Sir Walter Raleigh spelled Ralegh, was an English landed gentleman, poet, politician, courtier and explorer. He was cousin to younger half-brother of Sir Humphrey Gilbert, he is well known for popularising tobacco in England. Raleigh was one of the most notable figures of the Elizabethan era. Raleigh was born to a Protestant family in Devon, the son of Walter Raleigh and Catherine Champernowne. Little is known of his early life, though in his late teens he spent some time in France taking part in the religious civil wars. In his 20s he took part in the suppression of rebellion in Ireland participating in the Siege of Smerwick, he became a landlord of property confiscated from the native Irish. He rose in the favour of Queen Elizabeth I and was knighted in 1585. Raleigh was instrumental in the English colonisation of North America and was granted a royal patent to explore Virginia, paving the way for future English settlements. In 1591, he secretly married Elizabeth Throckmorton, one of the Queen's ladies-in-waiting, without the Queen's permission, for which he and his wife were sent to the Tower of London.
After his release, they retired to his estate at Dorset. In 1594, Raleigh heard of a "City of Gold" in South America and sailed to find it, publishing an exaggerated account of his experiences in a book that contributed to the legend of "El Dorado". After Queen Elizabeth died in 1603, Raleigh was again imprisoned in the Tower, this time for being involved in the Main Plot against King James I, not favourably disposed towards him. In 1616, he was released to lead a second expedition in search of El Dorado. During the expedition, men led by his top commander ransacked a Spanish outpost, in violation of both the terms of his pardon and the 1604 peace treaty with Spain. Raleigh returned to England and, to appease the Spanish, he was arrested and executed in 1618. Little is known about Raleigh's birth but he is believed to have been born on 22 January 1552, he grew up in the parish of East Budleigh in South Devon. He was the youngest of the five sons of Walter Raleigh of Fardel Manor in the parish of Cornwood, in South Devon.
His family is assumed to have been a junior branch of the de Raleigh family, 11th century lords of the manor of Raleigh, Pilton in North Devon, although the two branches are known to have borne dissimilar coats of arms, adopted at the start of the age of heraldry. His mother was Katherine Champernowne, his father's 3rd wife, the 4th daughter of Sir Philip Champernowne, lord of the manor of Modbury, Devon, by his wife Catherine Carew, a daughter of Sir Edmund Carew of Mohuns Ottery in the parish of Luppitt and widow of Otes Gilbert of Greenway in the parish of Brixham and of Compton Castle in the parish of Marldon, both in Devon. Katherine Champernowne's paternal aunt was Kat Ashley, governess of Queen Elizabeth I, who introduced the young men at court; the coat of arms of Otes Gilbert and Katherine Champernowne survives in a stained glass window in Churston Ferrers Church, near Greenway. Sir Walter's half-brothers John Gilbert, Humphrey Gilbert, Adrian Gilbert, his full brother Carew Raleigh were prominent during the reigns of Queen Elizabeth I and King James I.
Raleigh's family was Protestant in religious orientation and had a number of near escapes during the reign of Roman Catholic Queen Mary I of England. In the most notable of these, his father had to hide in a tower to avoid execution; as a result, Raleigh developed a hatred of Roman Catholicism during his childhood, proved himself quick to express it after Protestant Queen Elizabeth I came to the throne in 1558. In matters of religion, Elizabeth was more moderate than her half sister Mary. In 1569, Raleigh left for France to serve with the Huguenots in the French religious civil wars. In 1572, Raleigh was registered as an undergraduate at Oriel College, but he left a year without a degree. Raleigh proceeded to finish his education in the Inns of Court. In 1575, he was registered at the Middle Temple. At his trial in 1603, he stated, his life is uncertain between 1569 and 1575, but in his History of the World he claimed to have been an eyewitness at the Battle of Moncontour in France. In 1575 or 1576, Raleigh returned to England.
Between 1579 and 1583, Raleigh took part in the suppression of the Desmond Rebellions. He was present at the Siege of Smerwick, where he led the party that beheaded some 600 Spanish and Italian soldiers. Raleigh received 40,000 acres upon the seizure and distribution of land following the attainders arising from the rebellion, including the coastal walled town of Youghal and, further up the Blackwater River, the village of Lismore; this made him one of the principal landowners in Munster, but he had limited success inducing English tenants to settle on his estates. Raleigh made the town of Youghal his occasional home during his 17 years as an Irish landlord being domiciled at Killua Castle, County Westmeath, he was mayor there from 1588 to 1589. His town mansion of Myrtle Grove is assumed to be the setting for the story that his servant doused him with a bucket of water after seeing clouds of smoke coming from Raleigh's pipe, in the belief that he had been set alight, but this story is told of other places associated with Raleigh: the Virginia Ash Inn in Henstridge near Sherborne, Sherborne Castle, South Wraxall Manor in Wiltshire, home of Raleigh's friend Sir Walter Long.
