Porcupines are large rodents with coats of sharp spines, or quills, that protect them against predators. The term covers two families of animals: the Old World porcupines of family Hystricidae, the New World porcupines of family Erethizontidae. Both families belong to the infraorder Hystricognathi within the profoundly diverse order Rodentia and display superficially similar coats of quills: despite this, the two groups are distinct from each other and are not related to each other within the Hystricognathi; the Old World porcupines live in southern Europe and most of Africa. They are large and nocturnal. In taxonomic terms, they form the family Hystricidae; the New World porcupines are indigenous to northern South America. They can climb trees, where some species spend their entire lives, they are less nocturnal than their Old World relatives, smaller. In taxonomic terms, they form the family Erethizontidae. Most porcupines are about 60–90 cm long, with a 20–25 cm long tail. Weighing 5–16 kg, they are rounded and slow, use aposematic strategy of defence.
Porcupines occur in various shades of brown and white. Porcupines' spiny protection resembles that of the unrelated erinaceomorph hedgehogs and Australian monotreme echidnas as well as tenrecid tenrecs; the name "porcupine" comes from Latin porcus pig + spina spine, via Old Italian—Middle French—Middle English. A regional American name for the animal is quill pig. Fossils belonging to the genus Hystrix date back to the late Miocene of the continent of Africa. A porcupine is any of 58 species of rodents belonging to the families Hystricidae. Porcupines vary in size considerably: Rothschild's porcupine of South America weighs less than a kilogram; the two families of porcupines are quite different, although both belong to the Hystricognathi branch of the vast order Rodentia, they are not related. The 11 Old World porcupines tend to be large, have spikes grouped in clusters; the two subfamilies of New World porcupines are smaller, have their quills attached singly rather than grouped in clusters, are excellent climbers, spending much of their time in trees.
The New World porcupines evolved their spines independently and are more related to several other families of rodents than they are to the Old World porcupines. Porcupines have a high longevity and had held the record for being the longest-living rodent, with one individual living to 27 years, until the record was broken in 2002 by a naked mole-rat living to 28 years; the North American porcupine is an herbivore. In the winter, it may eat bark, it climbs trees to find food. The African porcupine is not a climber and forages on the ground, it is nocturnal, but will sometimes forage for food in the day, eating bark, roots and berries, as well as farm crops. Porcupines are eaten as a delicacy. Defensive behaviour displays in a porcupine depend on sight and sound. Displays are shown when a porcupine becomes agitated or annoyed. There are four main displays seen in a porcupine which are quill erection, teeth clattering, emitting of odour, attack; these displays are ranked from least aggressive to most aggressive respectively.
A porcupine's colouring aids in part of its defence as most of the predators are nocturnal and colour blind. A porcupine's markings are white; the dark body and coarse hair of the porcupine are a dark brown/black and when quills are raised, present a white strip down its back mimicking the look of a skunk. This, along with the raising of the sharp quills, deters predators. Along with the raising of the quills, porcupines clatter their teeth causing warning noise to let predators know not to come closer; the incisors vibrate against each other, the strike zone shifts back and the cheek teeth clatter. This behaviour is paired with body shivering, used to further display the dangerous quills; the rattling of quills is aided by the hollow quills at the back end of the porcupine. The use of odor is when the sound have failed. An invasive scent is produced from the skin above the tail in times of stress, is seen with quill erection. If the above processes fail, the porcupine will attack by running sideways or backwards into predators.
A porcupine's tail is able to swing in the direction of the predator. If contact is made, the quills could be impaled into the predator causing death. Porcupines' quills, or spines, take on various forms, depending on the species, but all are modified hairs coated with thick plates of keratin, embedded in the skin musculature. Old World porcupines have quills embedded in clusters, whereas in New World porcupines, single quills are interspersed with bristles and hair. Quills may drop out when the porcupine shakes its body. New quills grow to replace lost ones. Porcupines were long believed to have the ability to project their quills to a considerable distance at an enemy, but this has since been proven to be untrue. There are some possible antibiotic properties within the quills associated with the free fatty acids coating the quills; the antibiotic properties are believed to aid a porcupine that has suffered fr
The Little Duck River is a 6.5-mile-long tributary of the Duck River of Tennessee in the United States. Via the Duck and Ohio rivers, it is part of the Mississippi River watershed, it rises in a poorly drained, swampy area southeast of Manchester and winds through the town. Its significance is in its spectacular confluence with the main Duck River, just northwest of downtown Manchester in Old Stone Fort State Park. Both streams descend over a series of dramatic cascades just prior to the confluence, which occurs at the base of a table land which they surround on three sides; the perimeter of this table land is surrounded by a low stone wall 2 to 4 feet in height. List of rivers of Tennessee
Bear Camp Road is a rugged mountain road traversing the Klamath Mountains in Josephine and Curry counties in the U. S. state of Oregon. Bear Camp Road is a combination of Bureau of Land Management Road 34-8-36 starting just south of Galice and United States Forest Service Road 23, which continues from the 12-mile point on 34-8-36 to Agness; the road is named for a camp and viewpoint at the 4,600-foot summit near the Josephine–Curry county line. The road is a common route to recreational opportunities, including hunting and rafting, is the only route to the Oregon Coast between the California-Oregon border and the Rogue River, it is a one-lane road with infrequent turnouts and a few gravel sections. At both ends, the road climbs up to the crest of the Coast Range, the majority of the road is at high elevation on top of a long ridge. Bear Camp Road is a rugged, crooked road, not suitable for travel in the winter. Numerous motorists have been stranded for days or weeks on Bear Camp Road or one of the many gravel roads that branch off from it.
