The Porsche 996 is the internal designation for the Porsche 911 model manufactured with first model year 1998 and last 2004. It was replaced by the Type 997 in model year 2005, the 996 had little in common with its predecessor, with the first new chassis platform since the original 911 and a new water-cooled engine. Technically, it was a change, a complete breakaway from the original car other than overall layout. However the multi-link rear suspension, derived from the preceding 993, was different, at its debut, the 996 featured the most significant change from the classic 911 series, a water-cooled engine replacing the previously air-cooled engine. Progressively stringent emissions and noise regulations, environmental concerns, an expectation for refinement. Other major changes include a new platform having a sleeker body with a more raked windshield. The Porsche 996 was a new design by Pinky Lai, the first new 911 that was completely redesigned, all new body work and the first water-cooled engine in a 911.
The 996 replaced the 993 from which only the front suspension, rear multi-link suspension, the first 996s were available as a coupé or cabriolet initially with rear wheel, or later, with four-wheel drive, and a 3.4 litre flat-6 naturally aspirated engine producing 296 bhp. The design for these headlamps could be traced back to the Porsche Panamericana concept car, an X50 option which included larger turbochargers and intercoolers along with revised engine control software became available from the factory in 2002, increasing power to 450 hp. In 2001, horsepower on the base Carrera model was increased by 4 bhp to 300 bhp.2001 marked the year of production for the base Carrera 4 Coupe in narrow body format. In 2002, the standard models underwent minor re-styling, which included switching to the Turbo-style headlamps and these were sometimes known as the Mk2 generation of the 996, or the 996.2. In addition, engine capacity was increased to 3.6 litres across the range. 2002 marked the start of the production of the 996 based Targa, in 2002, Carrera 4S model was first introduced.
The C4S as it is called, shares the wide-body look of the Turbo as well as the brakes. The 996 Turbo debuted at the Frankfurt Auto Show in September 1999 and it went on sale in the US in summer of 2000 as a 2001 model. The turbo was powered by a water-cooled twin turbocharged/intercooled 3. 6L H-6 derived from the 1998 LeMans winning GT-1 car, the engine produced 415 hp at 6000 rpm and 415 lb·ft of torque. The 996 turbo featured all-wheel drive and was available with either a 6-speed manual or a 5-speed Tiptronic transmission, the turbo had revised styling and a wider stance than the naturally aspirated 996 Carreras along with new bi-xenon headlamps. The turbo came with VarioCam Plus as well as stability management, in the US, the rear spoiler would automatically rise at 76 mph and lower at 36 mph
Bayerische Motoren Werke AG, usually known under its abbreviation BMW, is a German luxury vehicle and engine manufacturing company founded in 1916. It is one of the luxury automakers in the world. The company is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index, headquartered in Munich, Bavaria, BMW owns Mini cars and is the parent company of Rolls-Royce Motor Cars. BMW was established as a business entity following a restructuring of the Rapp Motorenwerke aircraft manufacturing firm in 1912 named Aerowerke Gustav Otto, after the end of World War I in 1918, BMW was forced to cease aircraft-engine production by the terms of the Versailles Armistice Treaty. The company consequently shifted to production as the restrictions of the treaty started to be lifted in 1923. BMWs first significant aircraft engine, and commercial product of any sort, was the BMW IIIa inline-six liquid-cooled engine of 1918, known for good fuel economy, with German rearmament in the 1930s, the company again began producing aircraft engines for the Luftwaffe.
The factory in Munich made ample use of forced labour, foreign civilians, prisoners of war, the few Me 262 A-1b test examples built used the more developed version of the 003 jet, recording an official top speed of 800 km/h. The first-ever four-engine jet aircraft flown were the sixth and eighth prototypes of the Arado Ar 234 jet reconnaissance-bomber. Through 1944 the 003s reliability improved, making it a power plant for air frame designs competing for the Jägernotprogramms light fighter production contract. Which was won by the Heinkel He 162 Spatz design, the BMW003 aviation turbojet was under consideration as the basic starting point for a pioneering turboshaft powerplant for German armored fighting vehicles in 1944–45, as the GT101. Towards the end of the Third Reich, BMW developed some military aircraft projects for the Luftwaffe, the BMW Strahlbomber, the BMW Schnellbomber and the BMW Strahljäger, but none of them were built. By the year 1958, the division of BMW was in financial difficulties.
It was decided to carry on by trying to cash in on the current economy car boom exploited so successfully by German ex-aircraft manufacturers such as Messerschmitt, BMW bought the rights to manufacture the Italian Iso Isetta. BMWs version of the cars were to be powered by a modified form of BMWs motorcycle engine. This was moderately successful and helped the company get back on its feet, since 1959, the controlling majority shareholder of the BMW Aktiengesellschaft has been the Quandt family, which owns about 46% of the stock. The rest is in public float, BMW acquired the Hans Glas company based in Dingolfing, Germany, in 1966. Glas vehicles were badged as BMW until the company was fully absorbed. However, this factory was outmoded and BMWs biggest immediate gain was, according to themselves, the Glas factories continued to build a limited number of their existing models, while adding the manufacture of BMW front and rear axles until they could be closer incorporated into BMW
Automotive design is the profession involved in the development of the appearance, and to some extent the ergonomics, of motor vehicles or more specifically road vehicles. This most commonly refers to automobiles but refers to motorcycles, buses, the functional design and development of a modern motor vehicle is typically done by a large team from many different disciplines included within automotive engineering. Automotive design in context is primarily concerned with developing the visual appearance or aesthetics of the vehicle. Automotive design is practiced by designers who usually have an art background, the task of the design team is usually split into three main aspects, exterior design, interior design, and color and trim design. Graphic design is an aspect of design, this is generally shared amongst the design team as the lead designer sees fit. Design focuses not only on the outer shape of automobile parts. The aesthetic value will need to correspond to ergonomic functionality and utility features as well, though not all the new vehicular gadgets are to be designated as factory standard items, some of them may be integral to determining the future course of any specific vehicular models.
