Monasteries on the slopes of Popocatépetl
The Monasteries on the slopes of Popocatépetl are fourteen 16th-century monasteries which were built by the Augustinians, the Franciscans and the Dominicans in order to evangelize the areas south and east of the Popocatépetl volcano in central Mexico. These monasteries were recognized by the UNESCO as World Heritage Sites in 1994, because they served as the model for the early monastery and church buildings as well as evangelization efforts in New Spain and some points beyond in Latin America; these monasteries uniformly feature a large atrium in front of a single nave church with a capilla abierta or open chapel. The atrium functioned as the meeting point between the indigenous peoples and the missionary friars, with mass for the newly converted held outdoors instead of within the church; this arrangement can be found repeated in other areas of Mexico as these friars continued to branch out over New Spain. The fourteen monasteries are open to visitors, with eleven located in northern Morelos State and three in Puebla state.
The eleven in Morelos are promoted as the “Route of the Volcano” or the “Route of the Monasteries” for tourism purposes. The UNESCO World Heritage Site consists of fourteen monasteries that are located south and east of Mexico City, most in the state of Morelos, with three in the state of Puebla; the monasteries in Morelos are located in the municipalities of Atlatlahucan, Tetela del Volcán, Ocuituco, Tepoztlán, Totolapan and Zacualpan de Amilpas. The three in Puebla are located in Calpan and Tochimilco. Most, but not all, of these monasteries are located on the periphery of the Popocatepetl volcano, they were declared a World Heritage Site on 17 December 1994, due to being the model for monasteries and evangelism on the American Continent. They represent the adoption of an architectural style by the first Franciscan and Augustinian missionaries, which included the use of open outdoor space; this use of open space in the planning of churches and monasteries was adopted through most of Mexico and in some other parts of Latin America.
There is disagreement as to whether the monasteries represent a complete imposition of European design or whether they adopted certain aspects of indigenous ceremonial spaces. However, the use of open chapels and “capillas posas” or atrium corner chapels, in large atriums were a way of accommodating the first indigenous converts, who were not used to entering large enclosed structures; the atrium became essential as the meeting point between the indigenous. The fourteen were built at the beginning of the evangelization period after the Conquest; the monasteries in Morelos are San Mateo Apostol in Atlatlahucan, Asunción in Cuernavaca, Santo Domingo de Guzmán in Hueyapan, Santiago Apostol in Ocuituco, Santo Domingo in Oaxtepec, La Natividad or la Anunciaciòn in Tepoztlàn, Santo Domingo de Guzman in Tetela del Volcàn, San Juan Bautista in Tlayacapan, San Guillermo Abad in Totolapan, San Juan Bautista in Yecapixtla and Immaculada Concepción in Zacualpan de Amilpas. In Puebla, there are three: San Francisco de Asís in San Andrés Calpan, San Miguel Arcángel in Huejotzingo and Asunción de Nuestra Señora in Tochimilco.
After the sites' being named as a World Heritage Site, the Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, pledged millions of pesos for the restoration and preservation of eleven of the monastery sites. Much of the money was targeted to problems caused by humidity in the walls. One of the first projects was to restore the mural work in the Tetela del Volcán monastery. Another early project was to restore the fields of the Atlatlahucan monastery; these fields now produce other crops which are sold to help fund maintenance. Over 70% of the monasteries built in the 16th century are still in good condition. However, there are claims that the money allocated for the restoration work is insufficient for the job and far less than has been budgeted for other landmarks such as the Basilica of Guadalupe or the Palace of the Marqués del Apartado. Much of the work, done involves restoring the atrium areas, processional corridors and the atrium chapels, where they still exist. Another major effort is to rid the buildings of plants growing on the buildings themselves.
Restoration work in a number of the monasteries and restored, in some cases, led to the rediscovery of murals. However, much restoration work still needs to be done. Despite Popocatepetl's being an active volcano, none of the monasteries have been damaged by it, although some have been damaged by earthquake activity. Volcano danger to these and the over 100 other historical monuments in the area is low because lava flows from the volcano are slow and monuments were not built in the low-lying areas that lava tends to run to. To further publicize the World Heritage monasteries in Morelos, the state promotes the eleven as the Route of the monasteries or the Route of the Volcano; the route begins in Cuernavaca with the monastery church serving as the city's cathedral. The route moves east and somewhat north through Tepoztlán, Tlayacapan, Atlatlahuacan, Ocuituco, Tetela del Volcán and Hueyapan before ending in Zacualpan de Amilpas; the reason for being a World Heritage site is that the construction of these monasteries served as an architectural and urban planning model for the monasteries and towns that followed.
