The Liber Pontificalis is a book of biographies of popes from Saint Peter until the 15th century. The original publication of the Liber Pontificalis stopped with Pope Adrian II or Pope Stephen V, but it was supplemented in a different style until Pope Eugene IV and Pope Pius II. Although quoted uncritically from the 8th to 18th century, the Liber Pontificalis has undergone intense modern scholarly scrutiny; the work of the French priest Louis Duchesne, of others has highlighted some of the underlying redactional motivations of different sections, though such interests are so disparate and varied as to render improbable one popularizer's claim that it is an "unofficial instrument of pontifical propaganda."The title Liber Pontificalis goes back to the 12th century, although it only became current in the 15th century, the canonical title of the work since the edition of Duchesne in the 19th century. In the earliest extant manuscripts it is referred to as Liber episcopalis in quo continentur acta beatorum pontificum Urbis Romae and the Gesta or Chronica pontificum.
During the Middle Ages, Saint Jerome was considered the author of all the biographies up until those of Pope Damasus I, based on an apocryphal letter between Saint Jerome and Pope Damasus published as a preface to the Medieval manuscripts. The attribution originated with Rabanus Maurus and is repeated by Martin of Opava, who extended the work into the 13th century. Other sources attribute the early work to Hegesippus and Irenaeus, having been continued by Eusebius of Caesarea. In the 16th century, Onofrio Panvinio attributed the biographies after Damasus until Pope Nicholas I to Anastasius Bibliothecarius; the modern interpretation, following that of Louis Duchesne, is that the Liber Pontificalis was and unsystematically compiled, that the authorship is impossible to determine, with a few exceptions. Duchesne and others have viewed the beginning of the Liber Pontificalis up until the biographies of Pope Felix III as the work of a single author, a contemporary of Pope Anastasius II, relying on Catalogus Liberianus, which in turn draws from the papal catalogue of Hippolytus of Rome, the Leonine Catalogue, no longer extant.
Most scholars believe the Liber Pontificalis was first compiled in the 6th century. Because of the use of the vestiarium, the records of the papal treasury, some have hypothesized that the author of the early Liber Pontificalis was a clerk of the papal treasury. Edward Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire summarised the scholarly consensus as being that the Liber Pontificalis was composed by "apostolic librarians and notaries of the viiith and ixth centuries" with only the most recent portion being composed by Anastasius. Duchesne and others believe that the author of the first addition to the Liber Pontificalis was a contemporary of Pope Silverius, that the author of another addition was a contemporary of Pope Conon, with popes being added individually and during their reigns or shortly after their deaths; the Liber Pontificalis only contained the names of the bishops of Rome and the durations of their pontificates. As enlarged in the 6th century, each biography consists of: the birth name of the pope and that of his father, place of birth, profession before elevation, length of pontificate, historical notes of varying thoroughness, major theological pronouncements and decrees, administrative milestones, date of death, place of burial, the duration of the ensuing sede vacante.
Pope Adrian II is the last pope for which there are extant manuscripts of the original Liber Pontificalis: the biographies of Pope John VIII, Pope Marinus I, Pope Adrian III are missing and the biography of Pope Stephen V is incomplete. From Stephen V through the 10th and 11th centuries, the historical notes are abbreviated with only the pope's origin and reign duration, it was only in the 12th century that the Liber Pontificalis was systematically continued, although papal biographies exist in the interim period in other sources. Duchesne refers to the 12th century work by Petrus Guillermi in 1142 at the monastery of St. Gilles as the Liber Pontificalis of Petrus Guillermi. Guillermi's version is copied from other works with small additions or excisions from the papal biographies of Pandulf, nephew of Hugo of Alatri, which in turn was copied verbatim from the original Liber Pontificalis from other sources until Pope Honorius II, with contemporary information from Pope Paschal II to Pope Urban II.
