Pope Pius I
Pope Pius I is said to have been the Bishop of Rome from c. 140 to his death c. 154, according to the Annuario Pontificio. His dates are listed as 146 to 157 or 161, respectively. Pius is believed to have been born in Northern Italy, during the late 1st century, his father was an Italian called "Rufinus", a native of Aquileia according to the Liber Pontificalis. According to the 2nd century Muratorian Canon and the Liberian Catalogue, that he was the brother of Hermas, author of the text known as The Shepherd of Hermas; the writer of the text identifies himself as a former slave. This has led to speculation that both Pius were freedmen; however Hermas' statement that he was a slave may just mean that he belonged to a low-ranking plebeian family. According to Catholic tradition, St Pius I governed the Church in the middle of the 2nd century during the reigns of the Emperors Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius, he is held to be the ninth successor of Saint Peter, who decreed that Easter should only be kept on a Sunday.
Although credited with ordering the publication of the Liber Pontificalis, compilation of that document was not started before the beginning of the 6th century. He is said to have built one of the oldest churches in Rome, Santa Pudenziana. Saint Justin taught Christian doctrine in Rome during the theoretical pontificate of St Pius I but the account of his martyrdom indicates there was no Roman bishop present there; the heretics Valentinus and Marcion visited Rome during that period. Catholic apologists see this as an argument for the primacy of the Roman See during the 2nd century. Pope Pius I is believed to have opposed the Valentinians and Gnostics under Marcion, whom he excommunicated. There is some conjecture that he was a martyr in Rome, a conjecture that entered earlier editions of the Roman Breviary; the study that had produced the 1969 revision of the General Roman Calendar stated that there were no grounds for his consideration as a martyr, he is not presented as such in the Roman Martyrology.
Pius I's feast day is 11 July. In the Tridentine Calendar it was given the rank of "Simple" and celebrated as the feast of a martyr; the rank of the feast was reduced to a Commemoration in the 1955 General Roman Calendar of Pope Pius XII and the General Roman Calendar of 1960. Though no longer mentioned in the General Roman Calendar, Saint Pius I may now, according to the rules in the present-day Roman Missal, be celebrated everywhere on his feast day as a Memorial, unless in some locality an obligatory celebration is assigned to that day. List of Catholic saints List of popes "Lives of the Saints, For Every Day of the Year," edited by Rev. Hugo Hoever, S. O. Cist. Ph. D. New York: Catholic Book Publishing Co. 1955, pp 511
Pope Leo IX
Pope Leo IX, born Bruno of Egisheim-Dagsburg, was Pope from 12 February 1049 to his death in 1054. He was a powerful ruler of central Italy while holding the papacy, he is regarded as a saint by the Catholic Church, his feast day celebrated on 19 April. Leo IX is considered the most significant German Pope of the Middle Ages, he was a native of Egisheim, Upper Alsace. His family was of noble rank, his father, Count Hugh, was a cousin of Emperor Conrad II, he was educated at Toul. In the latter capacity he rendered important political services to his relative Conrad II, afterwards to Emperor Henry III, he became known as an earnest and reforming ecclesiastic by the zeal he showed in spreading the rule of the order of Cluny. On the death of Pope Damasus II in 1048, Bruno was selected as his successor by an assembly at Worms in December. Both the Emperor and the Roman delegates concurred. However, Bruno favored a canonical election and stipulated as a condition of his acceptance that he should first proceed to Rome and be elected by the voice of the clergy and people of Rome.
Setting out shortly after Christmas, he met with abbot Hugh of Cluny at Besançon, where he was joined by the young monk Hildebrand, who afterwards became Pope Gregory VII. Leo IX favored traditional morality in his reformation of the Catholic Church. One of his first public acts was to hold the well-known Easter synod of 1049, at which celibacy of the clergy was required anew; the Easter synod was where the Pope at least succeeded in making clear his own convictions against every kind of simony. The greater part of the year that followed was occupied in one of those progresses through Italy and France which form a marked feature in Leo IX's pontificate. After presiding over a synod at Pavia, he joined Henry III in Saxony and accompanied him to Cologne and Aachen, he summoned a meeting of the higher clergy in Reims in which several important reforming decrees were passed. At Mainz he held a council at which the Italian and French as well as the German clergy were represented, ambassadors of the Greek emperor were present.
