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Pope Stephen III

Pope Stephen III was Bishop of Rome and ruler of the Papal States from 7 August 768 to his death in 772. Stephen was a Benedictine monk. In the midst of a tumultuous contest by rival factions to name a successor to Pope Paul I, Stephen was elected with the support of the Roman officials, he summoned the Lateran Council of 769, which sought to limit the influence of the nobles in papal elections. The Council opposed iconoclasm. A Greek born in Sicily, Stephen III was the son of a man named Olivus. Coming to Rome during the pontificate of Pope Gregory III, he was placed in the monastery of St. Chrysogonus, where he became a Benedictine monk. During the pontificate of Pope Zachary, he was ordained a priest, after which the pope decided to keep him to work at the Lateran Palace. Stephen rose to high office in the service of successive popes, was at the bedside of the dying Pope Paul I as powerful factions began manoeuvring to ensure the election of their own candidate in late June 767; the next year was consumed by the rival claims of antipopes Constantine II and Philip, who were forced out of office by the efforts of Christophorus, the Primicerius of the notaries, his son Sergius, the Treasurer of the Roman church.

With the capture of Constantine II, Christophorus set about organising a canonical election, on 1 August he summoned not only the Roman clergy and army, but the people to assemble before the Church of St. Adrian in the area of the old Comitium. Here the combined assembly elected Stephen as pope, they proceeded to the Church of Santa Cecilia in Trastevere, where they acclaimed Stephen as pope-elect, escorted him to the Lateran Palace. At this point, supporters of the pope-elect Stephen began brutally to attack key members of Constantine’s regime, including Constantine himself, hounded through the streets of Rome, with heavy weights attached to his feet. Bishop Theodore, Constantine’s Vice-dominus, was blinded and had his tongue cut out, while Constantine’s brother, was blinded. After Constantine was dethroned on 6 August, Stephen was consecrated pope on the following day, 7 August 768. Retributions continued after the consecration of Stephen. On the orders of the papal Chartularius, Constantine was removed from his monastic cell and left on the streets of Rome with specific instructions that no-one should aid him.

On a charge of conspiring to kill Christophorus and many other nobles, with the intent of handing over the city to the Lombards, the priest Waldipert, the prime mover in the elevation of the Antipope Philip, was arrested and soon died of his wounds. The role of Stephen III in these events is somewhat obscure. According to the historian Horace Mann, Stephen was an impotent observer, that the responsible agent was in reality the Chartularius, Gratiosus. However, according to Louis Marie DeCormenin, Stephen was the key person responsible for issuing the orders, took great delight in destroying his rival and his supporters. A middle position was taken by the historian Ferdinand Gregorovius, who observed that Stephen, while he may not have instigated or ordered the atrocities, did not seek to prevent them either, either through self-interest or the weakness of his position. What is clear, however, is that the recent creation of the Papal States had seen the traditional rivalries of the ruling families of Rome transformed into a murderous desire to control this new temporal power in Italy, dragging the papacy with it.

With Constantine’s supporters dealt with, Stephen wrote to the Frankish king, Pepin the Short, notifying him of his election, asking for a number of bishops to participate in a council he was seeking to hold to discuss the recent confusion. As Pepin had died, it was Charlemagne and Carloman I who agreed to send twelve bishops to participate in the Lateran Council of 769; the council saw the final condemnation of Constantine II, beaten and had his tongue removed before being returned to his monastic cell. All clerical appointments made by Constantine were declared void, it set about establishing strict rules for papal elections, thereby restricting the involvement of the nobility in subsequent elections. The rulings of the Council of Hieria were rejected, the practice of devotion to icons was confirmed. In 770, Stephen was asked to confirm the election of a layperson, as Archbishop of Ravenna. In fact, Michael, in league with the Lombard king Desiderius, the Duke of Rimini had imprisoned Leo, elected first.

