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Pope Urban VI

Pope Urban VI, born Bartolomeo Prignano, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 8 April 1378 to his death in 1389. He was the most recent pope to be elected from outside the College of Cardinals, his reign, which began shortly after the end of the Avignon Papacy, was marked by immense conflict between rival factions as part of the Western Schism. Born in Itri, Prignano learned casuist, trained at Avignon. On 21 March 1364 he was consecrated Archbishop of Acerenza in the Kingdom of Naples, he became Archbishop of Bari in 1377. Prignano had developed a reputation for simplicity and frugality and a head for business when acting Vice-Chancellor, he demonstrated a penchant for learning, according to Cristoforo di Piacenza, he was without famiglia in an age of nepotism, although once in the papal chair he elevated four cardinal-nephews and sought to place one of them in control of Naples. His great faults undid his virtues: Ludwig von Pastor summed up his character: "He lacked Christian gentleness and charity.

He was arbitrary and violent and imprudent, when he came to deal with the burning ecclesiastical question of the day, that of reform, the consequences were disastrous." On the death of Pope Gregory XI, a Roman mob surrounded the papal conclave to demand a Roman pope. The cardinals being under some haste and great pressure to avoid the return of the Papal seat to Avignon, Prignano was unanimously chosen Pope on 8 April 1378 as acceptable to the disunited majority of French cardinals, taking the name Urban VI. Not being a Cardinal, he was not well known. Following the conclave, most of the cardinals fled Rome before the mob could learn that not a Roman, but a subject of Queen Joan I of Naples, had been chosen. Though the coronation was carried out in scrupulous detail, leaving no doubt as to the legitimacy of the new pontiff, the French were not happy with this move and began to conspire against this Pope. Urban VI did. Dietrich of Nieheim reported the opinion of the cardinals that his elevation had turned his head, Froissart, Leonardo Aretino, Tommaso de Acerno and St. Antoninus of Florence recorded similar conclusions.

Following his election, Urban began preaching intemperately to the cardinals, insisting that the business of the Curia should be carried on without gratuities and gifts, forbidding the cardinals to accept annuities from rulers and other lay persons, condemning the luxury of their lives and retinues, the multiplication of benefices and bishoprics in their hands. Nor would he remove again to Avignon, thus alienating King Charles V of France; the cardinals were mortally offended. Five months after his election, the French cardinals met at Anagni, inviting Urban, who realized he would be seized, slain. In his absence, they issued a manifesto of grievances on 9 August which declared his election invalid since they had been cowed by the mob into electing an Italian. Letters to the missing Italian cardinals followed on 20 August declaring the papal throne vacant. At Fondi, secretly supported by the king of France, the French cardinals proceeded to elect Robert of Geneva as Pope on 20 September. Robert, a militant cleric who had succeeded Albornoz as commander of the papal troops, took the name Clement VII, beginning the Western Schism, which divided Catholic Christendom until 1417.

Urban was declared excommunicated by the French antipope and was called "the Antichrist", while Catherine of Siena, defending Pope Urban, called the cardinals "devils in human form." Coluccio Salutati identified the political nature of the withdrawal: "Who does not see," the Chancellor addressed the French cardinals, "that you seek not the true pope, but opt for a Gallic pontiff." Opening rounds of argument were embodied in John of Legnano's defense of the election, De fletu ecclesiæ, written and incrementally revised between 1378 and 1380, which Urban caused to be distributed in multiple copies, in the numerous rebuttals that soon appeared. Events overtook the rhetoric, however. At the end of May 1379 Clement went to Avignon, where he was more than at the mercy of the king of France. Louis I, Duke of Anjou, was granted a phantom kingdom of Adria to be carved out of papal Emilia and Romagna, if he could unseat the pope at Rome. Meanwhile, the War of the Eight Saints, carried on with spates of unprecedented cruelty to civilians, was draining the resources of Florence, though the city ignored the interdict placed upon it by Gregory, declared its churches open, sold ecclesiastical property for 100,000 florins to finance the war.

Bologna had submitted to the Church in August 1377, Florence signed a treaty at Tivoli on 28 July 1378 at a cost of 200,000 florins indemnity extorted by Urban for the restitution of church properties, receiving in return the papal favor and the lifting of the disregarded interdict. Urban's erstwhile patroness, Queen Joan I of Naples, deserted him in the late summer of 1378, in part because her former archbishop had become her feudal suzerain. Urban now began to commit a series of errors, he turned upon his powerful neighbor Joan, excommunicated her as an obstinate partisan of Clement, permitted a crusade to be preached against her. Soo

John Finnemore's Double Acts

John Finnemore's Double Acts is a series of radio comedy programmes, written by John Finnemore. It is an anthology series of unconnected two-handers; the first series of six episodes was broadcast on Radio 4 in October and November 2015. A second series of six episodes was broadcast in May and July 2017; the series' working title was The John Finnemore Project. The programme was directed by David Tyler; each episode features only two main speaking parts, apart from Finnemore himself who acts as announcer. Additional, voices are sometimes heard briefly; each episode is a self-contained play, though four in the first series are loosely connected by incidental details revolving around references to a fictional bath supplier called Willard & Son: "A Flock of Tigers", set in the 1930s, features the character Edmund Willard - the titular "son" - while "Wysinnwyg", "Hot Desk" and "Red-Handed" all involve characters who work for the company in the present day. Both "Red Handed" and "Hot Desk" are implied to take place within the time frame of "Wysinnwyg", contain callbacks to each other in the form of references to characters appearing in the others.