These monasteries were built to be solid with thick walls and had a austere aspect. In some of the complexes, one can see stone merlons which make the complexes look like castles or forts; these were for defensive purposes, as the monks were
Lava is molten rock generated by geothermal energy and expelled through fractures in planetary crust or in an eruption at temperatures from 700 to 1,200 °C. The structures resulting from subsequent solidification and cooling are sometimes described as lava; the molten rock is formed in the interior of some planets, including Earth, some of their satellites, though such material located below the crust is referred to by other terms. A lava flow is a moving outpouring of lava created during a non-explosive effusive eruption; when it has stopped moving, lava solidifies to form igneous rock. The term lava flow is shortened to lava. Although lava can be up to 100,000 times more viscous than water, lava can flow great distances before cooling and solidifying because of its thixotropic and shear thinning properties. Explosive eruptions produce a mixture of volcanic ash and other fragments called tephra, rather than lava flows; the word lava comes from Italian, is derived from the Latin word labes which means a fall or slide.
The first use in connection with extruded magma was in a short account written by Francesco Serao on the eruption of Vesuvius in 1737. Serao described "a flow of fiery lava" as an analogy to the flow of water and mud down the flanks of the volcano following heavy rain; the composition of all lava of the Earth's crust is dominated by silicate minerals feldspars, pyroxenes, amphiboles and quartz. Igneous rocks, which form lava flows when erupted, can be classified into three chemical types: felsic and mafic; these classes are chemical, the chemistry of lava tends to correlate with the magma temperature, its viscosity and its mode of eruption. Felsic or silicic lavas such as rhyolite and dacite form lava spines, lava domes or "coulees" and are associated with pyroclastic deposits. Most silicic lava flows are viscous, fragment as they extrude, producing blocky autobreccias; the high viscosity and strength are the result of their chemistry, high in silica, potassium and calcium, forming a polymerized liquid rich in feldspar and quartz, thus has a higher viscosity than other magma types.
Felsic magmas can erupt at temperatures as low as 650 to 750 °C. Unusually hot rhyolite lavas, may flow for distances of many tens of kilometres, such as in the Snake River Plain of the northwestern United States. Intermediate or andesitic lavas are lower in aluminium and silica, somewhat richer in magnesium and iron. Intermediate lavas form andesite domes and block lavas, may occur on steep composite volcanoes, such as in the Andes. Poorer in aluminium and silica than felsic lavas, commonly hotter, they tend to be less viscous. Greater temperatures tend to destroy polymerized bonds within the magma, promoting more fluid behaviour and a greater tendency to form phenocrysts. Higher iron and magnesium tends to manifest as a darker groundmass, occasionally amphibole or pyroxene phenocrysts. Mafic or basaltic lavas are typified by their high ferromagnesian content, erupt at temperatures in excess of 950 °C. Basaltic magma is high in iron and magnesium, has lower aluminium and silica, which taken together reduces the degree of polymerization within the melt.
Owing to the higher temperatures, viscosities can be low, although still thousands of times higher than water. The low degree of polymerization and high temperature favors chemical diffusion, so it is common to see large, well-formed phenocrysts within mafic lavas. Basalt lavas tend to produce low-profile shield volcanoes or "flood basalt fields", because the fluidal lava flows for long distances from the vent; the thickness of a basalt lava on a low slope, may be much greater than the thickness of the moving lava flow at any one time, because basalt lavas may "inflate" by supply of lava beneath a solidified crust. Most basalt lavas are of pāhoehoe types, rather than block lavas. Underwater, they can form pillow lavas, which are rather similar to entrail-type pahoehoe lavas on land. Ultramafic lavas such as komatiite and magnesian magmas that form boninite take the composition and temperatures of eruptions to the extreme. Komatiites contain over 18% magnesium oxide, are thought to have erupted at temperatures of 1,600 °C.