Stephen refused to confirm Michael’s election. Michael refused, the stand-off continued for over a year, until the arrival of the Frankish ambassador in Ravenna along with the Papal legates encouraged Michael’s opponents to overthrow him, send him to Rome in chains. Leo followed soon after. Throughout his pontificate, Stephen was apprehensive about the expansionist plans of the Lombards. Placing his hope in the Franks, he attempted to mediate in the quarrels between Charlemagne and Carloman, which were only helping the Lombards' cause in Italy. In 769, he helped them reconcile, pressured them to support the still infant Papal States, by reminding them of the support that their father had given the Pa

Ruth Fainlight

Ruth Fainlight is a U. S.-born poet, short story writer and librettist based in the UK. Fainlight was born in New York, but has lived in Britain since she was 15, having spent some years living in France and Spain, she studied for two years at the Brighton Colleges of Art. In addition to her own works, Fainlight has provided criticism for BBC Radio, The Times Literary Supplement, The Guardian and numerous other publications, she was married to the British writer Alan Sillitoe and has a son, a photographer for The Guardian, an adopted daughter, Susan. Fainlight lives in London, she has twice been Poet in Residence at Vanderbilt University, Nashville and was a close friend of Sylvia Plath in the years leading up to Plath's death. Cages, 1966. To See the Matter Clearly, 1968 from Macmillan UK. Another Full Moon, 1976. Sibyls and Others. 1980. New edition, Poetry Book Society, 2007 Fifteen to Infinity, 1983. Published 1987, Carnegie-Mellon University Press US Selected Poems. 1987. The Knot 1990. From Hutchinson or CenturyHutchinson, UK Climates.

Bloodaxe Books UK, 1983. This Time of Year, 1994. Selected Poems. Updated new edition, Sinclair-Stevenson UK, 1995. Sugar-Paper Blue. Bloodaxe Books UK, Dufour Editions US, 1997. Shortlisted for 1998 Whitbread Poetry Prize Burning Wire. Bloodaxe Books UK, Dufour Editions US, 2002. Moon Wheels. Bloodaxe Books, 2006. Dufour Editions US, 2007. New and Collected Poems. Bloodaxe Books, 25 November 2010. Somewhere Else Entirely. Bloodaxe Books, 15 November, 2018. Sibyls. Gehenna Press US, 1991, with woodcuts by Leonard Baskin. Pomegranate. Editions de l`Eau, France, 1997, mezzotints by Judith Rothchild Leaves/Feuilles, Editions Verdigris, France, 1998. Bi-lingual, French/English, tr. M. Duclos. Mezzotints by Judith Rothchild Sheba and Solomon. Pratt Contemporary Art, UK, 2004. Drypoints by Ana Maria Pacheco Daylife and Nightlife. London: André Deutsch, 1971. Dr. Clock's Last Case. London: Virago Press, 1994. Lope de Vega, All Citizens Are Soldiers. Macmillan UK, 1966. Tr. from Spanish with Alan Sillitoe Navigations 1983, Casa da Moeda and Marine Rose, 1987, Black Swan US, from Portuguese of Sophia de Mello Breyner Andresen Selection of poems by Jean Joubert, from French, included in Selected Poems, 1995 Sophocles, The Theban Trilogy 2009.

Translated with Robert Littman, Johns Hopkins University Press, US La Verità sulla Sibilla, 2003, translated from Italian. Alessandra Schiavinato and Paolo Ruffilli, published by Edizioni del Leone, Italy Visitação, 1995, edited by Ana Hatherly, Quetzal Editores, Portugal Encore la Pleine Lune, 1997, trans. M. Duclos & J. Joubert, Editions Federop, Eglise-Neuve d'Issac, France Leaves/Feuilles 1998, trans. M. Duclos, Editions Verdigris, France Bleu Papier-Sucre, 2000, trans. M. Duclos, Les Amis de la Poésie, France Plumas published by Editorial El Tucan de Virginia, Mexico City, Mexico, 2005. Poemas 2000, trans. B. Varela, L. Graves, M. Negroni, J. Capriata, M. Lauer Editorial Pequeña Venecia, Venezuela Autorul La Rampa, 2007, tr. Lidia Vianu, Univers Enciclopedic, Romania La Nueva Ciencia de los Materiales Fuertes 2009,trans. M. Rosenberg & D. Samoilovich, Cordoba, Spain The poem "Sugar-Paper Blue" was translated into Russian by Marina Boroditskaya and is published in the April 2003 issue of the Moscow monthly Inostrannaya Literatura.

