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Pope Urban I

Pope Urban I was Bishop of Rome or Pope from 222 to 23 May 230. He was born in Rome and succeeded Pope Callixtus I, martyred, it was believed for centuries that Urban I was martyred. However, recent historical discoveries now lead scholars to believe. Much of Urban's life is shrouded in mystery, leading to many misconceptions. Despite the lack of sources he is the first Pope whose reign can be dated. Two prominent sources do exist for Urban's pontificate: Eusebius' history of the early Church and an inscription in the Coemeterium Callisti which names the Pope. Urban ascended to the papacy in the year of the Roman Emperor Elagabalus' assassination and served during the reign of Alexander Severus, it is believed that Urban's pontificate was during a peaceful time for Christians in the Empire as Severus did not promote the persecution of Christianity. Urban is a saint of the Eastern Orthodox Church, it is believed that the schismatic Hippolytus was still leading a rival Christian congregation in Rome, that he published the Philosophumena, an attack on Pope Urban's predecessor Callixtus.

Urban is said to have maintained the hostile policy of Callixtus when dealing with the schismatic party. Due to the relative freedoms the Christian community had during Severus' reign the Church in Rome grew, leading to the belief that Urban was a skilled converter. A Papal decree concerning the donations of the faithful at Mass is attributed to Pope Urban: The gifts of the faithful that are offered to the Lord can only be used for ecclesiastical purposes, for the common good of the Christian community, for the poor, it had been believed that he was buried in the Coemetarium Praetextati where a tomb was inscribed with his name. However, when excavating the Catacomb of Callixtus Italian archaeologist Giovanni de Rossi uncovered the lid of a sarcophagus which suggested that Pope Urban was in fact buried there. De Rossi found a list of martyrs and confessors who were buried at St. Callistus', which contained Urban's name. De Rossi therefore concluded that the Urban buried in the Coemetarium Praetextati was another bishop and Pope Urban was located in Catacomb of St. Callistus.

While many historians accept this opinion, doubt remains since Pope Sixtus III's list of saints buried in St. Callistus' Catacomb does not include Urban in the succession of Popes but rather in a list of foreign bishops. Therefore, it is possible, his relic is located in Hungary in the Monok Roman Catholic Church. In 1773, Pope Clement XIV donated it to the Andrássy family; as no contemporary accounts of Urban's pontificate exist there have been many legends and acts attributed to him which are fictitious or difficult to ascertain the factual nature of. The legendary Acts of St. Cecilia and the Liber Pontificalis both contain information on Urban, although their reliability is doubtful. Chaucer made him a character in the Second Nun's Tale of the Canterbury Tales. A story, once included in the Catholic Church's Breviary states that Urban had many converts among whom were Tiburtius and his brother Valerianus, husband of Cecilia. Tradition credits Urban with the miracle of toppling an idol through prayer.

This event is believed to have led to Urban being beaten and tortured before being sentenced to death by beheading. A further belief, now known as an invention from the sixth century, was that Urban had ordered the making of silver liturgical vessels and the patens for twenty-five titular churches of his own time. Urban is found in various pieces of artwork in one of two forms, he is found sitting wearing the Papal Tiara, Papal robes and holding a sword pointed towards the ground. Otherwise Urban may be portrayed wearing Papal garb and a Bishop's Mitre while holding a bible and a bunch of grapes. An image of Pope Saint Urbanus is on a 12th-century fresco at Chalivoy-Milon in the Berry Art Gallery. Other less common depictions of Pope Urban are: after his beheading, with the papal tiara near him; as idols fall from a column while he is beheaded. List of Catholic saints List of popes

Kingdom Death: Monster

Kingdom Death: Monster is a cooperative board game created by Adam Poots and released in 2015. Kingdom Death: Monster is a strategy board game designed to be played by four players. In Kingdom Death: Monster, players take on the role of adventurers who survive an attack by a monstrous lion. Forming a settlement nearby, they celebrate this victory with a yearly lantern festival followed by a ceremonial hunt against another monster; the game is a story-driven campaign that takes place over 30 of these "lantern years". Most lantern years are divided into three phases: the hunt, the showdown, the settlement phase; as a complete game is estimated to take about 60 play hours to complete, the game is designed in a manner that allows the current state of the game after completing any of the above phases to be recorded and resume at the next play sessions, to swap players between sessions. One persistent element across all rounds are the player-characters that live in the settlement, which are created at the onset of the game or from other in-game events, can die from the Showdown phase or numerous other actions.