Amongst Raleigh's acquai
A spice is a seed, root, bark, or other plant substance used for flavoring, coloring or preserving food. Spices are distinguished from herbs, which are the leaves, flowers, or stems of plants used for flavoring or as a garnish. Many spices have antimicrobial properties; this may explain why spices are more used in warmer climates, which have more infectious diseases, why the use of spices is prominent in meat, susceptible to spoiling. Spices are sometimes used in religious rituals, cosmetics or perfume production; the spice trade developed throughout the Indian subcontinent and Middle East by at earliest 2000 BCE with cinnamon and black pepper, in East Asia with herbs and pepper. The Egyptians used herbs for mummification and their demand for exotic spices and herbs helped stimulate world trade; the word spice comes from the Old French word espice, which became epice, which came from the Latin root spec, the noun referring to "appearance, kind": species has the same root. By 1000 BCE, medical systems based upon herbs could be found in China and India.
Early uses were connected with magic, religion and preservation. Cloves were used in Mesopotamia by 1700 BCE; the ancient Indian epic Ramayana mentions cloves. The Romans had cloves in the 1st century CE; the earliest written records of spices come from ancient Egyptian and Indian cultures. The Ebers Papyrus from Early Egyptians that dates from 1550 B. C. E. Describes some eight hundred different medicinal remedies and numerous medicinal procedures. Historians believe that nutmeg, which originates from the Banda Islands in Southeast Asia, was introduced to Europe in the 6th century BCE. Indonesian merchants traveled around China, the Middle East, the east coast of Africa. Arab merchants facilitated the routes through India; this resulted in the Egyptian port city of Alexandria being the main trading center for spices. The most important discovery prior to the European spice trade were the monsoon winds. Sailing from Eastern spice cultivators to Western European consumers replaced the land-locked spice routes once facilitated by the Middle East Arab caravans.
In the story of Genesis, Joseph was sold into slavery by his brothers to spice merchants. In the biblical poem Song of Solomon, the male speaker compares his beloved to many forms of spices. Spices were among the most demanded and expensive products available in Europe in the Middle Ages, the most common being black pepper, cumin, nutmeg and cloves. Given medieval medicine's main theory of humorism and herbs were indispensable to balance "humors" in food, a daily basis for good health at a time of recurrent pandemics. In addition to being desired by those using medieval medicine, the European elite craved spices in the Middle Ages. An example of the European aristocracy's demand for spice comes from the King of Aragon, who invested substantial resources into bringing back spices to Spain in the 12th century, he was looking for spices to put in wine, was not alone among European monarchs at the time to have such a desire for spice. Spices were all imported from plantations in Africa, which made them expensive.
From the 8th until the 15th century, the Republic of Venice had the monopoly on spice trade with the Middle East, along with it the neighboring Italian maritime republics and city-states. The trade made the region rich, it has been estimated that around 1,000 tons of pepper and 1,000 tons of the other common spices were imported into Western Europe each year during the Late Middle Ages. The value of these goods was the equivalent of a yearly supply of grain for 1.5 million people. The most exclusive was saffron, used as much for its vivid yellow-red color as for its flavor. Spices that have now fallen into obscurity in European cuisine include grains of paradise, a relative of cardamom which replaced pepper in late medieval north French cooking, long pepper, spikenard and cubeb. Spain and Portugal were interested in seeking new routes to trade in spices and other valuable products from Asia; the control of trade routes and the spice-producing regions were the main reasons that Portuguese navigator Vasco da Gama sailed to India in 1499.
When Gama discovered the pepper market in India, he was able to secure peppers for a much cheaper price than the ones demanded by Venice. At around the same time, Christopher Columbus returned from the New World, he described to investors new spices available there. Another source of competition in the spice trade during the 15th and 16th century was the Ragusans from the maritime republic of Dubrovnik in southern Croatia; the military prowess of Afonso de Albuquerque allowed the Portuguese to take control of the sea routes to India. In 1506, he took the island of Socotra in the mouth of the Red Sea and, in 1507, Ormuz in the Persian Gulf. Since becoming the viceroy of the Indies, he took Goa in India in 1510, Malacca on the Malay peninsula in 1511; the Portuguese could now trade directly with Siam and the Maluku Islands. With the discovery of the New World came new spices, including allspice, chili peppers and chocolate; this development kept the spice trade, with America as a late comer with its new seasonings, profitable well into the 19th century.