Duchesne attributes all biographies from Pope Gregory VII to Urban II to Pandulf, while earlier historians like Giesebrecht and Watterich attributed the biographies of Gregory VII, Victor III, Urban II to Petrus Pisanus, the subsequent biographies to Pandulf. These biographies until those of Pope Martin IV are extant only as revised by Petrus Guillermi in the manuscripts of the monastery of
Syracuse is a historic city on the island of Sicily, the capital of the Italian province of Syracuse. The city is notable for its rich Greek history, amphitheatres, as the birthplace of the preeminent mathematician and engineer Archimedes; this 2,700-year-old city played a key role in ancient times, when it was one of the major powers of the Mediterranean world. Syracuse is located in the southeast corner of the island of Sicily, next to the Gulf of Syracuse beside the Ionian Sea; the city was founded by Ancient Greek Corinthians and Teneans and became a powerful city-state. Syracuse was allied with Sparta and Corinth and exerted influence over the entirety of Magna Graecia, of which it was the most important city. Described by Cicero as "the greatest Greek city and the most beautiful of them all", it equaled Athens in size during the fifth century BC, it became part of the Roman Republic and the Byzantine Empire. Under Emperor Constans II, it served as the capital of the Byzantine Empire. After this Palermo overtook it as the capital of the Kingdom of Sicily.
The kingdom would be united with the Kingdom of Naples to form the Two Sicilies until the Italian unification of 1860. In the modern day, the city is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site along with the Necropolis of Pantalica. In the central area, the city itself has a population of around 125,000 people. Syracuse is mentioned in the Bible in the Acts of the Apostles book at 28:12; the patron saint of the city is Saint Lucy. Syracuse and its surrounding area have been inhabited since ancient times, as shown by the findings in the villages of Stentinello, Plemmirio, Cozzo Pantano and Thapsos, which had a relationship with Mycenaean Greece. Syracuse was founded in 734 or 733 BC by Greek settlers from Corinth and Tenea, led by the oecist Archias. There are many attested variants of the name of the city including Συράκουσαι Syrakousai, Συράκοσαι Syrakosai and Συρακώ Syrakō. A possible origin of the city's name was given by Vibius Sequester citing first Stephanus Byzantius in that there was a Syracusian marsh called Syrako and secondly Marcian's Periegesis wherein Archias gave the city the name of a nearby marsh.
The settlement of Syracuse was a planned event, as a strong central leader, Arkhias the aristocrat, laid out how property would be divided up for the settlers, as well as plans for how the streets of the settlement should be arranged, how wide they should be. The nucleus of the ancient city was the small island of Ortygia; the settlers found the land fertile and the native tribes to be reasonably well-disposed to their presence. The city grew and prospered, for some time stood as the most powerful Greek city anywhere in the Mediterranean. Colonies were founded at Akrai, Akrillai and Kamarina; the descendants of the first colonists, called Gamoroi, held power until they were expelled by the Killichiroi, the lower class of the city. The former, returned to power in 485 BC, thanks to the help of Gelo, ruler of Gela. Gelo himself became the despot of the city, moved many inhabitants of Gela and Megara to Syracuse, building the new quarters of Tyche and Neapolis outside the walls, his program of new constructions included a new theatre, designed by Damocopos, which gave the city a flourishing cultural life: this in turn attracted personalities as Aeschylus, Ario of Methymna and Eumelos of Corinth.
The enlarged power of Syracuse made unavoidable the clash against the Carthaginians, who ruled western Sicily. In the Battle of Himera, who had allied with Theron of Agrigento, decisively defeated the African force led by Hamilcar. A temple dedicated to Athena, was erected in the city to commemorate the event. Syracuse grew during this time, its walls encircled 120 hectares in the fifth century, but as early as the 470's BC the inhabitants started building outside the walls. The complete population of its territory numbered 250,000 in 415 BC and the population size of the city itself was similar to Athens. Gelo was succeeded by his brother Hiero, who fought against the Etruscans at Cumae in 474 BC, his rule was eulogized by poets like Simonides of Ceos and Pindar, who visited his court. A democratic regime was introduced by Thrasybulos; the city continued to expand in Sicily, fighting against the rebellious Siculi, on the Tyrrhenian Sea, making expeditions up to Corsica and Elba. In the late 5th century BC, Syracuse found itself at war with Athens, which sought more resources to fight the Peloponnesian War.