Each character has a set of attributes, including those typical of a tabletop role-playing game for combat such as strength and evasion, measures of the character's courage and understanding. Characters have an Insanity attribute. Characters have a number of Survival points, which are spent if the player wishes to avoid taking certain types of damage or to gain an advantage. During the game, characters can gain permanent injuries that affect their attributes or ability to participate in certain events, as well as disorders that have impacts on attributes and abilities during certain phases of the game. All these attributes persist between game sessions. In the Hunt Phase, the players select a quarry to hunt, at which level, they set up a series of randomly-drawn event cards, both generic and those tied to the specific monster on marked spaces along a linear game board, along with playing their character figures and the monster's on specific spaces as instructed by the game's manual. The players progress through these cards, moving their characters one space, flipping the card on the space, following the instructions and making any choices that the instructions require.

These might cause characters to be damaged before the hunt, to encounter the monster earlier or than expected, or grant other gains or losses prior to the showdown. When the characters move onto the space with the monster, or if the monster should be moved into their space, the Showdown Phase begins. In certain Lantern Years, as directed by Settlement events, players may be forced to encounter a Nemesis creature. In these cases, there is no Hunt phase and the game proceeds to the Showdown phase. In the Showdown Phase, the players face off against the monster in a manner typical of most tabletop role-playing games; each monster has a unique deck of Hit Location cards. The number of cards in the AI deck is equivalent to the monster's health; each Showdown has the players populate the game board with terrain tiles that can impact movement or provide cover. The Showdown Phase is divided with most rounds beginning with the monster's turn. Control of the monster passes between players after each round, while in most cases the player will follow the instructions given on cards and make dice rolls, the controlling player may need to make decisions for the monster that can favor the players, their current character gains an additional buff should the monster attack them.

The controller player draws an AI card which instructs which character the monster will target, what type of attack and damage that the monster can do, special moves that may occur if the attack is successful. Successful monster attacks will direct damage to parts of the character, the character may be killed by multiple damage to the same body part. After the monster's turn, all players take. A player can move their character and engage once with the monster each turn. A character's attack is determined by their gear and uses dice rolls to determine if a hit is made. On a successful hit or hits, the player draws a Hit Location card, describing where on the creature they struck, after which they roll a die to determine if they wounded the monster; the Hit Location card may include a trap card that nullifies all other hits and gives the monster an immediate attack, a reaction by the monster on a failure to wound, and/or a special bonus if the player roles a critical success. Players have a number of other actions they can take as they progress in the other parts of the game, such as dodging attacks or encouraging disabled teammates to get up at the cost of Survival points.

Turns continue in this manner until the AI deck is exhausted, at which point a further wound will defeat the monster. The players receive resources, or other rewards specific to the encounter. Any resources gained can be subsequently used in the Settlement

Fabrizio de Miranda

Fabrizio de Miranda was an Italian bridges and structural engineer and university professor. He graduated with a degree in civil engineering in 1950 from the University of Naples. Beginning in 1955 he introduced in Italy steel-concrete composite structures in the field of bridges, he planned the first motorway viaducts with steel structure on the Autostrada del Sole in Italy. In 1959, he became managing director of the largest Italian steelwork company, "Costruzioni Metalliche Finsider S.p. A." in Milan, under his management until 1967. From 1965 until 1996, he was professor of "Tecnica delle costruzioni" at Politecnico di Milano, he participated in numerous National and International Design Competitions of bridges including the first prize ex aequo to the International Competition for the Messina Bridge as member of the Lambertini Group. He was among the Founders and President of the Italian College of the Steel Structures Technicians. In 1968, he founded a Consulting Engineering Firm specializing in the design of Bridges and Structures.

