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Populous (video game)

Populous is a video game developed by Bullfrog Productions and published by Electronic Arts, released for the Amiga in 1989, is regarded by many as the first God game. With over four million copies sold, Populous is one of the best-selling PC games of all time; the player assumes the role of a deity, who must lead followers through direction and divine intervention, with the goal of eliminating the followers led by the opposite deity. Played from an isometric perspective, the game consists of more than 500 levels, with each level being a piece of land which contains the player's followers and the enemy's followers; the player is tasked with defeating the enemy followers and increasing their own followers' population using a series of divine powers before moving on to the next level. The game was designed by Peter Molyneux, Bullfrog developed a gameplay prototype via a board game they invented using Lego; the game received critical acclaim upon release, with critics praising the game's graphics, design and replay value.

It was nominated for multiple year-end accolades, including Game of the Year from several gaming publications. The game was ported to many other computer systems and was supported with multiple expansion packs, it is the first game in the Populous series, preceding Populous II: Trials of the Olympian Gods and Populous: The Beginning. The main action window in Populous is viewed from an isometric perspective, it is set in a "tabletop" on which are set the command icons, the world map and a slider bar that measures the level of the player's divine power or "mana"; the game consists of 500 levels, each level represents an area of land on which live the player's followers and the enemy followers. In order to progress to the next level the player must increase the number of their followers such that they can wipe out the enemy followers; this is done by using a series of divine powers. There are a number of different landscapes the world can be, such as desert and lava, snow and ice, etc. and the type of landscape is not aesthetic: it affects the development of the player's and enemy's followers.

The most basic power is lowering land. This is done in order to provide flat land for the player's followers to build on; as the player's followers build more houses they create more followers, this increases the player's mana level. Increasing the mana level unlocks additional divine powers that allow the player to interact further with the landscape and the population; the powers include the ability to cause earthquakes and floods, create swamps and volcanoes, turn ordinary followers into more powerful knights. In this game the player adopts the role of a deity and assumes the responsibility of shepherding people by direction and divine intervention; the player has the ability to shape the landscape and grow their civilization – and their divine power – with the overall aim of having their followers conquer an enemy force, led by an opposing deity. Peter Molyneux led development, inspired by Bullfrog's artist Glenn Corpes having drawn isometric blocks after playing David Braben's Virus. Molyneux developed an isometric landscape populated it with little people that he called "peeps", but there was no game.

He developed the raise/lower terrain gameplay mechanic as a way of helping the peeps to move around. As a way of reducing the number of peeps on the screen, he decided that if a peep encountered a piece of blank, flat land, it would build a house, that a larger area of land would enable a peep to build a larger house, thus the core mechanics – god-like intervention and the desire for peeps to expand – were created. The endgame – of creating a final battle to force the two sides to enter a final conflict – developed as a result of the developmental games going on for hours and having no firm end. Bullfrog attempted to prototype the gameplay via a board game they invented using Lego, Molyneux admits that whilst it didn't help the developers to balance the game at all, it provided a useful media angle to help publicise the game. During the test phase the testers requested a cheat code to skip the end of the game, as there was insufficient time to play through all 500 levels, it was only at this point that Bullfrog realised that they had not included any kind of ending to the game.

The team repurposed an interstitial page from between levels and used it as the final screen. After demoing the game to over a dozen publishers, Bullfrog gained the interest of Electronic Arts, who had a gap in their spring release schedule and was willing to take a chance on the game. Bullfrog accepted their offer, although Molyneux described the contract as "pretty atrocious:" 10% royalties on units sold, rising to 12% after one million units sold, with only a small up-front payment. Bullfrog produced Populous World Editor, which gave users the ability to modify the appearance of characters and terrain. An expansion pack called Populous: The Promised Lands added five new types of landscape. In addition, another expansion disk called Populous: The Final Frontier added a single new landscape-type and was released as a cover disk for The One. Populous was released in March 1989 to universal critical acclaim; the game received a 5 out of 5 stars in 1989 in Dragon #150 by Hartley and Kirk Lesser in "The Role of Computers" column.