The Syracusans enlisted the aid of a general from Sparta, Athens' foe in the war, to defeat the Athenians, destroy their ships, leave them to starve on the island. In 401 BC, Syracuse contributed a force of 300 hoplites and a general to Cyrus the Younger's Army of the Ten Thousand. In the early 4th century BC, the tyrant Dionysius the Elder was again at war against Carthage and, although losing Gela and Camarina, kept that power from capturing the whole of Sicily. After the end of the conflict Dionysius built a massive fortress on Ortygia and 22 km-long walls around all of Syracuse. Another period of expansion saw the destruction of
The Byzantine Empire referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople. It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic and military force in Europe. Both the terms "Byzantine Empire" and "Eastern Roman Empire" are historiographical terms created after the end of the realm. Several signal events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the period of transition during which the Roman Empire's Greek East and Latin West diverged. Constantine I reorganised the empire, made Constantinople the new capital, legalised Christianity. Under Theodosius I, Christianity became the Empire's official state religion and other religious practices were proscribed.
Under the reign of Heraclius, the Empire's military and administration were restructured and adopted Greek for official use in place of Latin. Thus, although the Roman state continued and its traditions were maintained, modern historians distinguish Byzantium from ancient Rome insofar as it was centred on Constantinople, oriented towards Greek rather than Latin culture, characterised by Eastern Orthodox Christianity; the borders of the empire evolved over its existence, as it went through several cycles of decline and recovery. During the reign of Justinian I, the empire reached its greatest extent after reconquering much of the Roman western Mediterranean coast, including North Africa and Rome itself, which it held for two more centuries; the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628 exhausted the empire's resources and contributed to major territorial losses during the Early Muslim conquests of the 7th century, when it lost its richest provinces and Syria, to the Arab caliphate. During the Macedonian dynasty, the empire expanded again and experienced the two-century long Macedonian Renaissance, which came to an end with the loss of much of Asia Minor to the Seljuk Turks after the Battle of Manzikert in 1071.
This battle opened the way for the Turks to settle in Anatolia. The empire recovered during the Komnenian restoration, by the 12th century Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest European city. However, it was delivered a mortal blow during the Fourth Crusade, when Constantinople was sacked in 1204 and the territories that the empire governed were divided into competing Byzantine Greek and Latin realms. Despite the eventual recovery of Constantinople in 1261, the Byzantine Empire remained only one of several small rival states in the area for the final two centuries of its existence, its remaining territories were progressively annexed by the Ottomans over the 15th century. The Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 ended the Byzantine Empire; the last of the imperial Byzantine successor states, the Empire of Trebizond, would be conquered by the Ottomans eight years in the 1461 Siege of Trebizond. The first use of the term "Byzantine" to label the years of the Roman Empire was in 1557, when the German historian Hieronymus Wolf published his work Corpus Historiæ Byzantinæ, a collection of historical sources.
The term comes from "Byzantium", the name of the city of Constantinople before it became Constantine's capital. This older name of the city would be used from this point onward except in historical or poetic contexts; the publication in 1648 of the Byzantine du Louvre, in 1680 of Du Cange's Historia Byzantina further popularised the use of "Byzantine" among French authors, such as Montesquieu. However, it was not until the mid-19th century that the term came into general use in the Western world; the Byzantine Empire was known to its inhabitants as the "Roman Empire", the "Empire of the Romans", "Romania", the "Roman Republic", as "Rhōmais". The inhabitants called themselves Romaioi and as late as the 19th century Greeks referred to Modern Greek as Romaiika "Romaic." After 1204 when the Byzantine Empire was confined to its purely Greek provinces the term'Hellenes' was used instead. While the Byzantine Empire had a multi-ethnic character during most of its history and preserved Romano-Hellenistic traditions, it became identified by its western and northern contemporaries with its predominant Greek element.