During more than fifty years of professional activity, he designed hundreds of structures and bridges. Notable projects include the elevated highways in Genoa, in Fiorenza-Milan and in San Lorenzo-Rome, the viaducts and the Indiano Bridge across the Arno river near Florence, all in Italy, he died in Milan on 21 January 2015. De Miranda F. 1964, Hollow steel sections in the RAI-TV Centre-Turin, n. 12/1964 "Proceedings CIDECT 1964", London 1964. De Miranda F. 1966, The role of steelwork in Italian Multi-Storey Buildings – Proceedings B. C. S. A. Dec. 1966. De Miranda F. 1968, New concepts for elevated highways, Proceedings B. C. S. A. – London. 24–26 June 1968. De Miranda F. E Mele M. 1973, Some basic design principles for steel box girder bridges, In London 13-14 febbraio 1973. Proceedings Institution Civil Engineers. De Miranda F. et al. 1979, Basic problems in long span cable stayed bridges, – Rep. n. 25 – Department of Structures – University of CalabriaArcavacata, ill. 1979. Autori vari & De Miranda F. 1983, A contribution to the theory of long span cable-stayed bridges, 11e Congres Association Internationale des Ponts ed Charpentes.

De Miranda F. 1988, Design – Long Span Bridges, International Symposium on steel bridges. London, 24-25 marzo 1988. In "Costruzioni Metalliche" n. 4/1988. De Miranda F. 1991, Some basic problems in the design of long span cable stayed bridges, in Problemi avanzati nella costruzione dei ponti, a cura di G. Creazza e M. Mele, Collana di Ingegneria Strutturale n.7, pp. 91–120, Ed. CISM, Udine 1991. ISBN 88-85137-06-7. De Miranda F. 1991, The three Mentalities of Successful Bridge Design, in Bridge Aesthetics around the world, Ed. Transportation Research BoardNational Research Council, Washington, D. C. U. S. A. 1991. Renato Airoldi, Il concorso per il nuovo ponte sull'Adda a Paderno, in Casabella, n° 469, 1981, pp. 17–25 Doniselli I. Fabrizio De Miranda: ponti e strutture, in Costruzioni Metalliche, n° 5, 1994 Gigliola Meneghini, Fabrizio De Miranda nella storia dei ponti in acciaio, tesi di laurea, relatore Enzo Siviero, correlatore Stefania Casucci. – 1999. – 2 v.: ill.. Biblioteca Centrale IUAV TESI 1999 131-32.

Studio De Miranda Associati, Fabrizio de Miranda, raccolta delle pubblicazioni dal 1951 al 2004, Milano, 2004. L. Andreini, Ponte all'Indiano a Firenze, in Rassegna di Architettura e Urbanistica, n. 117,pp. 127–134, Università degli Studi "La Sapienza", Roma 2005. Centro Studi del Consiglio Nazionale degli Ingegneri, Fabrizio de Miranda, in L'ingegneria dei ponti del Novecento, Catalogo della Mostra itinerante del 2006, pp. 42–43, Gangemi Editore, Roma 2006. De Nardi Diego, Fabrizio De Miranda, Angelo Villa, Lodovico Tramontin. Il padiglione centrale della fiera di Pordenone, Ed. Il Poligrafo, 2006, ISBN 88-7115-511-4. Marcello Zordan, Il contributo di Fabrizio de Miranda alla costruzione metallica del secondo novecento in Italia, in Rassegna di Architettura e Urbanistica n. 121/122, pp. 149–158, Università degli studi "La Sapienza", Roma 2007. Gianluca Capurso e Patrizia Fermetti, Fabrizio de Miranda, in "Rassegna di Architettura e Urbanistica", n. 121/122, p. 165, Università degli Studi "La Sapienza", Roma 2007.