One issue with spices today is dilution, where spices are blended to make inferior quality powdered spices, by including roots and other admixture in production of spice powder. A spice may be available in several forms: pre-ground dried. Spices are dried. Spices may be ground into a powder for c
Phippsburg is a town in Sagadahoc County, United States, on the west side of the mouth of the Kennebec River. The population was 2,216 at the 2010 census, it is within the Portland–South Portland–Biddeford, metropolitan statistical area. A tourist destination, Phippsburg is home to Bates-Morse Mountain Conservation Area, Fort Popham State Historic Site; the town includes part of Winnegance. Site of the Popham Colony, Phippsburg was — between 1607 and 1608 — the first known English settlement attempt in New England. During its brief existence, colonists built Virginia of Sagadahoc, the first ship in Maine's long history of shipbuilding; the next British settlement at the mouth of the Kennebec River began in 1653. Atkins Bay bears his name; the population increased until King Philip's War, when Indians in August 1676 attacked the eastern side of the Kennebec River and scalping the colonists, or else carrying them into captivity. Dwellings were burned and stocks of cattle killed; the entire area was abandoned.
Resettlement commenced in 1679 at Newtown, located on the southern end of Arrowsic Island. About 1684, Francis Small had a trading post at Cape Small, but in 1689 the area was again deserted during King William's War. With the Treaty of Portsmouth in 1713, conflict was formally ended between the Abenaki Indians and English settlements. In 1714, Newtown was reestablished incorporated in 1716 as Georgetown-on-Arrowsic by the Massachusetts General Court. In 1716, the Pejepscot Proprietors established a little fishing village called Augusta at the Small Point Harbor area of Phippsburg. Dr. Oliver Noyes, director of the colony, erected a stone fort 100 feet square to protect it. In 1717, Governor Samuel Shute held a conference at Georgetown-on-Arrowsic with tribal delegates, who arrived in a flotilla of canoes and encamped on Lee Island, but in summer of 1723 during Dummer's War, the Norridgewocks and 250 of their Indian allies from Canada, incited by the French missionary Sebastien Rale, attacked the area.
Again it was deserted, with the stone fort destroyed. Governor William Dummer's Treaty of 1725 restored peace, in 1737 an attempt was made to resettle Cape Small Point; the boundaries of Georgetown-on-Arrowsic were enlarged to encompass most of present-day Phippsburg, Bath and Georgetown. Slow resettlement of the Phippsburg peninsula found ten farms along the Kennebec River by 1751, with five more on the Casco Bay side, but the districts gathered into Georgetown-on-Arrowsic began splitting away. In 1814, Phippsburg was incorporated; the original petition requested that it be named Dromore after one of the town's oldest sections, but Massachusetts chose instead to honor one of its royal governors, Sir William Phips — a native of Woolwich. Between 1842 and 1890, wooden ships were built at Phippsburg, it had numerous tidal mills. Fort Popham was built during the Civil War to guard the mouth of the Kennebec, on the site of a much smaller battery built in 1808, it became the control center for an underwater minefield in the 1890s.
The more modern Fort Baldwin was garrisoned in both World Wars. During the Gilded Age, Popham Beach developed into a resort area, with steamboats transporting excursionists from Bath. Today, the town's principal industries are tourism. Phippsburg was the site of the discovery, in 1971, of the Spirit Pond runestones, purported evidence of pre-Columbian European exploration of North America, considered a hoax by academics; the three stones were found by Jr. a carpenter from Bath, Maine. The runestones are now in the possession of the Maine State Museum in Maine. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 71.20 square miles, of which, 28.58 square miles of it is land and 42.62 square miles is water. Connected to Bath by a bridge and causeway over Winnegance Creek and sharing a border with West Bath to the east of Winnegance, Phippsburg is on a peninsula dividing the Kennebec River from Casco Bay in the Gulf of Maine, part of the Atlantic Ocean. Phippsburg is crossed by state routes 209 and 216.