Biff Kritzen of C

Hal Jeffcoat

Harold Bentley Jeffcoat was an American professional baseball player who forged a 12-season, 918-game Major League Baseball career, first as an outfielder and as a right-handed pitcher as a member of the Chicago Cubs, Cincinnati Redlegs and Reds, St. Louis Cardinals. Born in West Columbia, South Carolina, he batted right-handed and was listed as 5 feet, 10​1⁄2 inches tall and 185 pounds, he was the younger brother by 11 years of former major league pitcher George Jeffcoat. Jeffcoat served in the United States Army during World War II. A paratrooper, he saw combat during the Italian Campaign, he entered professional baseball in 1946, in his second year, he led the 1947 Double-A Southern Association in base hits and knocked in 118 runs, despite striking only four home runs all season. His major league career began with the Cubs the following year; as a hitter in the majors, in 1,963 at-bats, Jeffcoat scored 249 runs and collected 487 hits, including 95 doubles, 18 triples, 26 home runs, 696 total bases, 188 runs batted in, 49 stolen bases and 114 bases on balls received.

He batted.248, with.355 slugging percentage. Jeffcoat had 47 sacrifice hits and two sacrifice flies, his best season as a position player came as a rookie in 1948, when he appeared in 132 games and batted.279 with 132 hits. Jeffcoat converted from outfielder to pitcher in 1954 while playing for the Cubs, he worked in 43 games pitched that season, all but three in relief, would log only four more games in the outfield for the remainder of his major league career. In his debut year on the mound, he won five of 11 decisions and earned seven saves, leading the club. In 104 innings pitched, he posted, his most successful seasons as a pitcher came from 1955 through 1957. In 1955, he lowered his ERA to 2.95 won eight of ten decisions in 1956 and recorded ten complete games as a starting pitcher in 1957. Overall, in 245 MLB games pitched, with 51 games started, he posted a win–loss record of 39–37, with 13 complete games, one shutout, with 25 saves. In 697 innings pitched, he allowed 772 hits, 365 runs, 327 earned runs, 73 home runs and 257 walks, with 239 strikeouts, 22 hit batsmen, 13 wild pitches, 3,053 batters faced, 35 intentional walks and a 4.22 career earned run average.

He is remembered as the pitcher who beaned Brooklyn's Don Zimmer on June 23, 1956, fracturing Zimmer's cheekbone and ending his season. Career statistics and player information from MLB, or Baseball-Reference, or Baseball-Reference or Retrosheet Biography at Baseball in Wartime.com Sharp, Andrew. "Hal Jeffcoat". Society for American Baseball Research Biography Project. Hal Jeffcoat at Find a Grave

Glyphodes negatalis

Glyphodes negatalis, the karanj defoliator, is a species of moth of the family Crambidae. The species was first described by Francis Walker in 1859, it has a wide range in the tropics, including South Africa, The Gambia, India, Sri Lanka, Hong Kong and eastern Australia. The wingspan is about 20 mm. Adults are white with several ragged pale brown submarginal bands outlined in dark brown; the hindwings are white with brown margins. The larvae feed on Ficus microcarpa and Ficus religiosa. In India they had been found as a main defoliator of Pongamia pinnata and in Japan the larvae had been found on Ficus superba var. japonica

Gabor filter

In image processing, a Gabor filter, named after Dennis Gabor, is a linear filter used for texture analysis, which means that it analyzes whether there are any specific frequency content in the image in specific directions in a localized region around the point or region of analysis. Frequency and orientation representations of Gabor filters are claimed by many contemporary vision scientists to be similar to those of the human visual system, they have been found to be appropriate for texture representation and discrimination. In the spatial domain, a 2D Gabor filter is a Gaussian kernel function modulated by a sinusoidal plane wave; some authors claim that simple cells in the visual cortex of mammalian brains can be modeled by Gabor functions. Thus, image analysis with Gabor filters is thought by some to be similar to perception in the human visual system, its impulse response is defined by a sinusoidal wave multiplied by a Gaussian function. Because of the multiplication-convolution property, the Fourier transform of a Gabor filter's impulse response is the convolution of the Fourier transform of the harmonic function and the Fourier transform of the Gaussian function.