Biography of Fabrizio de Miranda from the Studio de Miranda Associati website Studio De Miranda Associati website Structurae database

The Wandas (album)

The Wandas is the second studio album by the Wandas, independently released in conjunction with the band's publishing company, TFMRA, LLC in 2011. It was featured in American Songwriter, Paste Magazine and Spinner; the album was named one of the "50 best albums of the first half of 2011" by Guitar World Magazine. "Do or Die" – 3:56 McEachern / Battey "Forever and Ever" – 4:02 McEachern / Battey "Tied a Knot" – 3:45 McEachern "Mr. Mister" – 2:50 McEachern "Loaded" - 4:36 McEachern "Shotguns and Booze" – 2:32 McEachern "I Think it's Time" – 3:42 McEachern / Bierce "Feel It." – 3:16 McEachern "Longtime Running" – 4:22 Battey / McEachern "Abandon Ship" – 6:38 Battey "Everything Has Changed – 3:10 McEachern The WandasKeith McEachern - Lead vocals and acoustic guitar, keys, piano, b3 organ, percussion Brent Battey - Electric guitar, background vocals, lead vocals on "Abandon Ship" Ross Lucivero - Bass guitar, additional guitar on I Think it's Time William Bierce - Drums, background vocals, additional piano on Forever and Ever Liam O'Neil - Wurlitzer, tenor saxophone Chris Seligman - French HornTechnicalPatrick Krief - Producer, additional guitars on Abandon Ship, Cowbell on Feel It.

Dave Schiffman - Mixer J. Saliba - Engineer Ryan Morey - Mastering

Branson School of Entrepreneurship

The Branson School of Entrepreneurship is a charitable organization that provides entrepreneurial training and financial support to international youth. The Branson School of Entrepreneurship was founded in 2006 as partnership between Taddy Blecher and Richard Branson in Johannesburg, South Africa as part of the non-profit foundation, Virgin Unite. By 2009 the school had given financial training to 4,100 students; the school's managing director was James Wanjohi and Virgin Unite was considering additional schools in the United States and Kenya at that time. In January Branson visited the school to give awards and recognition to selected students. Beginning in 2011 the BSE became known as the Branson Centre of Entrepreneurship with Judi Sandrock as its executive director. In September, Branson opened a branch in Jamaica; the school's goal is to stimulate local economies by mentoring disadvantaged youth. As of 2006, BSE training was part of the curriculum at CIDA City Campus serving 800 youths per year.

The BSE provides financial support, in the form of "seed money" loans, for the most well conceived business plans of each class. Official website BSE on Virgin Unite Branson Centre of Entrepreneurship in South Africa

Paul Joseph Chartier

Paul Joseph Chartier was a Canadian man who died when a bomb he was preparing exploded in a washroom of the Parliament of Canada. It is believed. Born in rural Alberta to parents who owned a small hotel, Chartier became a trucker at age 20. However, in 1960 he ran into financial trouble and was forced to declare bankruptcy and sell his truck, he was investigated for fraud and his marriage failed. Moving to Toronto, he settled in a rooming house on Major Street. Before the attack, Chartier had purchased ten sticks of dynamite in Ontario. After assembling a bomb, he entered the gallery of the House of Commons. At the time, visitors to Parliament were not searched, he watched the proceedings for a time, departed for a nearby washroom. There he lit the fuse of his dynamite-based bomb intending to return to the gallery and throw it upon the Members of Parliament below. However, the bomb exploded, he was carrying it in his right hand, it blew off his arm and tore open his torso, killing him but harming no one else.

The washroom was damaged, but the thick wooden door contained the blast in that room. No other part of the Centre Block itself was damaged. After his death, police found a number of writings and letters earlier sent to newspapers were uncovered, he stated that because of government actions, no one could afford to live and that politicians were rich and greedy. He attacked homosexuals in his writings, he wrote that his plan was to "exterminate as many members as possible," and that he was prepared to die in the process. He declared his desire to become "President of Canada", stated that he would appoint Toronto alderman June Marks as his Vice President; when police raided his apartment, they found several other sticks of dynamite. "Chartier Wanted Presidency with June Marks as his Deputy." The Globe and Mail May 21, 1966, pg. 10 "MPs Say Explosion Premature, Man's Bomb Meant for Chamber." The Globe and Mail May 19, 1966, pg. 10 CBC News. Bomb in Parliament misses its target in 1966 James Fontana; the Mad Bomber of Parliament Hill Denis Lortie, 1984 shooter who attacked the Quebec parliament National Assembly building and chamber Michael Zehaf-Bibeau, 2014 shooter who attacked the Canadian Parliament Buildings Centre Block