Separated by water, the peninsula is near the towns of Harpswell to the west, West Bath to the northwest, Bath to the north, Arrowsic to the northeast, Georgetown to the east. As of the census of 2010, there were 2,216 people, 963 households, 665 families residing in the town; the population density was 77.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,748 housing units at an average density of 61.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.5% White, 0.5% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 0.1% from other races, 1.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.0% of the population. There were 963 households of which 22.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.5% were married couples living together, 6.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.0% had a male householder with no wife present, 30.9% were non-families. 24.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 2.67. The median age in the town was 49.8 years. 16.5% of
Fur is a thick growth of hair that covers the skin of many animals. It is a defining characteristic of mammals, it consists of a combination of oily guard hair on thick underfur beneath. The guard hair keeps moisture and the underfur acts as an insulating blanket that keeps the animal warm; the fur of mammals has many uses: protection, sensory purposes and camouflage, with the primary usage being thermoregulation. The types of hair include definitive. Hair length is negligible in thermoregulation, as some tropical mammals, such as sloths, have the same fur length as some arctic mammals but with less insulation; the denseness of fur can increase an animal's insulation value, arctic mammals have dense fur. Some desert mammals, such as camels, use dense fur to prevent solar heat from reaching their skin, allowing the animal to stay cool. Aquatic mammals, trap air in their fur to conserve heat by keeping the skin dry. Mammalian coats are colored for a variety of reasons, the major selective pressures including camouflage, sexual selection and physiological processes such as temperature regulation.
Camouflage is a powerful influence in a large number of mammals, as it helps to conceal individuals from predators or prey. Aposematism, warning off possible predators, is the most explanation of the black-and-white pelage of many mammals which are able to defend themselves, such as in the foul-smelling skunk and the powerful and aggressive honey badger. In arctic and subarctic mammals such as the arctic fox, collared lemming and snowshoe hare, seasonal color change between brown in summer and white in winter is driven by camouflage. Differences in female and male coat color may indicate nutrition and hormone levels, important in mate selection; some arboreal mammals, notably primates and marsupials, have shades of violet, green, or blue skin on parts of their bodies, indicating some distinct advantage in their arboreal habitat due to convergent evolution. The green coloration of sloths, however, is the result of a symbiotic relationship with algae. Coat color is sometimes sexually dimorphic, as in many primate species.
Coat color may influence the ability to retain heat, depending on. Mammals with a darker colored coat can absorb more heat from solar radiation, stay warmer, some smaller mammals, such as voles, have darker fur in the winter; the white, pigmentless fur of arctic mammals, such as the polar bear, may reflect more solar radiation directly onto the skin. The term pelage – first known use in English c. 1828 – is sometimes used to refer to an animal's complete coat. The term fur is used to refer to animal pelts which have been processed into leather with their hair still attached; the words fur or furry are used, more casually, to refer to hair-like growths or formations when the subject being referred to exhibits a dense coat of fine, soft "hairs". If layered, rather than grown as a single coat, it may consist of short down hairs, long guard hairs, in some cases, medium awn hairs. Mammals with reduced amounts of fur are called "naked", as with the naked mole-rat, or "hairless", as with hairless dogs.
An animal with commercially valuable fur is known within the fur industry as a furbearer. The use of fur as clothing or decoration is controversial; the modern mammalian fur arrangement is known to have occurred as far back as docodonts and eutriconodonts, with specimens of Castorocauda and Spinolestes preserving compound follicles with both guard hair and underfur. Fur may consist of each with a different type of hair. Down hair is the bottom—or inner—layer, composed of wavy or curly hairs with no straight portions or sharp points. Down hairs, which are flat, tend to be the shortest and most numerous in the coat. Thermoregulation is the principal function of the down hair, which insulates a layer of dry air next to the skin; the awn hair can be thought of as a hybrid, bridging the gap between the distinctly different characteristics of down and guard hairs. Awn hairs begin their growth much like guard hairs, but less than half way to their full length, awn hairs start to grow thin and wavy like down hair.