At this temperature there is no polymerization of the mineral compounds, creating a mobile liquid. Most if not all ultramafic lavas are no younger than the Proterozoic, with a few ultramafic magmas known from the Phanerozoic. No modern komatiite lavas are known, as the Earth's mantle has cooled too much to produce magnesian magmas; some lavas of unusual composition have erupted onto the surface of the Earth. These include: Carbonatite and natrocarbonatite lavas are known from Ol Doinyo Lengai volcano in Tanzania, the sole example of an active carbonatite volcano. Iron oxide lavas are thought to be the source of the iron ore at Kiruna, Sweden which formed during the Proterozoic. Iron oxide lavas of Pliocene age occur at the El Laco volcanic complex on the Chile-Argentina border. Iron oxide lavas are thought to be the result of immiscible separation of iron oxide magma from a parental magma of calc-alkaline or alkaline composition. Sulfur lava flows up to 250 metres 10 metres wide occur at Lastarria volcano, Chile.
They were formed by the melting of sulfur deposits at temperatures as low as 113 °C
A lahar is a violent type of mudflow or debris flow composed of a slurry of pyroclastic material, rocky debris and water. The material flows down from a volcano along a river valley. Lahars are destructive: they can flow tens of metres per second, they have been known to be up to 140 metres deep, large flows tend to destroy any structures in their path, they have been known to decimate entire settlements. Notable lahars include those at Mount Pinatubo and Nevado del Ruiz, the latter of which killed thousands of people and caused extensive damage to infrastructure; the word lahar is of Javanese origin. The geological term was introduced by Berend George Escher in 1922. A lahar is a volcanic debris flow. Lahars have the consistency and approximate density of wet concrete: fluid when moving, solid at rest. Lahars can be huge; the Osceola Lahar produced by Mount Rainier some 5600 years ago resulted in a wall of mud 140 metres deep in the White River canyon, which covered an area of over 330 square kilometres, for a total volume of 2.3 cubic kilometres.
A lahar of sufficient size and intensity can erase any structure in its path, is capable of carving its own pathway, making the prediction of its course difficult. Conversely, a lahar loses force when it leaves the channel of its flow: frail huts may remain standing, while at the same time being buried to the roof line in mud. A lahar's viscosity decreases with time, can be further thinned by rain, but it solidifies when coming to a stop. Lahars vary in speed. Small lahars less than a few metres wide and several centimetres deep may flow a few metres per second. Large lahars hundreds of metres wide and tens of metres deep can flow several tens of metres per second: much too fast for people to outrun. With the potential to flow at speeds up to 100 kilometres per hour, flow distances of more than 300 kilometres, a lahar can cause catastrophic destruction in its path. Lahars from the 1985 Nevado del Ruiz eruption in Colombia caused the Armero tragedy, which killed an estimated 23,000 people, when the city of Armero was buried under 5 metres of mud and debris.
A lahar caused New Zealand's Tangiwai disaster, where 151 people died after a Christmas Eve express train fell into the Whangaehu River in 1953. Lahars have been responsible for 17% of volcano-related deaths between 1783 and 1997. A lahar can cause fatalities years after its precipitating eruption. For example, the Cabalantian tragedy occurred four years subsequent to the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo. Lahars have several possible causes: Snow and glaciers can be melted by lava and/or pyroclastic surges during an eruption. Lava gushes out of open vents and can mix with wet soil, mud and/or snow on the slope of the volcano making a viscous, high energy lahar. A flood caused by a glacier, lake breakout, or heavy rainfalls can generate lahars called glacier run or jökulhlaup Water from a crater lake, combined with volcanic elements in an eruption. Heavy rainfall on unconsolidated pyroclastic deposits. Volcanic landslides with water. In particular, although lahars are associated with the effects of volcanic activity, lahars can occur without any current volcanic activity, as long as the conditions are right to cause the collapse and movement of mud originating from existing volcanic ash deposits.
Snow and glaciers can melt during periods of mild to hot weather. Earthquakes underneath or close to the volcano can shake material loose and cause it to collapse, triggering a lahar avalanche. Rainfall can cause the still-hanging slabs of solidified mud to come rushing down the slopes at a speed of more than 30 kilometres per hour, causing devastating results. Several mountains in the world, including Mount Rainier in the United States, Mount Ruapehu in New Zealand and Galunggung in Indonesia, are considered dangerous due to the risk of lahars. Several towns in the Puyallup River valley in Washington state, including Orting, are built on top of lahar deposits that are only about 500 years old. Lahars are predicted to flow through the valley every 500 to 1,000 years, so Orting, Puyallup and the Port of Tacoma face considerable risk; the USGS has set up lahar warning sirens in Pierce County, Washington, so that people can flee an approaching debris flow in the event of a Mount Rainier eruption.