Here too and the marriage of the clergy were the principal matters dealt with. After his return to Rome he held another Easter synod on 29 April 1050, it was occupied with the controversy about the teachings of Berengar of Tours. In the same year he presided over provincial synods at Salerno and Vercelli, in September revisited his native Germany, returning to Rome in time for a third Easter synod, at which the question of the reordination of those, ordained by simonists was considered. In 1052 he joined the Emperor at Pressburg and vainly sought to secure the submission of the Hungarians. At Regensburg and Worms, the papal presence was celebrated with various ecclesiastical solemnities. In early 1053, Leo arbitrated a dispute between the archbishop of Carthage and the bishop of Gummi-Mahdia over ecclesiastical precedence. In constant fear of attack from the Normans in the south of Italy, the Byzantines turned in desperation to the Normans' own spiritual chief, Pope Leo IX, according to William of Apulia, begged him "to liberate Italy that now lacks its freedom and to force that wicked people, who are pressing Apulia under their yoke, to leave."
After a fourth Easter synod in 1053, Leo IX set out against the Normans in the south with an army of Italians and Swabian mercenaries. "As fervent Christians the Normans were reluctant to fight their spiritual leader and tried to sue for peace but the Swabians mocked them – battle was inevitable."Leo IX led the army himself, but his forces suffered total defeat at the Battle of Civitate on 15 June 1053. Nonetheless, on going out from the city to meet the victorious enemy he was received with every token of submission, pleas for forgiveness and oaths of fidelity and homage. From June 1053 to March 1054 the Pope was held hostage at Benevento, in honourable captivity, until he acknowledged the Normans conquests in Calabria and Apulia, he did not long survive his return to Rome, where he died on 19 April 1054. Michael Cærularius, through the metropolitan of Bulgaria wrote to the pope denouncing the use of unleavened bread and fasting days in the Latin church, and afterwards closed down the Latin rite churches of Constantinople and stopped remembrance for the Pope in the diptychs and wrote letters to the other patriarchs against the pope. to which he earned denouncement from the Patriarch of Antioch, Peter III for trying to incite schism within the church.
Leo IX sent a letter to Michael Cærularius, Patriarch of Constantinople, in 1054, that cited a large portion of the Donation of Constantine, believing it genuine. The official status of this letter is acknowledged in the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume 5, entry on Donation of Constantine, page 120: "The first pope who used it in an official act and relied upon it, was Leo IX.
Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western and Central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars. The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany, though it came to include the neighboring Kingdom of Bohemia, the Kingdom of Burgundy, the Kingdom of Italy, numerous other territories. On 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne as Emperor, reviving the title in Western Europe, more than three centuries after the fall of the earlier ancient Western Roman Empire in 476; the title continued in the Carolingian family until 888 and from 896 to 899, after which it was contested by the rulers of Italy in a series of civil wars until the death of the last Italian claimant, Berengar I, in 924. The title was revived again in 962 when Otto I was crowned emperor, fashioning himself as the successor of Charlemagne and beginning a continuous existence of the empire for over eight centuries.
Some historians refer to the coronation of Charlemagne as the origin of the empire, while others prefer the coronation of Otto I as its beginning. Scholars concur, however, in relating an evolution of the institutions and principles constituting the empire, describing a gradual assumption of the imperial title and role; the exact term "Holy Roman Empire" was not used until the 13th century, but the concept of translatio imperii, the notion that he—the sovereign ruler—held supreme power inherited from the ancient emperors of Rome, was fundamental to the prestige of the emperor. The office of Holy Roman Emperor was traditionally elective, although controlled by dynasties; the German prince-electors, the highest-ranking noblemen of the empire elected one of their peers as "King of the Romans", he would be crowned emperor by the Pope. The empire never achieved the extent of political unification as was formed to the west in France, evolving instead into a decentralized, limited elective monarchy composed of hundreds of sub-units: kingdoms, duchies, prince-bishoprics, Free Imperial Cities, other domains.
