by General P. G. T. Beauregard for his efforts. Lane was wounded in the Battle of Mansfield in 1864, where Confederates forces rebuffed a push to capture either or both Shreveport, Louisiana, or Marshall, Texas. Before the war ended, Lane was promoted to the rank of brigadier general in 1865, being confirmed on the last day the Confederate Congress met. After the Civil War Lane returned to Marshall where he helped to establish the Texas Veterans Association. After Reconstruction and his brother George, a local judge, founded the first White Citizens Party in Texas and ran Republicans and African-Americans out of Marshall. With Democratic white hegemony brutally reestablished in Marshall and Harrison County, Lane declared the city and county "redeemed", he died in Marshall, is buried in the Marshall Cemetery near downtown Marshall.

His memoirs, The Adventures and Recollections of General Walter P. Lane, were published posthumously in 1928. List of American Civil War generals Eicher, John H. and David J. Eicher, Civil War High Commands. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001. ISBN 978-0-8047-3641-1. Sifakis, Stewart. Who Was Who in the Civil War. New York: Facts On File, 1988. ISBN 978-0-8160-1055-4. Warner, Ezra J. Generals in Gray: Lives of the Confederate Commanders. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1959. ISBN 978-0-8071-0823-9. "Walter P. Lane". Find a Grave. Retrieved 2008-03-24

Videodrome (soundtrack)

Videodrome is the official soundtrack album of the 1983 Canadian science fiction horror film Videodrome. While the film's score was composed by Howard Shore, a close friend of the Director David Cronenberg, the album was remixed for individual release by the record label Varèse Sarabande; the new mix was done by Scot Holton who chose to emphasize many of the elements of the score differently from in the original film. The soundtrack was released on vinyl in 1982 by Varèse Sarabande, subsequently re-released on CD in 1998, it is out of print. Videodrome was the third film of Cronenberg's to be scored by Howard Shore. For the recording, Shore used dramatic orchestral music that incorporated, emphasized, electronic instrumentation; this was designed to follow the protagonist Max Renn's descent into video hallucinations. In order to achieve this, Shore composed the entire score for an orchestra before programming it into a Synclavier II digital synthesizer; the rendered score, taken from the Synclavier II, was recorded being played in tandem with a small string section.

The resulting sound was a subtle blend that made it difficult to tell which sounds were real and which were synthesized. The album is not a direct copy of the music used in the film, but rather a remixing; the mix was an assembly of the film's original tracks that accentuated the various layers of the music differently from in the film itself. It includes elements of synthesized speech and sound effects; the mix was done by Scot Holton of Varèse Sarabande, who loved many of the subtler elements of the film's score and made them more prominent in the album's tracks. Shore has commented that while there were small issues with some of the acoustic numbers, that "on the whole I think they did well." While unnoticed by critics, the reception to the Videodrome soundtrack has been favourable. Praise was given to the synthesized elements for creating a dark and ominous tone while capturing the hallucinatory reality of the film. One critic went so far as to call it "music that harnesses the transformative power of technology to warn against its growing influences over everyone."

These electronic elements have been criticized as well, with one critic noting that it could be viewed as "a lackluster venture into cost cutting," but notes that "the results are thematically precise and satisfying."After the initial release in 1982, the album's popularity was strong enough to cause Varèse Sarabande to recommend its release onto CD. It was released on CD in 1998 and was out of print until a re-press in 2010