The 1923 population exchange between Greece and Turkey stemmed from the "Convention Concerning the Exchange of Greek and Turkish Populations" signed at Lausanne, Switzerland, on 30 January 1923, by the governments of Greece and Turkey. It involved at least 1.6 million people, most of whom were forcibly made refugees and de jure denaturalized from their homelands. The initial request for an exchange of population came from Greek Prime Minister Eleftherios Venizelos, a plan he had thought earlier before WWI, as to resolve relations between the two countries. In a letter he submitted to the League of Nations on October 16, 1922, Venizelos proposed a "compulsory exchange of Greek and Turkish populations," and asked Fridtjof Nansen to make the necessary arrangements; the new state of Turkey envisioned the population exchange as a way to formalize and make permanent the flight of its native Greek Orthodox peoples following their genocide, while initiating a new exodus of a smaller number of Muslims from Greece as a way to provide settlers for the now depopulated Greek Orthodox villages of Turkey.
This major compulsory population exchange, or agreed mutual expulsion, was based not on language or ethnicity, but upon religious identity, involved nearly all the indigenous Orthodox Christian citizens of Turkey, including Turkish-speaking Orthodox citizens, on the other side most of the native Muslims of Greece, including Greek-speaking Muslim citizens, such as Cretan Turks. Each group were citizens, native peoples, of the state seeking to expel them, neither had representation in the state purporting to speak for them in the exchange treaty. By the end of 1922, the vast majority of native Asia Minor Greeks had fled the new state of Turkey due to the Greek genocide there, as well as the defeat of the Greek army in the Greco-Turkish War. According to some calculations, during the autumn of 1922, around 900,000 Greeks arrived in Greece. According to Fridtjof Nansen, before the final stage, in 1922, of the 900,000 Greek refugees a third were from Eastern Thrace, with the other two thirds being from Asia Minor.
The Ottoman census of 1914 counted 13.4 million Muslims, 1.2 million Armenians and 1.8 million Greeks an undercount of 1,200,000 Christians: 2.1 million Greeks, 1.9 million Armenians, 0.4 million Assyrians - 4.4 million. The Ottoman estimate of Christian population of 3 million within the present borders of Turkey was 4.4 million of the 17.5 million total. Christians were close to 25% of the population in 1912, not 18.9% as reported. There were 7.5 million people in the Ottoman governed Arabic-speaking regions of the Levant and Iraq of whom 1.6 million were Christians giving the total number of Christians in the Empire as just short of 6 million or less than 24%. The estimate for the Greeks living within the present day borders of Turkey in 1914 could be as high as 2.130 million a figure higher than the 1.8 million Greeks in the Ottoman census of 1910 which included Western Thrace and Epirus based on the number of Greeks who left for Greece just before World War I and the number, 1.3. Million who arrived in the population exchanges of 1923, massacred, estimated to between 300-900,000.
A revised count suggests 620,000 in Eastern Thrace including Constantinople, 550,000 Pontic Greeks, 900,000 Anatolian Greeks and 60,000 Cappadocian Greeks. Arrivals in Greece from the exchange numbered 1,310,000 according to the map with figures below: 260,000 from Eastern Thrace, 20,000 from the southern shore of the Sea of Marmara, 650,000 from Anatolia, 60,000 from Cappadocia, 280,000 Pontic Greeks, 40,000 left Constantinople. Additionally 50,000 Greeks came from the Caucasus, 50,000 from Bulgaria and 12,000 from Crimea 1.42 million from all regions. 340,000 Greeks remained in Turkey, 220,000 of them in Istanbul in 1924. The most given figure for Ottoman Greeks killed from 1914 to 1923 ranges from 300,000-900,000. For the whole of the period between 1914 and 1922 and for the whole of Anatolia, there are academic estimates of death toll ranging from 289,000 to 750,000; the figure of 750,000 is suggested by political scientist Adam Jones. Scholar Rudolph Rummel compiled various figures from several studies to estimate lower and higher bounds for the death toll between 1914 and 1923.