The power of the emperor was limited, while the various princes, lords and cities of the empire were vassals who owed the emperor their allegiance, they possessed an extent of privileges that gave them de facto independence within their territories. Emperor Francis II dissolved the empire on 6 August 1806 following the creation of the Confederation of the Rhine by emperor Napoleon I the month before. In various languages the Holy Roman Empire was known as: Latin: Sacrum Imperium Romanum, German: Heiliges Römisches Reich, Italian: Sacro Romano Impero, Czech: Svatá říše římská, Polish: Święte imperium rzymskie, Slovene: Sveto rimsko cesarstvo, Dutch: Heilige Roomse Rijk, French: Saint-Empire romain. Before 1157, the realm was referred to as the Roman Empire; the term sacrum in connection with the medieval Roman Empire was used beginning in 1157 under Frederick I Barbarossa: the term was added to reflect Frederick's ambition to dominate Italy and the Papacy. The form "Holy Roman Empire" is attested from 1254 onward.
In a decree following the 1512 Diet of Cologne, the name was changed to the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, a form first used in a document in 1474. The new title was adopted because the Empire had lost most of its Italian and Burgundian territories to the south and west by the late 15th century, but to emphasize the new importance of the German Imperial Estates in ruling the Empire due to the Imperial Reform. By the end of the 18th century, the term "Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation" had fallen out of official use. Besides, contradicting the traditional view concerning that designation, Hermann Weisert has stated in a study on imperial titulature that, despite the claim of many textbooks, the name "Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation" never had an official status and points out that documents were thirty times as to omit the national suffix as include it. This, or the shortened "Roman Empire of the German Nation", is used in Germany to refer to the Holy Roman Empire. In a famous assessment of the name, the political philosopher Voltaire remarked sardonically: "This body, called and which still calls itself the Holy Roman Empire was in no way holy, nor Roman, nor an empire."
As Roman power in Gaul declined during the 5th century, local Germanic tribes assumed control. In the late 5th and early 6th centuries, the Merovingians, under Clovis I and his successors, consolidated Frankish tribes and extended hegemony over others to gain control of northern Gaul and the middle Rhine river valley region. By the middle of the 8th century, the Merovingians had been reduced to figureheads, the Carolingians, led by Charles Martel, had become the de facto rulers. In 751, Martel's son Pepin became King of the Franks, gained the sanction of the Pope; the Carolingians would maintain a close alliance with the Papacy. In 768, Pepin's son Charlemagne became King of the Franks and began an extensive expansion of the realm, he incorporated the territories of present-day France, northern Italy, beyond, linking the Frankish kingdom with Papal lands. In 797, the Eastern Roman Emperor Constantine VI was removed from the throne by his mother Irene who declared herself Empress; as the Church regarded a male Roman Emperor as the head of Christendom, Pope
A papal legate or apostolic legate is a personal representative of the pope to foreign nations, or to some part of the Catholic Church. He is empowered for the settlement of ecclesiastical matters; the legate is appointed directly by the pope. Hence a legate is sent to a government, a sovereign or to a large body of believers or to take charge of a major religious effort, such as an council, a crusade to the Holy Land, or against a heresy such as the Cathars; the term legation is applied both to the territory concerned. The relevant adjective is legatine. In the High Middle Ages, papal legates were used to strengthen the links between Rome and the many parts of Christendom. More than not, legates were learned men and skilled diplomats who were not from the country they were accredited to; the Italian-born Guala Bicchieri served as papal legate to England in the early 13th century and played a major role in both the English government and church at the time. By the Late Middle Ages it had become more common to appoint native clerics to the position of legate within their own country, such as Cardinal Wolsey acting as legate to the court of Henry VIII of England.
