Popular Science

Popular Science is an American quarterly magazine carrying popular science content, which refers to articles for the general reader on science and technology subjects. Popular Science has won over 58 awards, including the American Society of Magazine Editors awards for its journalistic excellence in 2003, 2004, 2019. With roots beginning in 1872, Popular Science has been translated into over 30 languages and is distributed to at least 45 countries; the Popular Science Monthly, as the publication was called, was founded in May 1872 by Edward L. Youmans to disseminate scientific knowledge to the educated layman. Youmans had worked as an editor for the weekly Appleton's Journal and persuaded them to publish his new journal. Early issues were reprints of English periodicals; the journal became an outlet for writings and ideas of Charles Darwin, Thomas Henry Huxley, Louis Pasteur, Henry Ward Beecher, Charles Sanders Peirce, William James, Thomas Edison, John Dewey and James McKeen Cattell. William Jay Youmans, Edward's brother, helped found Popular Science Monthly in 1872 and was an editor as well.

He became editor-in-chief on Edward's death in 1887. The publisher, D. Appleton & Company, was forced for economic reasons to sell the journal in 1900. James McKeen Cattell became the editor in 1900 and the publisher in 1901. Cattell continued publishing articles for educated readers. By 1915 the readership was publishing a science journal was a financial challenge. In a September 1915 editorial, Cattell related these difficulties to his readers and announced that the Popular Science Monthly name had been "transferred" to a group that wanted the name for a general audience magazine, a publication which fit the name better; the existing journal would continue the academic tradition as Scientific Monthly. Existing subscribers would remain subscribed under the new name. Scientific Monthly was published until 1958; the Modern Publishing Company acquired the Popular Science Monthly name. This company had purchased Electrician and Mechanic magazine in 1914 and over the next two years merged several magazines together into a science magazine for a general audience.

The magazine had a series of name changes: Modern Electrics and Mechanics, Popular Electricity and Modern Mechanics, Modern Mechanics and World's Advance, before the publishers purchased the name Popular Science Monthly. The October 1915 issue was titled World's Advance; the volume number was that of Popular Science but the content was that of World's Advance. The new editor was a former editor of Scientific American; the change in Popular Science Monthly was dramatic. The old version was a scholarly journal. There would be ten to illustrations; the new version had hundreds of short, easy to read articles with hundreds of illustrations. Editor Kaempffert was writing for "the home craftsman and hobbyist who wanted to know something about the world of science." The circulation doubled in the first year. From the mid-1930s to the 1960s, the magazine featured fictional stories of Gus Wilson's Model Garage, centered on car problems. An annual review of changes to the new model year cars ran in 1940 and'41, but did not return after the war until 1954.

It continued until the mid-1970s when the magazine reverted to publishing the new models over multiple issues as information became available. From 1935 to 1949, the magazine sponsored a series of short films, produced by Jerry Fairbanks and released by Paramount Pictures. From July 1952 to December 1989, Popular Science carried Roy Doty's Wordless Workshop as a regular feature. From July 1969 to May 1989, the cover and table of contents carried the subtitle, "The What's New Magazine." The cover removed the subtitle the following month and the contents page removed it in February 1990. In 1983, the magazine introduced a new logo using the ITC Avant Garde font, which it used until late 1995. Within the next 11 years, its font changed 4 times. In 2009, the magazine used a new font for its logo, used until the January 2014 issue. In 2014, Popular Science sported a new look and introduced a new logo for the first time in 8 years, complete with a major overhaul of its articles; the Popular Science Publishing Company, which the magazine bears its name, was acquired in 1967 by the Los Angeles-based Times Mirror Company.

In 2000, Times Mirror merged with the Chicago-based Tribune Company, which sold the Times Mirror magazines to Time Inc. the following year. On January 25, 2007, Time Warner sold this magazine, along with 17 other special interest magazines, to Bonnier Magazine Group. On September 24, 2008, Australian publishing company Australian Media Properties launched a local version of Popular Science, it is a monthly magazine, like its American counterpart, uses content from the American version of the magazine as well as local material. Australian Media Properties launched at the same time, a localised version of the Popular Science website. In January 2016, Popular Science switched to bi-monthly publication after 144 years of monthly publication. In April 2016 it was announced. In August 2016, Joe Brown was named Popular Science's new Editor in Chief. In September 2018, it was announced. Popular Science Radio is a partnership between Popular Science and Entertainment Radio Networ

Ravenhill (band)

