Pope Stephen VI

Pope Stephen VI was Pope from 22 May 896 to his death in 897. He had been made bishop of Anagni by Pope Formosus against his will; the circumstances of his election as pope are unclear, but he was sponsored by one of the powerful Roman families, the house of Spoleto, that contested the papacy at the time. Stephen is chiefly remembered in connection with his conduct towards the remains of Pope Formosus, his penultimate predecessor; the rotting corpse of Formosus was exhumed and put on trial, before an unwilling synod of the Roman clergy, in the so-called Cadaver Synod in January 897. Pressure from the Spoleto contingent and Stephen's fury with his predecessor precipitated this extraordinary event. With the corpse propped up on a throne, a deacon was appointed to answer for the deceased pontiff. During the trial, Formosus's corpse was condemned for performing the functions of a bishop when he had been deposed and for receiving the pontificate while he was the bishop of Porto, among other revived charges, levelled against him in the strife during the pontificate of John VIII.

The corpse was found guilty, stripped of its sacred vestments, deprived of three fingers of its right hand, clad in the garb of a layman, buried. All ordinations performed by Formosus were annulled; the trial excited a tumult. Though the instigators of the deed may have been Formosus' enemies of the House of Spoleto, who had recovered their authority in Rome at the beginning of 897 by renouncing their broader claims in central Italy, the scandal ended in Stephen's imprisonment and his death by strangling that summer. List of Catholic saints List of popes List of popes who died violently This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Pope Stephen VII". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton

Turks in France

Turks in France or French Turks refers to the Turkish people who live in France. Most French Turks either descend from Turkey; the first Turks settled in France during the 16th and 17th century as galley slaves and merchants from the Ottoman Empire. According to Jean Marteilhe "…the Turks of Asia and Europe...of whom there are a great many in the galley of France, who have been made slaves by the Imperialists, sold to the French to man their galleys… are well-made, fair in feature, wise in their conduct, zealous in the observance of their religion and charitable in the highest degree. I have seen them give away all the money they possessed to buy a bird in a cage that they might have the pleasure of giving it its liberty". France signed a bilateral labour recruitment agreement with Turkey on 8 May 1965 because the number of entrants from other countries such as Italy and Portugal was not sufficient. However, in practice, France started to recruit Turkish labourers in the 1970s, until a decision was made to halt the recruitment on 3 July 1974.

By 1975 there were 55,710 Turkish workers living in France, this had quadrupled to 198,000 in 1999. The majority of Turkish immigrants came from rural areas of Turkey from central Anatolia; the majority of Turks are concentrated in eastern France. There is a strong Turkish presence in Île-de-France, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Rhône-Alpes and Lorraine. There is a large community in Marseille; the 10th arrondissement of Paris is steeped with Turkish culture and is called "La Petite Turquie". Bischwiller, in Alsace, is dubbed "Turkwiller" due to its large Turkish community. According to the French census there was 8,000 Turks living in France in 1968, this had increased to 51,000 in 1975, 123,000 in 1982, 198,000 in 1990, 208,000 in 1999; the French censuses only collect data based on the country of birth, these figures only identify the number of Turkish immigrants from Turkey and does not include the children of immigrants born in France who are recorded as "French" rather than "Turkish". Furthermore, the Turkish population would be greater if naturalised citizens and illegal emigrants were taken into account.

Turkish communities who have emigrated to France from other countries, such as Algeria, Bulgaria and Tunisia, are recorded according to their country of origin rather than their Turkish ethnicity. In the early 2000s academics placed the Turkish population at 500,000. Since the 2010s, immigration flows from Turkey have been increasing faster than flows from Algeria and Morocco; the Turkish population increases by 20,000 each year, although in 2013 it increased a further 35,000. In 2014 the L'Express estimated; the Fransa Diyanet İşleri Türk İslam Birliği suggests that the actual Turkish population in France is about 1 million, including descendants. The Armenian Weekly has stated that "there are about a million French people of Turkish origin". There is a minority of Algerian Turks living in France who number in their thousands. Although the birth rates among Turks living in France has declined over the years they remain higher than the French population. In 1982, the average number of children for Turks was 5.2, compared with 1.8 for the French population.

By 1990, the average number of births for Turks was 3.7 compared to 1.7 for the French population. In 2000, Akıncı and Jisa found that Turkish is spoken at home by 77% of families, while 68% of children speak French to one another. Turkish children are monolingual in the Turkish language until they start school at the age of 2 or 3. By the age of 10, most children become dominant in the French language. Nonetheless for those who use French more than Turkish in their daily lives, numerous studies have shown that they still emphasize the importance of Turkish as the language of the family for raising children. Thus, there is a high degree of language maintenance in the Turkish community; the majority of Turks adhere to Islam and focus on creating their own mosques and schools, most of which are linked to Turkey. Thus, Turks worship their religion with others within their community. Due to Turkish immigrants having a strong link to the Turkish state and much less knowledge of the French language, compared to other Muslim immigrants who have emigrated from French-speaking countries, Turks tend to build mosques where sermons are given in Turkish rather than French or Arabic.