The reason for this switch in policy could be attributed to a change in attitude on the eve of The Reformation. Papal legates summoned legatine councils, which dealt with church government and other ecclesiastical issues. According to Pope Gregory VII, writing in the Dictatus papae, a papal legate "presides over all bishops in a council if he is inferior in rank, he can pronounce sentence of deposition against them". During the Middle Ages, a legatine council was the usual means that a papal legate imposed his directives. There are several ranks of papal legates in diplomacy; the most common form of papal legate today is the apostolic nuncio, whose task it is to strengthen relations between the Holy See and the Roman Catholic Church in a particular country and at the same time to act as the diplomatic representative of the Holy See to the government of that country. An apostolic nuncio is equivalent in rank to that of ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary, although in Catholic countries the nuncio ranks above ambassadors in diplomatic protocol.
A nuncio has the same diplomatic privileges. Under the 1961 Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, to which the Holy See is a party, a nuncio is an ambassador like those from any other country; the Vienna Convention allows the host state to grant seniority of precedence to the nuncio over others of ambassadorial rank accredited to the same country, may grant the deanship of that country's diplomatic corps to the nuncio regardless of seniority. Pro-nuncio was a term used from 1965 to 1991 for a papal diplomatic representative of full ambassadorial rank accredited to a country that did not accord him precedence over other ambassadors and ex officio deanship of the diplomatic corps. In those countries, the papal representative's precedence within the corps is on a par with that of the other members of ambassadorial rank, so that he becomes dean only on becoming the senior member of the corps. For countries with which the Holy See has no diplomatic relations, an apostolic delegate is sent to serve as a liaison with the Catholic Church in that country, though not accredited to its government.
This highest rank is awarded to a priest of cardinal rank. It can either be focused or broad in scope; the legate a latere is the alter ego of the Pope, as such, possesses full plenipotentiary powers. "born legate", i.e. not nominated individually but ex officio, namely a bishop holding this rank as a privilege of his see, e.g. archbishops of Canterbury, Esztergom, Salzburg and Cologne. The legatus natus would act as the pope's representative in his province, with a legatus a latere only being sent in extraordinary circumstances. Although limited in their jurisdiction compared to legati a latere, a legatus natus were not subordinate to them. "sent legate", possessing limited powers for the purpose of completing a specific mission. This commission is focused in scope and of short duration; some administrative provinces of the Papal states in Italy were governed by a Papal Legate. This has been the case in Pontecorvo and in Viterbo. In four cases, including Bologna, this post was awarded to Cardinals.
The title could be changed to Apostolic Delegate, as happened in Frosinone in 1827. Papal diplomacyNuncio – an envoy whose diplomatic status is recognized by the receiving state – a titular archbishop. Internuncio – a lower rank than Nuncio for a papal diplomatic representative, a title used at a time when states sent to some less important countries diplomatic representatives, called Envoys or Ministers, lower in rank than Ambassadors. Papal apocrisiarius List of papal legates to EnglandOtherPontifical legate Catholic Encyclopedia: Legate WorldStatesmen - Italy to 1860 - Papal State Maseri, Pellegrino. De Legatis et Nunciis Apostolicis Iudiciis Ecclesiasticis Civilibus
Celibacy is the state of voluntarily being unmarried, sexually abstinent, or both for religious reasons. It is in association with the role of a religious official or devotee. In its narrow sense, the term celibacy is applied only to those for whom the unmarried state is the result of a sacred vow, act of renunciation, or religious conviction. In a wider sense, it is understood to only mean abstinence from sexual activity. Celibacy has existed in one form or another throughout history, in all the major religions of the world, views on it have varied; the Romans viewed it as an aberration and legislated fiscal penalties against it, with the sole exception granted to the Vestal Virgins. The Islamic attitudes toward celibacy have been complex as well; some Hadiths claim that Muhammad denounced celibacy. Classical Hindu culture encouraged asceticism and celibacy in the stages of life, after one has met his societal obligations. Jainism, on the other hand, preached complete celibacy for young monks and considered celibacy to be an essential behavior to attain moksha.