The episode "A Flock of Tigers" was shortlisted for Best Scripted Comedy Drama in the BBC Audio Drama Awards 2016. The episode "English for Pony Lovers" won the Writers Guild of Great Britain Award for Best Comedy in January 2017. John Finnemore's Double Acts at BBC Programmes

1874 Belgian general election

Partial general elections were held in Belgium on 9 June 1874. The result was a victory for the Catholic Party, which won 68 of the 124 seats in the Chamber of Representatives and 34 of the 62 seats in the Senate. Voter turnout was 64.1 %. Under the alternating system, elections for the Chamber of Representatives were only held in four out of the nine provinces: Hainaut, Limburg, Liège and East Flanders. Incumbent Head of Government Barthélémy de Theux de Meylandt was re-elected in the arrondissement of Hasselt but died on 21 August 1874. A special election was held on 27 September 1874 to replace him, which Henri de Pitteurs-Hiegaerts won. Additionally, a special election was held in the arrondissement of Tielt to replace Gustave de Mûelenaere, who died on 8 July 1874. Auguste Beernaert was elected to succeed him

Sgt. Fury & his Howling Commandos: Shotgun Opera

Sgt. Fury & his Howling Commandos: Shotgun Opera known as Shotgun Opera or Sgt. Fury and his Howling Commandos, Vol. 2 is a 2009 comic book one-shot published by Marvel Comics. The story was drawn by John Paul Leon; the one-shot was Alexander's first time writing a comic book and he stated in a pre-release interview that he had always loved war comics and was happy to do it. The series was intended as a tie-in to Captain America: White, the delay of which resulted in this comic to be delayed; the story was first published in 2009 as a one-shot. It was reprinted in the hardcover collected edition named Marvel, los héroes mas poderosos #21: "Nick Fury", in December 2016 which collected the original series of Secret Warriors issue 1 to 6; the story has the Howling Commandos on a mission behind enemy lines in Yugoslavia. It's in the early days of the war. Alexander chose to use the characters of Nick Fury, Dum-Dum, Izzy and Pinky; the comic holds an average rating of 6.4 by 2 professional critics on the review aggregation website Comic Book Roundup.

Jesse Schedeen of IGN expressed that he thought the story was a rather generic Howling Commandos story. He criticised Alexander's character dialogue. Sgt. Fury & His Howling Commandos at the Comic Book DB

Stéphane Diagana

Stéphane Diagana is a retired, French track and field sprinter and hurdler. His specialities were the 4 x 400 metres relay. Diagna won the 400 metres hurdles gold medal at the 1997 World Championships in Athens and the 4 x 400 metres relay gold medal at the 2003 World Championships in Paris. In 2002 he won the 400 metres hurdles gold medal at the European Championships in Munich. Diagana set a new, European 400 metres hurdles outdoor record of 47.37 sec. in Lausanne, Switzerland on 5 July 1995. This record stood until June 2019. In his only Olympic appearance, Diagana finished in fourth position in the final of the 400 metres hurdles of the 1992 Olympics in Barcelona. In that Olympics, his 4 x 400 metres relay team was eliminated in the heats. Diagana retired from competition in 2004 and became a television commentator and advisor to the Fédération française d'athlétisme. On 7 April 2008, Diagana was an Olympic torch runner for the 2008 Olympics. While he was running with the torch in Paris, Paris city councillor Sylvain Garel tried to snatch it from his hands.

On 21 January 2011, Diagana was injured in road accident while he was cycling along a road of the Col de Vence in the department of Alpes-Maritimes in southeast France. He was airlifted by helicopter to a hospital in Nice, he suffered head injuries and although in a serious condition, he did not lose consciousness. He is married to Odile Lesage. Stéphane Diagana at World Athletics Stéphane Diagana at Olympics at Sports-Reference.com

Emma Adbåge

Emma Adbåge is a Swedish illustrator and children's writer. In addition to illustrating her own books, she contributes to works by other authors while taking on commissions from educational publishers. In 2013, she was awarded the Elsa Beskow prize for her illustrated Lenis Olle and other works for children. Born in 1982 in Linköping, Adbåge is the twin sister of Lisen Adbåge, an illustrator and writer. After completing high school in Mjölby, they both studied illustration at the Cartoonist School in Hofors. By the time they were 21, they had each illustrated several books by various authors. In 2011, for her Leni är ett sockerhjärta Adbåge won the Silver Award for Illustration in the "Kolla!" Competition arranged by the Association of Graphic Designers. It is the story of a little girl who first thinks it would be interesting to act as an adult but when she discovered all the work grown-ups have to do, she decides instead to become a baby, her Outdoor math: fun activities for every season has been published in English.

It encourages 5 to 8 year-olds to learn maths by playing with objects they can find outside, such as measuring the length of a worm or building a snowman. Emma Adbåge's website