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Pope Zosimus

Pope Zosimus reigned from 18 March 417 to his death in 418. He was born in Calabria, he succeeded Innocent I and was followed by Boniface I. Zosimus took a decided part in the protracted dispute in Gaul as to the jurisdiction of the See of Arles over that of Vienne, giving energetic decisions in favour of the former, but without settling the controversy, his fractious temper coloured all the controversies in which he took part, in Gaul and Italy, including Rome, where at his death the clergy were much divided. According to the Liber Pontificalis, Zosimus was a Greek and his father's name was Abramius. Historian Adolf von Harnack deduced from this that the family was of Jewish origin, but this has been rejected by Louis Duchesne. Nothing is known of the life of Zosimus before his elevation to the Papal See, his consecration as Bishop of Rome took place on 18 March 417. The festival was attended by Patroclus, Bishop of Arles, raised to that See in place of Bishop Heros of Arles, deposed by Constantius III.

Patroclus gained the confidence of the new pope at once. In addition, he was made a kind of papal vicar for the whole of Gaul, with no Gallic ecclesiastic being permitted to journey to Rome without bringing with him a certificate of identity from Patroclus. In the year 400, Arles had been substituted for Trier as the residence of the chief government official of the civil Diocese of Gaul, the "Prefectus Praetorio Galliarum". Patroclus, who enjoyed the support of the commander Constantine, used this opportunity to procure for himself the position of supremacy above mentioned, by winning over Zosimus to his ideas; the bishops of Vienne and Marseille regarded this elevation of the See of Arles as an infringement of their rights, raised objections which occasioned several letters from Zosimus. The dispute, was not settled until the pontificate of Pope Leo I. Not long after the election of Zosimus, Caelestius, a proponent of Pelagianism, condemned by the preceding pope Innocent I, came to Rome to appeal to the new pope, having been expelled from Constantinople.

In the summer of 417, Zosimus held a meeting of the Roman clergy in the Basilica of St. Clement before which Caelestius appeared; the propositions drawn up by the deacon Paulinus of Milan, on account of which Caelestius had been condemned at Carthage in 411, were laid before him. Caelestius refused to condemn these propositions, at the same time declaring in general that he accepted the doctrine expounded in the letters of Pope Innocent and making a confession of faith, approved; the pope was won over by the conduct of Caelestius, said that it was not certain whether he had maintained the false doctrine rejected by Innocent, therefore Zosimus considered the action of the African bishops against Caelestius too hasty. He wrote at once in this sense to the bishops of the African province, called upon those who had anything to bring against Caelestius to appear at Rome within two months. Soon after this, Zosimus received from Pelagius a confession of faith, together with a new treatise on free will.

The pope held a new synod of the Roman clergy, before. Archbishop Aurelius of Carthage called a synod, which sent a reply to Zosimus in which it was argued that the pope had been deceived by heretics. In his answer Zosimus declared that he had settled nothing and wished to settle nothing without consulting the African bishops. After the new synodal letter of the African council of 1 May 418 to the pope, after the steps taken by the emperor Honorius against the Pelagians, Zosimus issued his Tractoria, in which Pelagianism and its authors were condemned. Shortly after this, Zosimus became involved in a dispute with the African bishops in regard to the right of clerics, condemned by their bishops to appeal to the Roman See; when the priest Apiarius of Sicca had been excommunicated by his bishop on account of his crimes, he appealed directly to the pope, without regard to the regular course of appeal in Africa, prescribed. The pope at once accepted the appeal, sent legates with credentials to Africa to investigate the matter.

Another wiser, course would have been to have first referred the case of Apiarius to the ordinary course of appeal in Africa itself. Zosimus next made the further mistake of basing his action on a reputed canon of the First Council of Nicaea, in reality a canon of the Council of Sardica. In the Roman manuscripts the canons of Sardica followed those of Nicaea without an independent title, while the African manuscripts contained only the genuine canons of Nicaea, so that the canon appealed to by Zosimus was not contained in the African copies of the Nicene canons; this mistake ignited a serious disagreement over the appeal, which continued after the death of Zosimus. Besides the writings of the pope mentioned, there are extant other letters to the bishops of the Byzantine province in Africa, in regard to a deposed bishop, to the bishops of Gaul and Spain in respect to Priscillianism and ordination to the different grades of the clergy; the Liber Pontificalis attributes to Zosimus a decree on the wearing of the maniple by deacons, on the dedication of Easter candles in the country parishes.

Zosimus was buried in the sep

Westerns on television

Television westerns are a subgenre of the Western, a genre of film, drama, television programming, etc. in which stories are set in the half of the 19th century in the American Old West, Western Canada and Mexico during the period from about 1860 to the end of the so-called "Indian Wars". More recent entries in the Western genre have placed events in the modern day but still draw inspiration from the outlaw attitudes prevalent in traditional Western productions; when television became popular in the late 1940s and 1950s, TV westerns became an audience favorite, with 30 such shows airing during prime-time in 1959. Traditional Westerns faded in popularity in the late 1960s, while new shows fused Western elements with other types of shows, such as family drama, mystery thrillers, crime drama. In the 1990s and 2000s, slickly packaged made-for-TV movie westerns were introduced; the Saturday Afternoon Matinee on the radio were a pre-television phenomenon in the US which featured western series. Film westerns turned Audie Murphy, Tom Mix, Johnny Mack Brown into major idols of a young audience, plus "Singing cowboys" such as Gene Autry, Roy Rogers and Dale Evans, Rex Allen.