Buddhism has been influenced by Jainism in this respect. There were, significant cultural differences in the various areas where Buddhism spread, which affected the local attitudes toward celibacy, it was not well received in China, for example, where other religions movements such as Daoism were opposed to it. A somewhat similar situation existed in Japan, where the Shinto tradition opposed celibacy. In most native African and American Indian religious traditions, celibacy has been viewed negatively as well, although there were exceptions like periodic celibacy practiced by some Mesoamerican warriors; the English word celibacy derives from the Latin caelibatus, "state of being unmarried", from Latin caelebs, meaning "unmarried". This word derives from two Proto-Indo-European stems, *kaiwelo- "alone" and *libs- "living"; the words abstinence and celibacy are used interchangeably, but are not the same thing. Sexual abstinence known as continence, is abstaining from some or all aspects of sexual activity for some limited period of time, while celibacy may be defined as a voluntary religious vow not to marry or engage in sexual activity.
Asexuality is conflated with celibacy and sexual abstinence, but it is considered distinct from the two, as celibacy and sexual abstinence are behavioral and those who use those terms for themselves are motivated by factors such as an individual's personal or religious beliefs. A. W. Richard Sipe, while focusing on the topic of celibacy in Catholicism, states that "the most assumed definition of celibate is an unmarried or single person, celibacy is perceived as synonymous with sexual abstinence or restraint." Sipe adds that in the uniform milieu of Catholic priests in the United States "there is no clear operational definition of celibacy". Elizabeth Abbott commented on the terminology in her A History of Celibacy: "I drafted a definition that discarded the rigidly pedantic and unhelpful distinctions between celibacy and virginity"; the concept of "new celibacy" was introduced by Gabrielle Brown in her 1980 book The New Celibacy. In a revised version of her book, she claims that "abstinence is a response on the outside to what's going on, celibacy is a response from the inside".
According to her definition, celibacy is much more than not having sex. It is more intentional than abstinence, its goal is personal growth and empowerment; this new perspective on celibacy is echoed by several authors including Elizabeth Abbott, Wendy Keller, Wendy Shalit. The rule of celibacy in the Buddhist religion, whether Theravada, has a long history. Celibacy was advocated as an ideal rule of life for all monks and nuns by Gautama Buddha, except for Japan where it is not followed due to historical and political developments following the Meiji Restoration. In Japan, celibacy was an ideal among Buddhist clerics for hundreds of years, but violations of clerical celibacy were so common for so long that in 1872, state laws made marriage legal for Buddhist clerics. Subsequently, ninety percent of Buddhist monks/clerics married. An example is Higashifushimi Kunihide, a prominent Buddhist priest of Japanese royal ancestry, married and a father whilst serving as a monk for most of his lifetime.
Gautama known as the Buddha, is known for his renunciation of his wife, Princess Yasodharā, son, Rahula. In order to pursue an ascetic life, he needed to renounce aspects of the impermanent world, including his wife and son. On both his wife and son joined the ascetic community and are mentioned in the Buddhist texts to have become enlightened. In another sense, a buddhavacana recorded the zen patriarch Vimalakirti as being an advocate of marital continence instead of monastic renunciation, the sutra became somewhat popular due to its brash humour as well as integrating the role of women in laity as well as spiritual life. In the religious movement of Brahma Kumaris, celibacy is promoted for peace and to defeat power of lust and to prepare for life in forthcoming Heaven on earth for 2,500 years when children will be created by the power of the mind for householders to like holy brother and sister. In this belief system, celibacy is given the utmost importance, it is said that, as per the direction of the Supreme God those lead a pure and celibate life will be able to conquer the surging vices.