A lahar warning system has been set up at Mount Ruapehu by the New Zealand Department of Conservation and hailed as a success after it alerted officials to an impending lahar on 18 March 2007. Since mid-June 1991, when violent eruptions triggered Mount Pinatubo's first lahars in 500 years, a system to monitor and warn of lahars has been in operation. Radio-telemetered rain gauges provide data on rainfall in lahar source regions, acoustic flow monitors on stream banks detect ground vibration as lahars pass, manned watchpoints further confirm that lahars are rushing down Pinatubo's slopes; this system has enabled warnings to be sounded for most but not all major lahars at Pinatubo, saving hundreds of lives. Physical preventative measures by the Philippine government were not adequate to stop over 20 feet of mud from flooding many villages around Mount Pinatubo from 1992 through 1998. Scientists and governments try to identify areas with a high risk of lahars based on historical events and computer models.
Volcano scientists play a critical role in effective hazard education by informing officials and the public about realistic hazard probabilities and
1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens
On May 18, 1980, a major volcanic eruption occurred at Mount St. Helens, a volcano located in Skamania County, in the U. S. state of Washington. The eruption was the most significant volcanic eruption to occur in the contiguous 48 U. S. states since the much smaller 1915 eruption of Lassen Peak in California. It has been declared the most disastrous volcanic eruption in U. S. history. The eruption was preceded by a two-month series of earthquakes and steam-venting episodes, caused by an injection of magma at shallow depth below the volcano that created a large bulge and a fracture system on the mountain's north slope. An earthquake at 8:32:17 a.m. PDT on Sunday, May 18, 1980, caused the entire weakened north face to slide away, creating the largest landslide recorded; this allowed the molten, high-pressure gas- and steam-rich rock in the volcano to explode northwards toward Spirit Lake in a hot mix of lava and pulverized older rock, overtaking the avalanching face. An eruption column rose 80,000 feet into the atmosphere and deposited ash in 11 U.
S. states. At the same time, snow and several entire glaciers on the volcano melted, forming a series of large lahars that reached as far as the Columbia River, nearly 50 miles to the southwest. Less severe outbursts continued into the next day, only to be followed by other large, but not as destructive, eruptions that year. Thermal energy released during the eruption was equal to 26 megatons. 57 people were killed directly, including innkeeper Harry R. Truman, photographers Reid Blackburn and Robert Landsburg, geologist David A. Johnston. Hundreds of square miles were reduced to wasteland, causing over $1 billion in damage, thousands of animals were killed, Mount St. Helens was left with a crater on its north side. At the time of the eruption, the summit of the volcano was owned by the Burlington Northern Railroad, but afterward the land passed to the United States Forest Service; the area was preserved, as it was, in the Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument. Mount St. Helens remained dormant from its last period of activity in the 1840s and 1850s until March 1980.
Several small earthquakes, beginning on March 15, indicated that magma may have begun moving below the volcano. On March 20, at 3:45 p.m. Pacific Standard Time, a shallow magnitude 4.2 earthquake centered below the volcano's north flank, signaled the volcano's violent return from 123 years of hibernation. A building earthquake swarm saturated area seismographs and started to climax at about noon on March 25, reaching peak levels in the next two days, including an earthquake registering 5.1 on the Richter scale. A total of 174 shocks of magnitude 2.6 or greater were recorded during those two days. Shocks of magnitude 3.2 or greater occurred at a increasing rate during April and May with five earthquakes of magnitude 4 or above per day in early April, eight per day the week before May 18. There was no direct sign of eruption, but small earthquake-induced avalanches of snow and ice were reported from aerial observations. At 12:36 p.m. on March 27, phreatic eruptions ejected and smashed rock from within the old summit crater, excavating a new crater 250 feet wide, sending an ash column about 7,000 feet into the air.