He estimates that 384,000 Greeks were exterminated from 1914 to 1918, 264,000 from 1920 to 1922. The total number reaching 648,000. Rummel, R. J. "Statistics Of Turkey's Democide Estimates, And Sources". University of Hawai'i. Retrieved 15 April 2015. Table 5.1B. Hinton, Alexander Laban. Hidden Genocides: Power, Memory. Rutgers University Press. P. 180. ISBN 9780813561646; the foremost expert on genocide statistics, Rudolph Rummel, has estimated that from 1914 to 1918 the Ottomans exterminated up to 384,000, while from 1920 to 1922 another 264,000 Greeks were killed by the Nationalists. Historian Constantine G Hatzidimitriou writes that "loss of life among Anatolian Greeks during the WWI period and its aftermath was 735
Andy Schor is an American politician from Michigan serving as the 52nd mayor of Lansing, Michigan. Schor represented the 68th District in the Michigan House of Representatives, which includes most of the City of Lansing and all of Lansing Township. From New York, Schor moved to Michigan to attend the University of Michigan, where he earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in Political Science and History. In the Michigan House of Representatives, Schor served as Minority Vice Chair of the House Committee on Commerce and Trade, as a member of the House Education and House Regulatory Reform committees. Schor served for ten years as a member of the Ingham County Board of Commissioners, he is a founding member of the Ingham County Land Bank and has served as a board member of the Tri-County Office of Aging and the South Lansing Community Development Association. Schor has worked as assistant director of state affairs for the Michigan Municipal League for six years, as aide for then-State Senator Gary Peters and in the administration of former Governor Jennifer Granholm.
In the 2017 mayoral election, Schor was elected mayor of the city's first Jewish mayor. Lansing Mayor Andy Schor official city government site Andy Schor for Mayor official campaign site
A global network is any communication network which spans the entire Earth. The term, as used in this article refers in a more restricted way to bidirectional communication networks, to technology-based networks. Early networks such as international mail and unidirectional communication networks, such as radio and television, are described elsewhere; the first global network was established using electrical telegraphy and global span was achieved in 1899. The telephony network was the second to achieve global status, in the 1950s. More interconnected IP networks, the GSM mobile communication network form the largest global networks of all. Setting up global networks requires immensely costly and lengthy efforts lasting for decades. Elaborate interconnections and routing devices, laying out physical carriers of information, such as land and submarine cables and earth stations must be set in operation. In addition, international communication protocols and agreements are involved. Global networks might refer to networks of individuals and organizations worldwide which, for instance, might have formed for the management and resolval of global issues.
Communication satellites are an important part of global networks. However, there are specific low Earth orbit global satellite constellations, such as Iridium and Orbcomm, which are comprised by dozens of similar satellites which are put in orbit at spaced positions and form a mesh network, sometimes sending and receiving information directly among themselves. Using VSAT technology, satellite internet access has become possible, it is estimated that 80% of the global mobile market uses the GSM standard, present in more than 212 countries and territories. Its ubiquity makes international roaming common between mobile phone operators, enabling subscribers to use their phones in many parts of the world. In order to achieve this, these networks must be interconnected by way of peering arrangements, therefore the GSM network is a global one; the telegraph and telex communication networks have been phased out, so interconnection among existing global networks arise at several points, such as between the voice telephony and digital data networks, between these and satellite networks.
Many applications run now on several networks, such as VoIP. Mobile communication networks are intimately intertwined, because the majority of 21st century cell phones have both voice and data capabilities. Digital global networks require huge carrying capacity in the main backbones; this is achieved by fiber optic cables. The Canadian sociologist Marshall McLuhan was the first to forecast the huge impact of the matrix of global networks upon society, coining the term global village, his work, related to radio and television networks, which are broadcast networks, thus predating the much larger impact of the internet. Global networks have revolutionized human communication several times; the first to do so was the electrical telegraph. Its impact was so large, it was expanded many times in its coverage with the advent of radiotelegraphy, with text messaging using telex machines. The Internet and mobile communication networks have made possible new forms of social interaction and organizing, thanks to its basic features such as widespread usability and access, instant communication from any connected point to another.
Thus, its social impact has been, still is, enormous. The impact on governance have been significant facilitating the emergence of'transnational policy networks'