The power of celibacy creates an unseen environment of divinity bringing peace, purity and fortune. Those with the powe
Monte Cassino is a rocky hill about 130 kilometres southeast of Rome, in the Latin Valley, Italy, 2 kilometres to the west of the town of Cassino and 520 m altitude. Site of the Roman town of Casinum, it is best known for its abbey, the first house of the Benedictine Order, having been established by Benedict of Nursia himself around 529, it was for the community of Monte Cassino. The first monastery on Monte Cassino was abandoned. Of the first monastery nothing is known; the second monastery was established by Petronax of Brescia around 718, at the suggestion of Pope Gregory II and with the support of the Lombard Duke Romuald II of Benevento. It was directly subject to the pope and many monasteries in Italy were under its authority. In 883 the monastery was abandoned again; the community of monks resided first at Teano and from 914 at Capua before the monastery was rebuilt in 949. During the period of exile, the Cluniac Reforms were introduced into the community; the 11th and 12th centuries were the abbey's golden age.
It acquired a large secular territory around Monte Cassino, the so-called Terra Sancti Benedicti, which it fortified with castles. It maintained good relations with the Eastern Church receiving patronage from Byzantine emperors, it encouraged fine art and craftsmanship by employing Byzantine and Saracen artisans. In 1057, Pope Victor II recognised the abbot of Monte Cassino as having precedence over all other abbots. Many monks rose to become bishops and cardinals, three popes were drawn from the abbey: Stephen IX, Victor III and Gelasius II. During this period the monastery's chronicle was written by two of its own, Cardinal Leo of Ostia and Peter the Deacon. By the 13th century, the monastery's decline had set in. In 1239, the Emperor Frederick II garrisoned troops in it during his war with the Papacy. In 1322, Pope John XXII elevated the abbey into a bishopric but this was suppressed in 1367; the buildings were destroyed by an earthquake in 1349, in 1369 Pope Urban V demanded a contribution from all Benedictine monasteries to fund the rebuilding.
In 1454 the abbey was placed in commendam and in 1504 was made subject to the Abbey of Santa Giustina in Padua. In 1799, Monte Cassino was sacked again by French troops during the French Revolutionary Wars; the abbey was dissolved by the Italian government in 1866. The building became a national monument with the monks as custodians of its treasures. In 1944 during World War II it was the site of the Battle of Monte Cassino and the building was destroyed by Allied bombing, it was rebuilt after the war. After the reforms of the Second Vatican Council the monastery was one of the few remaining territorial abbeys within the Catholic Church. On 23 October 2014, Pope Francis applied the norms of the motu proprio Ecclesia Catholica of Paul VI to the abbey, removing from its jurisdiction all 53 parishes and reducing its spiritual jurisdiction to the abbey itself—while retaining its status as a territorial abbey; the former territory of the Abbey, except the land on which the abbey church and monastery sit, was transferred to the diocese of Sora-Cassino-Aquino-Pontecorvo.
The history of Monte Cassino is linked to the nearby town of Cassino, first settled in the fifth century B. C. by the Volsci people who held much of central and southern Italy. It was the Volsci; the Volsci in the area were defeated by the Romans in 312 B. C; the Romans built a temple to Apollo at the citadel. Modern excavations have found no remains of the temple, but ruins of an amphitheatre, a theatre, a mausoleum indicate the lasting presence the Romans had there. Generations after the Roman Empire adopted Christianity the town became the seat of a bishopric in the fifth century A. D. Lacking strong defences the area was subject to barbarian attack and became abandoned and neglected with only a few struggling inhabitants holding out. According to Gregory the Great's biography of Benedict, Life of Saint Benedict of Nursia, the monastery was constructed on an older pagan site, a temple of Apollo that crowned the hill; the biography records that the area was still pagan at the time. He reused the temple, dedicating it to Saint Martin, built another chapel on the site of the altar dedicated to Saint John the Baptist.