The Turkish-Islamic Union for Religious Affairs, a branch of the Turkish state Bureau of Religious Affairs, promotes a "Turkish Islam", based upon a moderate, rational Islam of a secular state. The Diyanet has organic links to the "Coordination Committee of Muslim Turks in France", or CCMTF, which brings under its umbrella a total of 210 mosques, its major competing network of mosques is run by the Millî Görüş movement (

8th Infantry Division (Greece)

The 8th Infantry Division was an infantry division of the Hellenic Army. Active since the Balkan Wars, the division is most notable for its decisive role during the first days of the Greco-Italian War, when it stopped the initial Italian offensive, bought time for Greek reinforcements to arrive and turn the tide. In a wide-ranging army reorganization in 2013, the division was reduced in size to a brigade-level formation - the 8th Motorized Infantry Brigade; the 8th Infantry Division named the Epirus Division, was formed on 22 September 1912, during the First Balkan War, under the command of Major General Dimitrios Matthaiopoulos. On 22 January 1913 it was renamed as the 8th Infantry Division, its component units were the 15th Infantry Regiment, the 2nd Evzones Regiment and the Independent Cretan Regiment. It participated in the operations for the capture of Ioannina and the subsequent push into Northern Epirus, capturing Këlcyrë, Tepelenë, Përmet. In June 1913 it was moved to Thessaloniki, participated in the Second Balkan War against Bulgaria, capturing Paranesti and Komotini.

It remained on occupation duties in Western Thrace until the signing of the Treaty of Bucharest. In December it was placed on garrison duties, with its regiments dispersed at Preveza and Lefkada; the division remained in Epirus as the local garrison. It did not fight in the Macedonian front, nor in the Asia Minor Campaign, except for its 15th Infantry Regiment, its subordinate units throughout the subsequent interwar period were: the 15th Infantry Regiment at Ioannina, the 10th Infantry Regiment at Corfu, the 24th Infantry Regiment, the 3/40 Evzone Regiment at Preveza and Arta. Since 1930, the division bore sole responsibility for the defense of the Epirus sector of the Greco-Albanian border. Due to the relative military weakness of Albania, the sector was "quiet" and far less vital than the border with Bulgaria; this changed in April 1939, when Fascist Italy occupied Albania. Under its commander, Maj Gen Charalambos Katsimitros, the division engaged in a feverish activity of constructing fortifications and laying out defensive plans.

With the Italian invasion looming from August 1940 onwards, a limited mobilization was carried out, which brought the division up to strength and allowed for the reconstitution of the 24th Regiment as a separate unit. This fact, combined with Katsimitros' decision to insist on forward defense, would prove decisive factors in the rapid containment of the initial Italian main thrust into Epirus; the division was deployed in a defensive position stretching from the village of Elaia to the line of the river Kalamas, for six days, from November 2 to November 8 repelled the successive attacks by the XXV Italian Corps. By that point, the mobilization of the Greek reserves had been completed, in conjunction with the Greek victory in the Battle of Pindus, the division's victory at the Battle of Elaia–Kalamas signalled the failure of the Italian attack; the division fought throughout the subsequent Albanian campaign, but was dissolved along with the rest of the Greek Army after the German invasion in April 1941.

During the Axis occupation of Greece, the ELAS partisan army created an 8th Division, but this too was disbanded in early 1945. The 8th Division was formally reconstituted only in 1946, as the Hellenic Army started being rebuilt, from the forces of the Epirus Military Command, comprising the 74th, 75th and 76th brigades; until 1949, the division took part in the operations of the Greek Civil War as a part of the governmental National Army. The emblem the 8th Infantry Division is a bull within an oak wreath, taken from 3rd-century BCE coins of the Epirote League; the division's motto is NO, Ohi. The phrase was attributed to the Prime Minister of Greece, Ioannis Metaxas, on 28 October 1940, when he was given an ultimatum by Benito Mussolini to allow Italian troops to occupy strategic Greek sites or face war. Metaxas curtly replied in French: "Alors, c'est la guerre". However, according to popular legend, Metaxas told the Italian envoy in Greek, "Ohi!". The motto was given to the division in recognition of its decisive role in stopping the Italian advance during the early days of the Greco-Italian War