The poem sequence "Sheba and Solomon" has been translated into Russian by Marina Boroditskaya and published in Moscow in the literary magazine Novaya Younost in 2003. The Dancer Hotoke 1991, composer Erika Fox; the European Story 1993, chamber opera, composer Geoffrey Alvarez. Both works above were commissioned by the Royal Opera House for their "Garden Venture" program in 1991 and 1993. Bedlam Britannica September 1995. Cholmondeley Award for Poetry, 1994 Hawthornden Fellowship, 1987 Fellow of Royal Society of Literature, 2007 British Council biography at Contemporary Writers Profile and poems written and audio at the Poetry Archive

Luke Pavlou

Luke Pavlou is an Australian professional footballer who plays as a central midfielder for National Premier Leagues Victoria side Oakleigh Cannons. He made his professional debut on 18 April 2015 for Brisbane Roar FC against Melbourne Victory. After his departure from Brisbane Roar he signed for National Premier Leagues Queensland side Brisbane City FC under Head Coach John Kosmina for the 2016 season. Following on from his season at Brisbane City, Pavlou signed with National Premier Leagues Victoria giants South Melbourne FC until the end of the 2019 NPL Victoria season, he made 39 league appearances for South Melbourne and featured in their 2017 FFA Cup run which culminated in a 5-2 defeat to the reigning A-League champions, Sydney FC in the semi-final. On 28 May 2018, NPL Victoria side Oakleigh Cannons announced the signing of Pavlou until the end of the 2018 NPL Victoria season. Pavlou returned to South Melbourne for the 2020 NPL Victoria Season Luke Pavlou at Soccerway

Monk's Hood

Monk's Hood is a medieval mystery novel by Ellis Peters, set in December 1138. It is the third novel in The Cadfael Chronicles, it was first published in 1980. It was adapted for television in 1994 by Central for ITV. Gervase Bonel dies from monkshood oil put in his food. Brother Cadfael made the oil. Who used it as poison? Cadfael assesses the motives of Bonel's family and household staff, including his Welsh natural son and his stepson, deals with Bonel's widow, once Cadfael's sweetheart long ago; the sergeant views the case differently from Cadfael. This novel received the Silver Dagger Award in 1980 from the UK's Crime Writers Association; the author was commended by one reviewer for her ability to draw characters who are distinctly medieval, "not modern men and women masquerading in medieval garb," while dealing with fine points of medieval Welsh law. Another reviewer missed the lively character of the second novel, Hugh Beringar, wishing him to be more involved in this plot, yet saying "Peters does wonders with the medieval scene and with complex character relationships."

In early December 1138, Abbot Heribert of Shrewsbury Abbey is summoned to a Legatine council in London and his authority is suspended. The Abbey's business is postponed, with one exception: Gervase Bonel, who has ceded his manorial estate at Mallilie to the Abbey in return for a small house where his needs in retirement will be provided, is allowed to move his household before the charter is signed. All expect that his successor will complete the agreement after the council. Prior Robert is left in charge of the Abbey, he receives gifts meant for the Abbot, including a fat partridge which he shares with Bonel, having his cook send a portion with dinner. Bonel is taken ill after eating it. Brother Cadfael the herbalist and Brother Edmund the infirmarer can not save him. Cadfael recognises Bonel's widow as Richildis Vaughan, to whom he was informally betrothed over 40 years earlier, he realises. Its active ingredient is monkshood; the murder is reported to Shrewsbury Castle. Sheriff Prestcote sends the unsubtle Sergeant Will Warden to investigate.

As Prior Robert ate the other half of the partridge without ill effects, suspicion falls on Bonel's household. Richildis was never alone with the partridge. Aelfric, who carried the dishes from the kitchen, bears a grudge as Bonel deprived him of free status and made him a villein. Neither the maid, nor Meurig, an illegitimate son of Bonel, apprenticed to Richildis' son-in-law master carpenter Martin Bellecote, have any apparent motive. Edwin Gurney, Richildis' son from her first marriage, was present at part of the meal, but stormed out after a quarrel before Bonel ate the partridge, he and Meurig had come separately from the Abbey's infirmary, where Meurig used the monkshood oil to massage his great uncle, the aged Brother Rhys. Edwin's motive for murdering Bonel is plain to the sergeant; because the charter with the Abbey is not completed, Edwin will inherit Mallilie. Warden fails to find Edwin. Late that night Edwy Bellecote, meet Cadfael in his workshop. By pretending that Bonel was attacked with a sword or dagger, Cadfael establishes that Edwin does not know how Bonel died and is innocent of poisoning him.