The proximal part of the awn hair assists in thermoregulation, whereas the distal part can shed water. The awn hair's thin basal portion does not allow the amount of piloerection that the stiffer guard hairs are capable of. Mammals with well developed down and guard hairs usually have large numbers of awn hairs, which may sometimes b
Cuttyhunk Island is the outermost of the Elizabeth Islands in Massachusetts. A small outpost for the harvesting of sassafras was occupied for a few weeks in 1602, arguably making it the first English settlement in New England. Cuttyhunk is located between Buzzards Bay to Vineyard Sound to the south. Penikese Island and Nashawena Island are located to the east respectively; the island has a land area of 580 acres, a population of 52 persons as of the 2000 census. It is the fourth largest in home to the village of Cuttyhunk, it lies within the town of Gosnold. Cuttyhunk is about a mile and a half long, three-quarters of a mile wide, with a large natural harbor at the eastern end of the island. Half of the main part of the island is set apart as a nature preserve, it is home to a wide variety of birds such as piping plovers, least terns and Massachusetts' American oystercatchers, as well as White-tailed deer, White-footed mice, Eastern cottontails. It has a small population of coyotes. Cuttyhunk has most varieties of New England's wildflowers, as well as bayberry, sweet peas, a host of other plant life.
Two large peninsular arms extend from the main body of the island, named Canapitsit and Copicut Neck. The shore is made up of rocks, testimony to Cuttyhunk's glacial origins. Cuttyhunk is covered with rocks and stones that are elsewhere found only in the mountains of Vermont and New Hampshire. There are three stretches of sandy beach: along the channel that leads to the harbor, around the sunken barges that connect Canapitsit to the main body of land, at "Church's beach," which connects Copicut to the main island. Much of Cuttyhunk's rocky shore is bounded by steep cliffs made of rock and clay; the western end of the island is taken up by the West End Pond, much of, used for shellfish farming. A monument to Bartholomew Gosnold's 1602 landing stands on a small island in the Pond; the highest point on the island is Lookout Hill, standing at 154 feet above sea level. The Lookout is home to one of the six defensive bunkers built by the United States Coast Guard in 1941 to watch the surrounding ocean for Nazi U-boats.
Stripped of their observation equipment and weaponry at the end of World War II, the bunkers are now picnic areas. They offer views of its surrounding waters; the Coast Guard station has not been active since 1964. Cuttyhunk has been a popular site for large striped bass. In 1913 Charles Church caught a world-record striped bass of 73 pounds; that record lasted many years. Charles Cinto duplicated the effort, landing a 73-pound striper near Cuttyhunk in 1967. Cuttyhunk has been the home port to many notable fishing guides. Many of these guides troll secret lures attached by stainless-steel or nickel-alloy wire along the rocky reefs near the island where large female stripers reside from the spring through the autumn; the most notable reef and Pigs Reef, was where Mr. Cinto caught his striper; the island was named Poocuohhunkkunnah by the native Wampanoag tribe. In 1602 English explorer Bartholomew Gosnold renamed the island. On March 6, 1602, Gosnold set out aboard the barque The Concord from Falmouth, England to plant a colony in the New World of America.
Gosnold and his men landed near Kennebunkport, Maine explored Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard, Cuttyhunk. They established a modest fort on Cuttyhunk where they planned to harvest sassafras, a valuable commodity in Europe at the time. After exploring the islands for less than a month, the men returned with The Concord to England. In 1606 the King granted the Elizabeth Islands to the Council of New England, which dissolved in 1635. After this, they became the property of 1st Earl of Stirling. Sterling sold the islands to Thomas Mayhew in 1641, in 1663 James Stuart, Duke of York assumed proprietorship over them. In 1668, Mayhew sold Cuttyhunk to Philip Smith, Peleg Sanford, Thomas Ward of Newport, Rhode Island. In 1688, Peleg Sanford acquired his partners' rights in the island, sold half of it to Ralph Earle of Dartmouth, he in turn sold his property to his son, Ralph Jr. who became the island's first permanent English settler. He and other colonists harvested the island of all of its timber, leaving it wind-swept.
In 1693, Peleg Slocum purchased all of the holdings on Cuttyhunk, became its sole owner. The Slocum family continued to live on Cuttyhunk for the next two hundred years. Several generations were slaveholders of Africans transported to the English colony for labor. In 1858, William C. N. Swift, Thomas Nye, Eben Perry bought Cuttyhunk from Otis Slocum for fifty dollars. In 1864, the town of Gosnold was incorporated. 1872–73 Cuttyhunk school was built 1874 First town meeting 1889 Town cemetery established 1892 Town library established 1976 WTG Energy Systems erected a prototype 200 kW wind turbine generator to supply a portion of the island's electric power. Paul Cuffee In 1864 some members of The West Island Club in Sakonnet Point, Rhode Island grew dissatisfied with that club's regulations, they looked for a place to start their own fishing club. After a visit to Cuttyhunk, these powerful New York gentlemen decided. In 1865, they purchased a large portion of the island, built 26 "fishing stands"—long, wooden platforms that stretched out from rock to rock into the surf—all around the island.