Ravenhill is an American rock band. They are from southern Illinois but now reside in Nashville, Tennessee; the band started making music in 2009. Their membership is Joshua Clifton, Taylor Chance, Brady Clifton, Mike Bay, Kyle Hassenfratz, with former members Coleman Fitch, Dane Johns, Jonathan Raby; the band released an album and Gentlemen, I Present To You... independently in 2009. Their next release, the EP Live on Delmar, was released independently in 2010, they released a second extended play, Lions, in 2011 independently. Their first studio album, was released by Slospeak Records in 2015. Ravenhill, named after Leonard Ravenhill, is a Southern rock band from southern Illinois around West Frankfort and Herrin. In 2010, the band moved to Nashville and signed to indie record label Slospeak Records, their members are vocalist and guitarist Joshua Clifton, guitarists Taylor Chance and Mike Bay, bassist Brady Clifton, drummer Kyle Hassenfratz, with their former members guitarist Dan Johns and drummers Coleman Fitch and Jonathan Raby, the latter performing background vocals for the group.

The band commenced as a musical entity in 2009 with their first release and Gentlemen, I Present To You... an independently released album. They released an extended play, Live on Delmar, independently in 2010; the subsequent release, yet another extended play, was released independently on May 20, 2011. Their first studio album, was released on March 24, 2015, from Slospeak Records; the single "Mercy" hit to No. 20 on the Billboard magazine Christian rock chart. Joshua Clifton – lead vocals, guitar Taylor Chance – guitar Mike Bay – guitar Brady Clifton – bass, background vocals Kyle Hassenfratz – drums Coleman Fitch – drums Dane Johns – guitar Jon Raby – drums, background vocals Chris Goode – drums Aaron Broach – keys David Curtis – guitar Jeremy Jackson – bass Ladies and Gentlemen, I Present To You... Soul Live on Delmar Lions Official website

Chip art

Chip art known as silicon art, chip graffiti or silicon doodling, refers to microscopic artwork built into integrated circuits called chips or ICs. Since ICs are printed by photolithography, not constructed a component at a time, there is no additional cost to include features in otherwise unused space on the chip. Designers have used this freedom to put all sorts of artwork on the chips themselves, from designers' simple initials to rather complex drawings. Given the small size of chips, these figures cannot be seen without a microscope. Chip graffiti is sometimes called the hardware version of software easter eggs. Prior to 1984, these doodles served a practical purpose. If a competitor produced a similar chip, examination showed it contained the same doodles this was strong evidence that the design was copied and not independently derived. A 1984 revision of the US copyright law made all chip masks automatically copyrighted, with exclusive rights to the creator, similar rules apply in most other countries that manufacture ICs.

Since an exact copy is now automatically a copyright violation, the doodles serve no useful purpose. Integrated Circuits are constructed from multiple layers of material silicon, silicon dioxide, aluminum; the composition and thickness of these layers give them their distinctive appearance. These elements created an irresistible palette for IC layout engineers; the creative process involved in the design of these chips, a strong sense of pride in their work, an artistic temperament combined compels people to want to mark their work as their own. It is common to find initials, or groups of initials on chips; this is the design engineer's way of "signing" her work. This creative artist's instinct extends to the inclusion of small pictures or icons; these may be images of significance to the designers, comments related to the chip's function, inside jokes, or satirical references. Because of the difficulty in verifying their existence, chip art has been the subject of online hoaxes; the mass production of these works of art as parasites on the body of a commercial IC goes unnoticed by most observers and is discouraged by semiconductor corporations from the fear that the presence of the artwork will interfere with some necessary function in the chip or design flow.

Some laboratories have started collaborating with artists or directly producing books and exhibits with the micrographs of these chips. Such is the case of Harvard chemist George Whitesides, who collaborated with pioneer photographer Felice Frankel to publish On the Surface of Things, a praised photography book on experiments from the Whitesides lab; the laboratory of Albert Folch at the University of Washington's Bioengineering Dept. has a popular online gallery with more than 1,700 free BioMEMS-related chip art micrographs and has produced three art exhibits in the Seattle area, with online sales. The Silicon Zoo - A portion of the Molecular Expressions web site from Florida State University, containing pictures of hundreds of discovered chip artworks; the buffalo shown here is from this website. Yahoo directory of chip art articles. Chipworks An entire silicon art gallery found on the chips analysed by Chipworks. Chip graffiti from the Smithsonian Museum of American History Art on the Head of a Microchip, Bruce Headlam, New York Times, 4 March 1999