The occasional use of the term "Empire of the Greeks" in the West to refer to the Eastern Roman Empire and of the Byzantine Emperor as Imperator Graecorum were used to separate it from the prestige of the Roman Empire within the new kingdoms of the West. No such distinction existed in the Islamic and Slavic worlds, where the Empire was more straightforwardly seen as the continuation of the Roman Empire. In the Islamic world, the Roman Empire was known as Rûm; the name millet-i Rûm, or "Roman nation," was used by the Ottomans through the 20th century to refer to the former subjects of the Byzantine Empire
Saint Cecilia is the patroness of musicians. It is written that as the musicians played at her wedding she "sang in her heart to the Lord", her feast day is celebrated in the Latin Catholic, Eastern Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches and in the Anglican Communion on November 22. She is one of seven women, in addition to the Blessed Virgin, commemorated by name in the Canon of the Mass. While the details of her story appear to be fictional, her existence and martyrdom are considered a historical fact, she is said to have been beheaded with a sword. An early church, Santa Cecilia, was founded in the 3rd century by Pope Urban I in the Trastevere section of Rome, reputedly on the site of the house in which she lived. A number of musical compositions are dedicated to her, her feast day has become the occasion for concerts and musical festivals. St. Cecilia is one of the most famous of the Roman martyrs, although some elements of the stories recounted about her do not seem to be founded on historical fact.
According to Johann Peter Kirsch, while some details bear the mark of a pious romance, like so many other similar accounts compiled in the fifth and sixth century, the existence of the martyr is a historical fact. The relation between St. Cecilia and Valerian and Maximus, mentioned in the Acts of the Martyrs, has some historical foundation, her feast day has been celebrated since about the fourth century. It was long supposed that she was a noble lady of Rome who, with her husband Valerian, his brother Tiburtius, a Roman soldier named Maximus, suffered martyrdom in about 230, under the Emperor Alexander Severus; the research of Giovanni Battista de Rossi agrees with the statement of Venantius Fortunatus, Bishop of Poitiers, that she perished in Sicily under Emperor Marcus Aurelius between 176 and 180. According to the story, despite her vow of virginity, she was forced by her parents to marry a pagan nobleman named Valerian. During the wedding, Cecilia sat apart singing to God in her heart, for that she was declared the saint of musicians.
When the time came for her marriage to be consummated, Cecilia told Valerian that watching over her was an angel of the Lord, who would punish him if he sexually violated her but would love him if he respected her virginity. When Valerian asked to see the angel, Cecilia replied that he could if he would go to the third milestone on the Via Appia and be baptized by Pope Urban I. After following Cecilia's advice, he saw the angel standing beside her, crowning her with a chaplet of roses and lilies; the martyrdom of Cecilia is said to have followed that of her husband Valerian and his brother at the hands of the prefect Turcius Almachius. The legend about Cecilia's death says that after being struck three times on the neck with a sword, she lived for three days, asked the pope to convert her home into a church. Cecilia was buried in the Catacomb of Callixtus, transferred to the Church of Santa Cecilia in Trastevere. In 1599, her body was found seeming to be asleep. There is no mention of Cecilia in the Depositio Martyrum, but there is a record of an early Roman church founded by a lady of this name, Santa Cecilia in Trastevere.
The church of Santa Cecilia in Trastevere is reputedly built on the site of the house in which she lived. The original church was constructed in the fourth century. In 1599, while leading a renovation of the church, Cardinal Paolo Emilio Sfondrati had the remains, which he reported to be incorrupt and reburied; the name "Cecilia" was shared by all women of the Roman people known as the Caecilian, whose name may be related to the root of caecus. Legends and hagiographies, mistaking it for a personal name, suggest fanciful etymologies. Among those cited by Chaucer in "The Second Nun's Tale" are: lily of heaven, the way for the blind, contemplation of heaven and the active life, as if lacking in blindness, a heaven for people to gaze upon; the first record of a music festival in her honor was held at Évreux in Normandy in 1570. The Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia in Rome is one of the oldest musical institutions in the world, it was founded by the papal bull, Ratione congruit, issued by Sixtus V in 1585, which invoked two saints prominent in Western musical history: Gregory the Great, after whom Gregorian chant is named, Saint Cecilia, the patron saint of music.