He conceals him in one of the Abbey's barns. Cadfael suggests that Warden search for the vial. Warden reports. Cadfael questions Edwin, who says that he threw a carved wooden reliquary, a gift intended for Bonel, into the river after their quarrel; that night, Cadfael visits Richildis to ask. If Edwin does not inherit, Mallilie would revert to Bonel's overlord. Richildis reminisces about her former relations with Cadfael. Brother Jerome, Prior Robert's sanctimonious clerk, is eavesdropping outside the door. At Chapter, Jerome betrays Cadfael's and Richildis' former relationship. Prior Robert forbids Cadfael, bound by his vow of obedience, to leave the Abbey's precincts; the same morning, Edwin is discovered in the barn by Abbey servants, flees on Bonel's fine horse. The boy on the horse is captured after a chase lasting all day. Summoned to give spiritual comfort to the boy, Cadfael finds Edwy Bellecote, who distracted the authorities while Edwin escaped. Deputy Sheriff Hugh Beringar allows Edwy to return to his family on parole.

Cadfael sends his assistant, Brother Mark, to search around Bonel's house for any bottle which might have held the poison. Mark finds it in a place where Edwin Gurney could not have thrown it, further proving his innocence to Cadfael; the Abbey's steward at Mallilie sends word that a brother at a remote sheepfold at Rhydycroesau in Wales has fallen ill. Cadfael realises that Mallilie's location within Wales alters motives. Before departing to tend the sick brother, he questions the aged Brother Rhys, uncle to Meurig's mother, about local customs around Mallilie. Beringar is absent, searching for the reliquary which Edwin threw into the river, Cadfael does not confide his discoveries to the sceptical Sergeant Warden. At Rhydycroesau, the ailing brother soon recovers. Cadfael visits the manor at Mallilie and kinfolk of Brother Rhys. At the house of Rhys's brother-in-law, Ifor ap Morgan, he discovers Edwin in hiding. Sergeant Warden follows Cadfael from Mallilie, takes Edwin into custody. Cadfael now has one chance to get justice for Gervase Bonel, at the Commote court at Llansilin the next day.

At the court, Meurig makes his claim for Mallilie. The man

Franklin E. Roach

Franklin Evans Roach was an American astronomer, geophysicist and scientist analyzing UFO phenomenon who made significant contributions to the field of aeronomy in upper atmosphere research as one of its fathers. Roach was involved in high explosives physics research connected with the Manhattan Project and with NICAP and the Condon Committee as part of ufology. Roach was born in Jamestown, Ottawa County, fifteen miles southwest of Grand Rapids to his optometrist father Richard Franklin Roach and his mother, a housewife, Ingeborg "Belle" Mathilde Torgerson. Franklin Roach died two days before reaching age 88. Franklin was a Boy Scout as a youth reaching the rank of First Class while participating in a Scout Troop in Wheaton, Illinois under the direction of his father, its Scoutmaster. Roach attended in 1919-1921 his first two years of secondary education at Wheaton High School in Wheaton, Illinois; this was followed by his final two years with graduation in 1923 from Benjamin Franklin High School in Los Angeles, California while residing in the Highland Park region of that city from 1921-1923.

Roach had three siblings: Laurance and Richard. Roach is buried in Colorado; the Rayleigh Unit is a unit of photon flux used to measure the radiance of air glow, atmospheric phenomena like auroras, integrated starlight of various forms in space. The Rayleigh Unit was first proposed in 1956 by Donald M. Hunten, Franklin E. Roach, Joseph W. Chamberlain and named by them for Robert John Strutt, 4th Baron Rayleigh who first discovered the glow of the night sky; the symbol for the unit is R like the unrelated Roentgen unit. Franklin Roach spent a year in Paris in 1951-2 on a Fulbright Fellowship investigating night-sky research. Roach worked with a European pioneer, Daniel Barbier, in this same field. Roach, who had a gentle personality, worked early in his career with Otto Struve. Struve had an abrasive personality, spared no words upon his victims. Struve encouraged the removal of the existing Director of Yerkes Observatory and facilitated his own appointment to the same position, despite Frost inviting Struve to come to Yerkes when Struve at that time only spoke Russian and was destitute in Turkey and Greece after escaping the Russian Revolution.