They limited initial membership to fifty men, with a single negative vote of the active members sufficient to bar a man from membership. T
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
A warehouse is a building for storing goods. Warehouses are used by manufacturers, exporters, transport businesses, etc, they are large plain buildings in industrial parks on the outskirts of cities, towns or villages. They have loading docks to load and unload goods from trucks. Sometimes warehouses are designed for the loading and unloading of goods directly from railways, airports, or seaports, they have cranes and forklifts for moving goods, which are placed on ISO standard pallets loaded into pallet racks. Stored goods can include any raw materials, packing materials, spare parts, components, or finished goods associated with agriculture and production. In India, a warehouse may be referred to as a godown. A warehouse can be defined functionally as a building in which to store bulk produce or goods for commercial purposes; the built form of warehouse structures throughout time depends on many contexts: materials, technologies and cultures. In this sense, the warehouse postdates the need for communal or state-based mass storage of surplus food.
Prehistoric civilizations relied on family- or community-owned storage pits, or ‘palace’ storerooms, such as at Knossos, to protect surplus food. The archaeologist Colin Renfrew argued that gathering and storing agricultural surpluses in Bronze Age Minoan ‘palaces’ was a critical ingredient in the formation of proto-state power; the need for warehouses developed in societies in which trade reached a critical mass requiring storage at some point in the exchange process. This was evident in ancient Rome, where the horreum became a standard building form; the most studied examples are in the port city that served Rome. The Horrea Galbae, a warehouse complex on the road towards Ostia, demonstrates that these buildings could be substantial by modern standards. Galba’s horrea complex contained 140 rooms on the ground floor alone, covering an area of some 225,000 square feet; as a point of reference, less than half of U. S. warehouses today are larger than 100,000 square feet. The need for a warehouse implies having quantities of goods too big to be stored in a domestic storeroom.
But as attested by legislation concerning the levy of duties, some medieval merchants across Europe kept goods in their large household storerooms on the ground floor or cellars. An example is the Fondaco dei Tedeschi, the substantial quarters of German traders in Venice, which combined a dwelling, warehouse and quarters for travellers. From the middle ages on, dedicated warehouses were constructed around ports and other commercial hubs to facilitate large-scale trade; the warehouses of the trading port Bryggen in Bergen, demonstrate characteristic European gabled timber forms dating from the late middle ages, though what remains today was rebuilt in the same traditional style following great fires in 1702 and 1955. During the industrial revolution, the function of warehouses became more specialised. Always a building of function, in the past few decades warehouses have adapted to standardisation, technological innovation and changes in supply chain methods; the mass production of goods launched by the industrial revolution of the 18th and 19th centuries fuelled the development of larger and more specialised warehouses located close to transport hubs on canals, at railways and portside.
Specialisation of tasks is characteristic of the factory system, which developed in British textile mills and potteries in the mid-late 1700s. Factory processes speeded up deskilled labour, bringing new profits to capital investment. Warehouses fulfill a range of commercial functions besides simple storage, exemplified by Manchester’s cotton warehouses and Australian wool stores: receiving and despatching goods; the utilitarian architecture of warehouses responded fast to emerging technologies. Before and into the nineteenth century, the basic European warehouse was built of load-bearing masonry walls or heavy-framed timber with a suitable external cladding. Inside, heavy timber posts supported timber beams and joists for the upper levels more than four to five stories high. A gabled roof was conventional, with a gate in the gable facing the street, rail lines or port for a crane to hoist goods into the window-gates on each floor below. Convenient access for road transport was built-in via large doors on the ground floor.
If not in a separate building and display spaces were located on the ground or first floor. Technological innovations of the early 19th century changed the shape of warehouses and the work performed inside them: cast iron columns and moulded steel posts. All were adopted and were in common use by the middle of the 19th century. 1. Strong, slender cast iron columns began to replace masonry piers or timber posts to carry levels above the ground floor; as modern steel framing developed in the late 19th century, its strength and constructability enabled the first skyscrapers. Steel girders replaced timber beams, increasing the span of internal bays in the warehouse.2. The saw-tooth roof brought natural light to the top story of the warehouse, it transformed the shape of the warehouse, from the traditional peaked hip or gable to an flat roof form, hidden behind a parapet. Warehouse buildings now became horizontal. Inside the top floor, the vertical glazed pane of each saw-tooth enabled natural lighting over displayed goods, improving buyer inspection.3.
Hoists and cranes