Her feast day became an occasion for musical concerts and festivals that occasioned well-known poems by John Dryden and Alexander Pope and music by Henry Purcell. Herbert Howells' A Hymn to Saint Cecilia has words by Ursula Vaughan Williams; the Heavenly Life, a poem from Des Knaben Wunderhorn mentions that "Cecilia and all her relations make excellent court musicians." From the name of St. Cecilia comes Cecyliada, the name of festival of sacred and contemporary music, held from 1994 in Police, Poland. Cecilia symbolizes the central role of music in the liturgy; the Sisters of Saint Cecilia, religious sisters, shear the lambs
Kayseri is a large industrialised city in Central Anatolia, Turkey. It is the seat of Kayseri Province; the city of Kayseri, as defined by the boundaries of Kayseri Metropolitan Municipality, is structurally composed of five metropolitan districts, the two core districts of Kocasinan and Melikgazi, since 2004 Hacılar, İncesu and Talas. Kayseri is located at the foot of the extinct volcano Mount Erciyes that towers 3,916 metres over the city; the city is cited in the first ranks among Turkey's cities that fit the definition of Anatolian Tigers. The city retains a number including several from the Seljuk period. While it is visited en route to the international tourist attractions of Cappadocia, Kayseri has many attractions in its own right: Seljuk and Ottoman era monuments in and around the city centre, Mount Erciyes as a trekking and alpinism centre, Zamantı River as a rafting centre, the historic sites of Kültepe, Ağırnas and Develi. Kayseri is home to Erciyes University. According to the Turkish Statistical Institute, as of 2011 the city of Kayseri had a population of 844,656.
Kayseri was called Mazaka or Mazaca by the Hattians and was known as such to Strabo, during whose time it was the capital of the Roman province of Cilicia, known as Eusebia at the Argaeus, after Ariarathes V Eusebes, King of Cappadocia. The name was changed again by Archelaus, last King of Cappadocia and a Roman vassal, to "Caesarea in Cappadocia" in honour of Caesar Augustus, upon his death in 14 AD; when the Muslim Arabs arrived, they adapted the pronunciation to their writing resulting in Kaisariyah, this became Kayseri when the Seljuk Turks took control of the city in circa 1080, remaining as such since. The city has been continuously inhabited since c. 3000 BC with the establishment of the ancient trading colony at Kültepe, associated with the Hittites. The city has always been a vital trade centre as it is located on major trade routes along what was called the Great Silk Road. Kültepe, one of the oldest cities in Asia Minor, lies 20 km away; as Mazaca, the city served as the residence of the kings of Cappadocia.
In ancient times, it was on the crossroads of the trade routes from Sinope to the Euphrates and from the Persian Royal Road that extended from Sardis to Susa during the over 200 years of Achaemenid Persian rule. In Roman times, a similar route from Ephesus to the East crossed the city; the city stood on a low spur on the north side of Mount Erciyes. Only a few traces of the ancient site survive in the old town; the city was the centre of a satrapy under Persian rule until it was conquered by Perdikkas, one of the generals of Alexander the Great when it became the seat of a transient satrapy by another of Alexander's former generals, Eumenes of Cardia. The city was subsequently passed to the Seleucid empire after the battle of Ipsus but became once again the centre of an autonomous Greater Cappadocian kingdom under Ariarathes III of Cappadocia in around 250 BC. In the ensuing period, the city came under the sway of Hellenistic influence, was given the Greek name of Eusebia in honor of the Cappadocian king Ariarathes V Eusebes Philopator of Cappadocia.
The new name of Caesarea, by which it has since been known, was given to it by the last Cappadocian King Archelaus or by Tiberius. The city passed under formal Roman rule in 17 AD. Caesarea was destroyed by the Sassanid king Shapur I after his victory over the Emperor Valerian I in AD 260. At the time it was recorded to have around 400,000 inhabitants; the city recovered, became home to several early Christian saints: saints Dorothea and Theophilus the martyrs, Gregory of Nazianzus, Gregory of Nyssa and Basil of Caesarea. In the 4th century, bishop Basil established an ecclesiastic centre on the plain, about one mile to the northeast, which supplanted the old town, it included a system of almshouses, an orphanage, old peoples' homes, a leprosarium. The city's bishop, attended the Second Council of Ephesus and was suspended from the Council of Chalcedon A Notitia Episcopatuum composed during the reign of Byzantine Emperor Heraclius in about 640 lists 5 suffragan dioceses of the metropolitan see of Caesarea.