Dewitt Finley and James Kim both died after being stranded on the road in winter. Bear Camp Road came into the national spotlight in late 2006 when James Kim, his wife Kati, their two daughters attempted to reach Gold Beach via this route. Kati claims they missed an exit on Interstate 5 to their intended route, Oregon Route 42, decided to take Bear Camp Road instead. Late on the night of November 25, 2006, they missed signs warning of possible snow and continued up the mountain road. At the intersection of Bear Camp Road and BLM sections of the road, they decided to turn into the BLM road and ended up lost 16 miles down a side road before stopping for the night. A snowstorm trapped them at this location; the family waited for rescue. After spending six days waiting for rescue, James Kim left the car to seek help, he and his wife had attempted to locate their position using area road maps, had estimated that the small town of Galice, was only 4 miles away. They were 33 miles from the town by road.
He left the car at 7:30 a.m. on Saturday, December 2 and backtracked down the road on which they were stranded. 11 miles down the road, he turned down into the Big Windy Creek canyon. James Kim hiked through treacherous and dangerous terrain to reach the creek, was attempting to follow it to the Rogue River in an attempt to find help. On the following Monday, searchers found Kati Kim and her children near the car, but could not locate James Kim. Searchers traced James Kim's path down Big Windy Creek's canyon in an effort to find him, his body was recovered in Big Windy Creek on Wednesday, December 6. According to medical examiners, James Kim died of hypothermia, but a precise time of death was not known, he had walked 16 miles trying to find help. Initial reports from government officials contained incorrect information about the position of the Kims' car and its proximity to the location where James Kim's body was found, it was first thought that the Kims' car was stranded at the intersection to the access road for Black Bar Lodge.
They were 6 miles from this shelter. Mapping errors caused this miscalculation, according to officials; the actual location was: 42°41′26″N 123°46′36″W Following the conclusion of the search and recovery efforts, government officials confirmed that a gate blocking access to the road on which the Kims were stranded should have been locked, but was not. Bureau of Land Management employees dispatched to close the gate had decided against locking the gate due to the possibility of hunters being stranded inside. Since the incident, the Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management has installed additional numerous large signs on the approaches to Bear Camp Road, warning that the road may be impassable during winter months; the directional sign at the spot where the Kims turned onto the wrong road, has been moved and replaced. At the spot, the through road is narrow and steeply uphill while the side road is much wider and more level and appears to be the proper continuation; the location and arrow direction on the old sign was confusing and ambiguous in snow when it would be impossible to see that the narrow uphill road is the correct route while the wide level road is not.
In 1994, a man traveling over Bear Camp Road died after being stranded for nine weeks. The victim, Dewitt Finley, was a camper salesman from Montana, he became snowbound. He kept a journal while stranded on the road, died of starvation, his body wasn't recovered until May 1995. There is no indication that Finley attempted to hike out, or left his camper; some accounts indicate that Finley would have survived if he had attempted to hike out. In his journal, Finley wrote, "I have no control over my life its all in His Hands.'His will be done.' Death here in another month or so, or He sends someone to save me", leading some to speculate that he looked to divine intervention and his strong religious devotion to save him, or that other psychological/emotional factors led him to "give up." In March 2006 six members of an Ashland, family were stranded in their snowbound motor home for two weeks. In addition to the two Stivers, the group included the Higginbothams; the RV was stranded on the spur road to Calvert Airstrip near its intersection with the BLM Glendale-to-Powers Bike Route after that road passes Marial Junction, about 15 miles