By this date a 16,000-foot-long eastward-trending fracture system had developed across the summit area. This was followed by more earthquake swarms and a series of steam explosions that sent ash 10,000 to 11,000 feet above their vent. Most of this ash fell between three and twelve miles from its vent, but some was carried 150 miles south to Bend, Oregon, or 285 miles east to Spokane, Washington. A second, new crater and a blue flame were observed on March 29; the flame was visibly emitted from both craters and was created by burning gases. Static electricity generated from ash clouds rolling down the volcano sent out lightning bolts that were up to two miles long. Ninety-three separate outbursts were reported on March 30, strong harmonic tremors were first detected on April 1, alarming geologists and prompting Governor Dixy Lee Ray to declare a state of emergency on April 3. Governor Ray issued an executive order on April 30 creating a "red zone" around the volcano; this precluded many cabin owners from visiting their property.
By April 7, the combined crater was 500 feet deep. A USGS team determined in the last week of April that a 1.5-mile-diameter section of St. Helens' north face was displaced outward by at least 270 feet. For the rest of April and early May this bulge grew by five to six feet per day, by mid-May it extended more than 400 feet north; as the bulge moved northward, the summit area behind it progressively sank, forming a complex, down-dropped block called a graben. Geologists announced on April 30 that sliding of the bulge area was the greatest immediate danger and that such a landslide might spark an eruption; these changes in the volcano's shape were related to the overall deformation that increased the volume of the volcano by 0.03 cubic miles by mid-May. This volume increase corresponded to the volume of magma that pushed into the volcano and deformed its surface; because the intruded magma remained below ground and was not directly visible, it was called a cryptodome, in contrast to a true lava dome exposed at t
Puebla the Free and Sovereign State of Puebla is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 217 municipalities and its capital is the city of Puebla, it is located in East-Central Mexico. It is bordered by the states of Veracruz to the north and east, Hidalgo, México and Morelos to the west, Guerrero and Oaxaca to the south; the origins of the state lie in the city of Puebla, founded by the Spanish in this valley in 1531 to secure the trade route between Mexico City and the port of Veracruz. By the end of the 18th century, the area had become a colonial province with its own governor, which would become the State of Puebla, after the Mexican War of Independence in the early 19th century. Since that time the area around the capital city, has continued to grow economically through industry, despite being the scene of a number of battles, the most notable of which being the Battle of Puebla. Today, the state is one of the most industrialized in the country, but since most of its development is concentrated in Puebla and other cities, many of its rural areas are poor, forcing many to migrate away to places such as Mexico City and the United States.
Culturally, the state is home to the China Poblana, mole poblano, active literary and arts scenes and festivals such as Cinco de Mayo, Ritual of Quetzalcoatl, Day of the Dead celebrations and Carnival. It is home to five major indigenous groups: Nahuas, the Totonacs, the Mixtecs, the Popolocas and the Otomi, which can be found in the far north and the far south of the state; the state is in the central highlands of Mexico between the Sierra Nevada and the Sierra Madre Oriental. It has a triangular shape with its narrow part to the north, it borders the states of Veracruz, Guerrero, State of Mexico and Hidalgo. The state occupies 33,919 km2, ranking 20th of 31 states in size, has 4,930 named communities. Most of its mountains belong to the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt; the first is locally called the Sierra Norte del Puebla, entering the state from the northwest and breaks up into the smaller chains of Sierra de Zacapoaxtla, Sierra de Huauchinango, Sierra de Teziutlán, Sierra de Tetela de Ocampo, Sierra de Chignahuapan and Sierra de Zacatlán, although these names may vary among localities.
Some of the highest elevations include Apulco, Chignahuapan and Tlatlaquitepec. The highest elevations are the volcanoes Pico de Orizaba or Citlaltepetl, Popocatépetl, Iztaccíhuatl and Malinche which are found on the state's borders with Veracruz, Mexico State and Tlaxcala respectively. In the south of the state, the major elevations are the Sierra de Atenahuacán, Zapotitlán, Lomerio al Suroeste and the Sierra de Tehuacán. Dividing much of the state from Veracruz is a small chain of mountains called the Sierra Madre del Golfo; the natural geography of the state subdivides into the Huasteco Plateau, Llanuras y Lomeríos zone, Lagos y Volcanes del Anáhuac, Llanuras y Sierras de Querétaro e Hidalgo, Cordillera Costera del Sur, Mixteca Alta, Sierras y Valles Guerrenses, Sierras Centrales de Oaxaca, Sierras Orientales and Sur de Puebla. The Huasteco Plateau and the Llanuras y Lomeríos zone are located in the north and northeast, with the Lagos y Volcanes del Anáhuc in the center and north. Together, they account for over 50% of the state.