A 10th-century list gives it 15 suffragans. In all the Notitiae Caesarea is given the second place among the metropolitan sees of the patriarchate of Constantinople, preceded only by Constantinople itself, its archbishops were given the title of protothronos, meaning "of the first see". More than 50 first-millennium archbishops of the see are known by name, the see itself continued to be a residential see of the Eastern Orthodox Church until 1923, when by order of the Treaty of Lausanne all members of that Churchwere deported from what is now Turkey. Caesarea was the seat of an Armenian diocese. No longer a residential bishopric, Caesarea in Cappadocia is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see of the Armenian Catholic Church and the Melkite Catholic Church. A portion of Basil's new city was surrounded with strong walls, it was turned into a fortress by Justinian. Caesarea in the 9th century became a Byzantine administrative centre as the capital of the Byzantine Theme of Charsianon.
The 1500-year-old Kayseri Castle, built init
Trastevere is the 13th rione of Rome, on the west bank of the Tiber, south of Vatican City, within Municipio I. Its name comes from the Latin trans Tiberim, meaning "beyond the Tiber", its logo is a golden head of a lion on a red background, the meaning of, uncertain. To the north, Trastevere borders Borgo. In Rome's Regal period, the area across the Tiber belonged to the hostile Etruscans: the Romans named it Ripa Etrusca. Rome conquered it to gain control of and access to the river from both banks, but was not interested in building on that side of the river. In fact, the only connection between Trastevere and the rest of the city was a small wooden bridge called the Pons Sublicius. By the time of the Republic c. 509 BC, the number of sailors and fishermen making a living from the river had increased, many had taken up residence in Trastevere. Immigrants from the East settled there Jews and Syrians; the area began to be considered part of the city under Augustus. Since the end of the Roman Republic the quarter was the center of an important Jewish community, which inhabited there until the end of the Middle Ages.
Rome's first synagogue is found in this district. The building was constructed in 980, became a synagogue in 1073 through the efforts of lexicographer Nathan ben Yechiel. There was a mikveh in the building. At the base of the central column there is still visible Hebrew writing, its use as a synagogue ended when the Jews were forced to move to the Roman ghetto on the other side of the Tiber river in the mid-16th century. It is now used commercially, can be found at 14, Vicolo dell’Atleta. With the wealth of the Imperial Age, several important figures decided to build their villae in Trastevere, including Clodia, Julius Caesar; the regio included two of the most ancient churches in Rome, the Titulus Callixti called the Basilica di Santa Maria in Trastevere, the Titulus Cecilae, Santa Cecilia in Trastevere. In order to have a stronghold on the right Bank and to control the Gianicolo hill, Transtiberim was included by Emperor Aurelian inside the wall erected to defend the city against the Germanic tribes.
In the Middle Ages Trastevere had narrow, irregular streets. At the end of the 15th century these mignani were removed. Trastevere remained a maze of narrow streets. There was a strong contrast between the large, opulent houses of the upper classes and the small, dilapidated houses of the poor; the streets had no pavement until the time of Sixtus IV at the end of the 15th century. At first bricks were used, but these were replaced by sampietrini, which were more suitable for carriages. Thanks to its partial isolation and to the fact that its population had been multicultural since the ancient Roman period, the inhabitants of Trastevere, called Trasteverini, developed a culture of their own. In 1744 Benedict XIV modified the borders of the rioni. Nowadays, Trastevere maintains its character thanks to its narrow cobbled streets lined by ancient houses. At night and tourists alike flock to its many pubs and restaurants, but much of the original character of Trastevere remains; the area is home to several foreign academic institutions including The American University of Rome and John Cabot University, the American Academy in Rome, the Rome campus of the Thomas More College of Liberal Arts, the Canadian University of Waterloo School of Architecture, the American Pratt Institute School of Architecture therefore serving as home to an international student body.