On July 1, 1932 Struve succeeded Edwin Brant Frost as Director of Yerkes Observatory. Roach, a graduate student at Yerkes in an office on that date, had the following encounter with Struve while measuring a spectogram authorized by the existing Director Frost earlier that morning: Version in Yerkes:Roach: Good morning, Mr. Struve. Struve: Good morning. What are you doing? Roach: I'm measuring a spectogram. Struve: What star is it? Roach: β Lyrae. Struve: Who told you to measure that spectogram? Roach: Mr. Frost did. Struve: From now on I'll tell you what stars to measure! Version in Musings:S. "What are you doing?"R. "I'm measuring a spectogram" S. "What is the star?" R. "Beta Lyrae" S. "Who told you to measure it?" R. "Mr. Frost suggested it." S. "From now on you do what I say." Roach contributed in part to several important books. Two elucidating on the subject of airglow would serve as foundation volumes in the field of upper atmosphere science: Aurora and Airglow edited by B. M. McCormac, The Light of the Night Sky.

Another one with a scientific approach to ufology in the early 1970s would serve as a foundation volume for that field of exploratory science: UFO's: A Scientific Debate edited by Carl Sagan and Thornton Page. On the general front, he would write the chapter "Aurora and Airglow" in the Scientific American book The Planet Earth for the popular audience. While still associated with "Rutgers, The State University" in Newark, New Jersey and the University of Hawaii in Honolulu, Hawaii Roach served as the principal author, along with co-author Janet L. Gordon, in a successful book which served as an important early volume in the series Geophysics and Astrophysics Monographs. Gordon proofread and edited Roach's work, wrote the historical sections to provide further context. Gordon was married with Roach in 1977; the volume was published in December 1973 and became the fourth volume in this international series of fundamental monograph textbooks on the subjects of geophysics and astrophysics. Roach's and Gordon's volume was entitled The Light of the Night Sky and dealt with the subject of the composition of the lighted sky itself in the topical subject area "the light of the night sky".

It gave scientific presentations with a fundamental overview of the atmospheric processes and interstellar physics involved on Earth's nightside. The preface was prepared in August 1973 and Roach was still writing chapters in September. Topics discussed included the dark adaptation of the eye, star counts and the distribution of starlight over the sky, the polarization of the "Zodiacal Light", the study of "The Gegenschein". Further discussions concerned whether the nightglow was a static or dynamic phenomena, the sources or causes of nightglow, the photochemical reactions in Earth's upper atmosphere, the appearance of the nightglow from space in Earth's exosphere and geocorona; the book dealt with the polar aurora, auroral arcs, the varying brightness of the "Nightglow Layer" depending on zenithal distance, dust-scattered starlight, the diffuse galactic light, dust in the interplanetary and interstellar environment concerning the "Zodiacal Dust Cloud", interstellar dust. The text ended with a summation concerning the cosmic light between galaxies and the contemplative topi

Kosum Phisai District

Kosum Phisai District is a district in the northern part of Maha Sarakham Province, northeastern Thailand. Neighboring districts are: Chiang Yuen, Mueang Maha Sarakham and Kut Rang of Maha Sarakham Province: Ban Phai, Ban Haet, Mueang Khon Kaen of Khon Kaen Province. Kosum Phisai is divided into 17 sub-districts, which are further subdivided into 235 administrative villages. There is one sub-district municipality in the district: Kosum Phisai consisting of parts of sub-district Hua Khwang. There are 17 sub-district administrative organizations in the district: Hua Khwang consisting of parts of sub-district Hua Khwang. Yang Noi consisting of sub-district Yang Noi. Wang Yao consisting of sub-district Wang Yao. Khwao Rai consisting of sub-district Khwao Rai. Phaeng consisting of sub-district Phaeng. Kaeng Kae consisting of sub-district Kaeng Kae. Nong Lek consisting of sub-district Nong Lek. Nong Bua consisting of sub-district Nong Bua. Lao consisting of sub-district Lao. Khuean consisting of sub-district Khuean.

Nong Bon consisting of sub-district Nong Bon. Phon Ngam consisting of sub-district Phon Ngam. Yang Tha Chaeng consisting of sub-district Yang Tha Chaeng. Hae Tai consisting of sub-district Hae Tai. Nong Kung Sawan consisting of sub-district Nong Kung Sawan. Loeng Tai consisting of sub-district Loeng Tai. Don Klang consisting of sub-district Don Klang.