Pope Gregory I's account of Benedict's seizure of Monte Cassino: "Now the citadel called Casinum is located on the side of a high mountain. The mountain shelters this citadel on a broad bench, it rises three miles above it as if its peak tended toward heaven. There was an ancient temple there in which Apollo used to be worshipped according to the old pagan rite by the foolish local farmers. Around it had grown up a grove dedicated to demon worship, where at that time a wild crowd still devoted themselves to unholy sacrifices; when the man of God arrived, he smashed the idol, overturned the altar and cut down the grove of trees. He built a chapel dedicated to St. Martin in the temple of Apollo and another to St. John where the altar of Apollo had stood, and he summoned the people of the district to the faith by his unceasing preaching." Pope Gregory I's biography of Benedict claims. In one story, Satan invisibly sits on a rock making it too heavy to remove until Benedict drives him off. In another story, Satan taunts Benedict and collapses a wall on a young monk, br
Thomas Forrest Kelly
Thomas Forrest Kelly is an American musicologist and scholar. He is the Morton B. Knafel Professor of Music at Harvard University, his most recent books include: The Role of the Scroll, Capturing Music: The Story of Notation, Music Then and Now. Thomas Forrest Kelly was born in North Carolina, he attended Groton School, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Two years in France on a Fulbright grant allowed him to study organ with Jean Langlais and at the Schola Cantorum de Paris, the Royal Academy of Music, his graduate study was at Harvard University. Kelly is Morton B. Knafel Professor of Music at Harvard University, where he served as Chair of the Music Department from 1999 to 2004. In 2005 he was named a Harvard College Professor in recognition of his teaching of undergraduates. Before coming to Harvard he taught at Oberlin Conservatory. From 1972 to 1979 he taught at Wellesley College, he was a Visiting Scholar at King's College, Cambridge and a Professeur invité at the École pratique des hautes études, Paris.
Kelly is a Chevalier of the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres of the French Republic, 2010. He is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Academy in Rome, the Medieval Academy of America, he has held awards from the National Endowment for the Humanities and the American Council of Learned Societies. His book The Beneventan Chant was awarded the Otto Kinkeldey Award of the American Musicological Society for the most distinguished work of musicological scholarship of 1989, he received a Distinguished Alumnus Award from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in 2005. Kelly is an honorary citizen of the city of Benevento. In addition to the performance and conducting connected with his teaching, Kelly was the Artistic Director of the Castle Hill Festival. Kelly has two principal areas of interest: medieval music and culture, the performance of music of the past, he is broadcaster. He has given regular series of talks for the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the New York Philharmonic, the Smithsonian Institution, the Los Angeles Philharmonic, others.
He has had a regular radio show, well as many guest appearances. The Role of the Scroll: An Illustrated Introduction to Scrolls in the Middle Ages. Capturing Music; the Story of Notation First Nights: Five Musical Premieres First Nights at the Opera Early Music: A Very Short Introduction. Music Then and Now; the Beneventan Chant Awarded the Otto Kinkeldey Prize of the American Musicological Society. Paperback edition 2009; the Exultet in Southern Italy The Ordinal of Montecassino and Benevento: Breviarium sive ordo officiorum, 11th century Les témoins manuscrits du chant bénéventain: le répertoire subsistant de l'ancienne liturgie de l'Italie du sud reproduit d'après tous les témoins manuscrits connus The Practice of Medieval Music. The Sources of Benevantan Chant; the Cambridge History of Medieval Music: in preparation, Cambridge University Press. Ambrosiana at Harvard. Co-edited with Matthew Mugmon; the Century of Bach and Mozart: Perspectives on Historiography, Composition and Performance, in Honor of Christoph Wolff Co-edited with Sean Gallagher.
Music in Medieval Europe A 7-volume reference and reprint series of which Kelly is general editor and editor for the two volumes below. Oral and Written Transmission in Chant. Chant and its Origins. La Cathédrale de Bénévent, sous la direction de Thomas Forrest Kelly, Esthétiques et Rituels des Cathédrales d'Europe Kelly edited the volume and contributed the introduction and one chapter. Plainsong in the Age of Polyphony. Essays with an introduction by Thomas Forrest Kelly. Kelly has published more than 50 scholarly articles. Thomas Forrest Kelly's Website Harvard Department of Music Website – Thomas Forrest Kelly