Each cowboy had a co-starring horse such as Rogers' Golden Palomino, who became a star in his own right. Other B-movie series were the Durango Kid. Herbert Jeffreys, as Bob Blake with his horse Stardust, appeared in a number of movies made for African American audiences in the days of segregated movie theaters. Bill Pickett, an African-American rodeo performer appeared in early western films for the same audience; when the popularity of television exploded in the late 1940s and 1950s, westerns became a staple of small-screen entertainment. The first, on June 24, 1949, was the Hopalong Cassidy show, at first edited from the 66 films made by William Boyd. Many B-movie Westerns were aired on TV as time fillers, while a number of long-running TV Westerns became classics in their own right; the earliest TV westerns were written for a children's audience. Notable TV Westerns include The Lone Ranger, The Gene Autry Show, Cheyenne, Have Gun – Will Travel, Wagon Train, Trackdown, Wanted Dead or Alive, The Rifleman, Bonanza, The Virginian, The Big Valley, The High Chaparral, many others.

By 1959, four years after the boom in TV westerns began, thirty such shows were on television during prime time. In one week in March 1959, eight of the top ten shows were westerns, an estimated $125 million in toys based on TV westerns would be sold that year. Many were "four-wall westerns", filmed indoors in three days or less with scripts of poor quality, the genre's enormous popularity mystified its creators. Why do people want to spend so much time staring at the wrong end of a horse?"A horse cost up to $100 a day, compared to $22.05 for an extra. Two unusual westerns series of this era are Zorro, set in early California under Spanish rule, the British/Australian western Whiplash set in 1850/60's Australia with four scripts by Gene Roddenberry; the Lone Ranger was an American long-running early radio and television show created by George W. Trendle and developed by writer Fran Striker; the titular character is a masked Texas Ranger in the American Old West, who gallops about righting injustices with the aid of a clever and laconic Native American companion named Tonto, his horse Silver.

The Roy Rogers Show was a black and white American television series that ran for six seasons from December 30, 1951, to June 9, 1957, on NBC, with a total of 100 episodes. The series starred Roy Rogers, Pat Brady, Dale Evans; the show started airing in France on March 5, 1962. The series was nominated for an Emmy Award in 1955 for Best Western or Adventure Series Rawhide was a television western series which aired on the American network CBS from 1959 to 1966, it launched the career of Clint Eastwood. Its premiere episode reached the top 20 in the Nielsen ratings. Rawhide was the fourth longest-running American TV western, beaten only by nine years of The Virginian and Wagon Train, 14 years of Bonanza, 20 years of Gunsmoke; the typical Rawhide story involved drovers who would meet people on the trail and get drawn into solving whatever problem they presented or were confronting. Traditional Westerns began to disappear from television in the late 1960s and early 1970s as color television became ubiquitous.

1968 was the last season. Demographic pressures and overall burnout from the format may have been a factor as viewers became bored and disinterested with the glut of Westerns on the air at the time. By 1971, production companies had acknowledged that "the Western idea is out." The two last traditional Westerns, Death Valley Days and Gunsmoke, ended their runs in 1975. This may have been the result of an ongoing trend toward more urban-oriented programming that occurred in the early 1970s known as the "rural purge.

Chak Alahi Bakhash

Chak Alahi Bakhash is a village in Shaheed Bhagat Singh Nagar district of Punjab State, India. It is situated on Sutlej River located 16.2 kilometres away from Rahon, 20 kilometres from Nawanshahr, 24 kilometres from district headquarter Shaheed Bhagat Singh Nagar and 88 kilometres from state capital Chandigarh. The village is administrated by Sarpanch an elected representative of the village; as of 2011, Chak Alahi Bakhash has a total number of 94 houses and population of 459 of which 240 include are males while 219 are females according to the report published by Census India in 2011. The literacy rate of Chak Alahi Bakhash is 86.80%, higher than the state average of 75.84%. The population of children under the age of 6 years is 65, 14.16% of total population of Chak Alahi Bakhash, child sex ratio is 757 as compared to Punjab state average of 846. Most of the people are from Schedule Caste which constitutes 59.91% of total population in Chak Alahi Bakhash. The town does not have any Schedule Tribe population so far.

As per the report published by Census India in 2011, 149 people were engaged in work activities out of the total population of Chak Alahi Bakhash which includes 124 males and 25 females. According to census survey report 2011, 79.19% workers describe their work as main work and 20.81% workers are involved in Marginal activity providing livelihood for less than 6 months. The village has a Punjabi medium, co-ed primary school founded in 1975; the schools provide mid-day meal as per Indian Midday Meal Scheme and the meal prepared in school premises. As per Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act the school provide free education to children between the ages of 6 and 14. B. K. M College of Education and Doaba Group Of Colleges are the nearest colleges. Lovely Professional University is 63 kilometres away from the village. Nawanshahr railway station is the nearest train station however, Garhshankar Junction railway station is 28.5 kilometres away from the village. Sahnewal Airport is the nearest domestic airport which located 62 kilometres away in Ludhiana and the nearest international airport is located in Chandigarh Sri Guru Ram Dass Jee International Airport is the second nearest airport, 172 kilometres away in Amritsar.

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