The filter has an imaginary component representing orthogonal directions. The two components may be used individually. Complex g = exp ⁡ exp ⁡ Real g = exp ⁡ cos ⁡ Imaginary g = exp ⁡ sin ⁡ where x ′ = x cos ⁡ θ + y sin ⁡ θ and y ′ = − x sin ⁡ θ + y cos ⁡ θ In this equation, λ represents the wavelength of the sinusoidal factor, θ represents the orientation of the normal to the parallel stripes of a Gabor function, ψ is the phase offset, σ is the sigma/standard deviation of the Gaussian envelope and γ is the spatial aspect ratio, specifies the ellipticity of the support of the Gabor function. Gabor filters are directly related to Gabor wavelets, since they can be designed for a number of dilations and rotations. However, in general, expansion is not applied for Gabor wavelets, since this requires computation of bi-orthogonal wavelets, which may be time-consuming; therefore a filter bank consisting of Gabor filters with various scales and rotations is created. The filters are convolved with the signal.

This process is related to processes in the primary visual cortex. Jones and Palmer showed that the real part of the complex Gabor function is a good fit to the receptive field weight functions found in simple cells in a cat's striate cortex. A set of Gabor filters with different frequencies and orientations may be helpful for extracting useful features from an image. In the discrete domain, two-dimensional Gabor filters are given by

Finland in the Eurovision Song Contest 1984

Finland was represented by Kirka, with the song'"Hengaillaan", at the 1984 Eurovision Song Contest, which took place on 5 May in Luxembourg City. "Hengaillaan" was chosen as the Finnish entry at the national final organised by broadcaster Yle and held on 18 February, when Kirka won the Finnish Eurovision ticket at his eighth attempt. The final was held at the Yle studios in hosted by Maria Valkama. Eleven songs took part, having been chosen by an "expert" jury from 21 songs, broadcast on radio only on 22 and 23 January; the winning song was chosen by postcard voting. Other participants included future Finnish representatives Anneli Saaristo. On the night of the final Kirka performed 16th in the running order, following Turkey and preceding Switzerland. At the close of voting "Hengaillaan" had received 46 points, placing Finland 9th of the 19 entries, the country's highest finish since 1975; the Finnish jury awarded its 12 points to Italy. Finland in the Eurovision Song Contest Eurovision Song Contest 1984

USS Biddle (TB-26)

The first USS Biddle was a torpedo boat in the United States Navy. She was named for Captain Nicholas Biddle. Biddle was launched 18 May 1901 by Ltd.. Bath, Maine. Biddle, great-great-grandniece of Captain Biddle. Biddle departed Newport, Rhode Island, 1 November 1901 for Port Royal, South Carolina where she went into reserve. Following recommissioning 28 May 1902 she cruised with the Torpedo Boat Flotilla along the Atlantic coast and in the West Indies until January 1903, she went into reserve again 16 February 1903 at Norfolk Navy Yard and remained there until recommissioned 14 May 1909. Biddle spent the summer cruising with the Atlantic Torpedo Fleet and went into reserve at Charleston Navy Yard 18 November 1909. In October 1911 she shifted to the Reserve Flotilla Division at Annapolis and went into ordinary at the Naval Academy, 13 March 1914. After serving with the Pennsylvania Naval Militia Biddle reverted to the Annapolis Reserve torpedo Division. Recommissioned 6 April 1917 she served in the 5th Naval District as a patrol and despatch vessel at Norfolk.

Biddle was renamed Coast Torpedo Boat No. 12, 1 August 1918. Ordered to Philadelphia Navy Yard in January 1919, she was decommissioned 12 March 1919 and sold 19 July 1920; this article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. The entry can be found here. Additional technical data from Gardiner, Robert. Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1860–1905. Conway Maritime Press. P. 161. ISBN 0-85177-133-5. Photo gallery of Biddle at NavSource Naval History