The east and northeast are occupies by the Chiconquiaco and Llanudras y Sierras de Querétaro e Hidalgo areas and account for about three percent of the state. The Cordillera del Sur and Mixteca Alta are located in the west and southwest covering less than 2.5% of the state. The Sur de Puebla is in the southwest and accounts for 26% of the state. Other southern subregions include the Sierras y Valles Guerrerenses, the Sierras Centrales de Oaxaca and the Sierras Orientales. Together, they account for about 15% of the state; the hydrology of Puebla is formed by three major river systems. One is based on the Atoyac River, which originates with the melting runoff of the Halos, Telapón and Papagayo mountains along with those from the Iztaccihuatl volcano and waters from the Zahuapan River, which enters from Tlaxcala; this river receives further water from tributaries such as the Acateno, Amacuzac and Cohetzala. The river has one major dam called Manuel Avila Camacho; this river flows west to the Pacific Ocean.
The next system empties into the Gulf of Mexico and consists of the Pantepec, Necaxa, San Pedro/Zun, Apulco, Cedro Viejo, Martínez de la Torre and other rivers on the east side of the state. This system has two major dams called the Mazatepec; the third is based on the large number of small lakes fresh water springs as well as some volcanically heated springs. The best known of these include Chignahuapan, Agua Azúl, Cisnaqullas, Garcicrespo and Rancho Colorado. Lakes include Chapulco, San Bernardino, Lagunas Epatlán, Almoloyan, Pahuatlán, Las Minas and Tecuitlapa. Puebla has many different climates owing to its range of altitudes, it has an average temperature of 16 °C but this varies locally. There is a rainy season from May until October with an overall precipitation of 801 mm; the state has eleven different climate zones. The centre and south of the state has a temperate and semi-moist climate, with an average temperature of 15 °C and 858 mm of rainfall; the southwest has a warm to hot and semi-mois
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List
Diego de Ordaz
Diego de Ordaz Diego de Ordás was a Spanish explorer and soldier. Diego de Ordaz arrived in Cuba at a young age. Serving under the orders of Diego Velázquez, he participated in the earliest exploratory expeditions to Colombia and Panamá. De Ordaz accompanied Hernán Cortés on his expedition of conquest to the Mexican mainland, he was recognized for his contribution to the victory over the Aztecs obtained at the Battle of Centla near Río Grijalva in Tabasco on March 25, 1519. Together with two comrades, he was the first European to climb to the top of the volcano Popocatépetl - a feat which made a great impression on the indigenous allies accompanying Cortés. In recognition of De Ordaz's military deeds, the emperor Charles V on October 22, 1525 issued a decree permitting him to use a coat-of-arms featuring a view of the volcano. De Ordaz participated in the Spanish conquest of the Aztec capital; when prior to the final conquest, the Spaniards were forced to flee from the capital in a nocturnal action known as La Noche Triste, De Ordaz was wounded.
Following the conquest of Mexico, De Ordaz explored the areas of Oaxaca and Veracruz, navigated the Río Coatzacoalos. In 1521, he was sent back to Spain in order to present the story of the conquest of Mexico to the Spanish court, in order to obtain for Cortės the title of Governor and General Captain of New Spain. De Ordaz returned to North America in 1525. In 1529, he was granted the property of El Peñón de los Baños located within the limits of Mexico City, he returned again to Spain and requested permission to explore the lands of the mythical El Dorado, believed to lie inland in the area of what is now Venezuela. Having obtained permission, he sailed for South America. After abandoning the search for El Dorado, he died in 1532 on the Venezuelan Paria Peninsula. In 1952, a planned city called Puerto Ordaz was founded in Venezuela on the banks of the Orinoco River. Diego de Ordaz was one of the principal characters in the anonymous historical novel Jicoténcal published in Philadelphia in 1826 and attributed to several different writers like Felix Varela, José María Heredia, Félix Mejía