The neighborhood has attracted artists, foreign expats, many famous people. In the sixties and seventies, the American musicians/composers Frederic Rzewski and Richard Teitelbaum, of the group Musica Elettronica Viva, lived in Via della Luce. Sergio Leone, the director of Spaghetti Westerns, grew up in Viale Glorioso, went to a Catholic private school in the neighborhood. Ennio Morricone, the film music composer, went to the same school, for one year was in the same class as Sergio Leone. Public libraries in Trastevere include Casa della Memoria e della Storia. Leonine City Coarelli, Filippo. Guida archeologica di Roma. Milano: Arnoldo Mondadori Editore. Rome/Trastevere travel guide from Wikivoyage
Vigilius of Trent
Saint Vigilius of Trent is venerated as the patron saint and first bishop of Trent. He should not be confused with the pope of the same name. According to tradition, he was a Roman patrician, the son of Maxentia and a man whose name is sometimes given as Theodosius, his brothers and Magorian, are venerated as saints. Vigilius seems to have been a friend of Saint John Chrysostom, he went to Rome. In 380, Vigilius was chosen bishop of that city, he may have been consecrated by either Ambrose of Valerian of Aquileia. Ambrose showed a paternal solicitude for Vigilius; as bishop, Vigilius attempted to convert Arians and pagans to Nicene Christianity and is said to have founded thirty parishes in his diocese. The founding of the Church of Santa Maria Maggiore, Trento is traditionally attributed to him. A letter attributed to Ambrose encourages Vigilius to oppose marriages between Christians and pagans. Vigilius preached in Brescia and Verona, which lay outside of his diocese, his companions during his missions were Saints Sisinnius and Alexander, who were sent by Ambrose to assist Vigilius.
Tradition makes these three natives of Cappadocia. A work called De Martyrio SS. Sisinnii, Martyrii et Alexandri is attributed to Vigilius. Sisinnius and Alexander were killed at Sanzeno after they attempted to convert the local population there to Christianity. Vigilius forgave their killers and had the remains of the three men sent to John Chrysostom in Constantinople, as well to Simplician, Ambrose's successor, in Milan. Milan would give some of those relics back to Sanzeno in the 20th century, where they rest in the Basilica dei Ss. Martiri dell'Anaunia. Vigilius is associated with the legend of St. Romedius, depicted alongside or astride a bear. According to Romedius' hagiography, Romedius once wished to visit Vigilius, a friend of his youth, but Romedius' horse was torn to pieces by a wild bear. Romedius, had the bear bridled by his disciple David; the bear carried Romedius on its back to Trento. According to a much tradition, accompanied by his brothers Claudian and Magorian as well as a priest named Julian, was killed in the present-day parish of Rendena, in the Rendena Valley, where he had been preaching against the locals there, who worshipped the god Saturn.
Vigilius overturned a statue of the god into the Sarca River. As punishment, he was stoned to death near Lake Garda at the area called Punta San Vigilio. A statue of the god Neptune stands in front of Vigilius' shrine in Trent today. Vigilius was buried at a church that he built at Trent expanded by his successor Eugippius, dedicated to Vigilius; this became Trento Cathedral. He was venerated after his death, the acts of his life and death were sent to Rome, Pope Innocent I, according to the Catholic Encyclopedia, "seems to have made a formal canonization, for Benedict XIV calls Vigilius the first martyr canonized by a pope.”Vigilius’ arm was removed as a separate relic and placed into its own reliquary in 1386. He is venerated in Tyrol. A German farmers’ saying associated with a 2nd feast day of January 31 was: "Friert es zu Vigilius / im März die Eiseskälte kommen muss!". There are similar sayings associated with other “weather saints.” Nicholas Everett, Patron Saints of Early Medieval Italy AD c.350-800, pp.124-138.
SANTI, BEATI E TESTIMONI ökumenisches Heiligenlexikon, Vigilius_von_Trient Vigilius J. Leinweber, Heiligsprechungen bis 1234