The stylist responsible for the design of the exterior of the vehicle develops the proportions, Exterior design is first done by a series of digital or manual drawings. Progressively, drawings that are more detailed are executed and approved by appropriate layers of management, Clay and or digital models are developed from, and along with the drawings. The data from these models are used to create a full sized mock-up of the final design. With three- and five-axis CNC milling machines, the model is first designed in a computer program and carved using the machine. Even in times of high-class 3d software and virtual models on power walls, here the emphasis is on ergonomics and the comfort of the passengers. The procedure here is the same as with exterior design, the color and trim designer is responsible for the research and development of all interior and exterior colors and materials used on a vehicle. These include paints, fabric designs, grains, headliner, wood trim, contrast and pattern must be carefully combined to give the vehicle a unique interior environment experience.
Designers work closely with the exterior and interior designers, designers draw inspiration from other design disciplines such as, industrial design, home furnishing and sometimes product design. Specific research is done into global trends to design for two to three model years in the future. Trend boards are created from research in order to keep track of design influences as they relate to the automotive industry. The designer uses this information to develop themes and concepts that are further refined and tested on the vehicle models
Water cooling is a method of heat removal from components and industrial equipment. As opposed to air cooling, water is used as the heat conductor, the main mechanism for water cooling is convective heat transfer. Cooling water is the water removing heat from a machine or system, cooling water may be recycled through a recirculating system or used in a single pass once-through cooling system. Recirculating systems may be if they rely upon cooling towers or cooling ponds to remove heat or closed if heat removal is accomplished with negligible evaporative loss of cooling water. Environmental regulations emphasize the reduced concentrations of waste products in non-contact cooling water, the advantages of using water cooling over air cooling include waters higher specific heat capacity and thermal conductivity. This allows water to heat over greater distances with much less volumetric flow. The water jacket around an engine is very effective at deadening mechanical noises. Water accelerates corrosion of parts and is a favorable medium for biological growth.
Dissolved minerals in water supplies are concentrated by evaporation to leave deposits called scale. Cooling water often requires addition of chemicals to minimize corrosion and insulating deposits of scale, an open water cooling system makes use of evaporative cooling, lowering the temperature of the remaining water. This method was common in internal combustion engines, until scale buildup was observed from dissolved salts. Modern open cooling systems continuously waste a fraction of recirculating water as blowdown to remove dissolved solids at low enough to prevent scale formation. Some open systems use inexpensive tap water, but this requires higher rates than deionized or distilled water. Purified water systems still require blowdown to remove accumulation of byproducts of chemical treatment to prevent corrosion, modern automotive cooling systems are slightly pressurized, often to 15 psi. This raises the boiling-point of the coolant and reduces evaporation, the use of water cooling carries the risk of damage from freezing.
Automotive and many other engine cooling applications require the use of a water, antifreeze inhibits corrosion from dissimilar metals and can increase the boiling point, allowing a wider range of water cooling temperatures. Its distinctive odor alerts operators to cooling system leaks and problems that would go unnoticed in a cooling system. The heated coolant mixture can be used to warm the air conditioning system inside the car by means of the heater core, other less common chemical additives are products to reduce surface tension
A tire or tyre is a ring-shaped vehicle component that covers the wheels rim to protect it and enable better vehicle performance. Most tires, such as those for automobiles and bicycles, provide traction between the vehicle and the road providing a flexible cushion that absorbs shock. The materials of modern tires are synthetic rubber, natural rubber and wire, along with carbon black. They consist of a tread and a body, the tread provides traction while the body provides containment for a quantity of compressed air. Before rubber was developed, the first versions of tires were bands of metal fitted around wooden wheels to prevent wear and tear. Pneumatic tires are used on many types of vehicles, including cars, motorcycles, trucks, heavy equipment, and aircraft. Metal tires are used on locomotives and railcars, and solid rubber tires are still used in various non-automotive applications, such as some casters, lawnmowers. The etymology of tire is that the word is a form of attire. The spelling tyre does not appear until the 1840s when the English began shrink fitting railway car wheels with malleable iron, traditional publishers continued using tire.
The Times newspaper in Britain was still using tire as late as 1905, the spelling tyre began to be commonly used in the 19th century for pneumatic tires in the UK. However, over the course of the 20th century, tyre became established as the standard British spelling, the earliest tires were bands of leather, placed on wooden wheels, used on carts and wagons. The tire would be heated in a fire, placed over the wheel and quenched, causing the metal to contract. A skilled worker, known as a wheelwright, carried out this work, the outer ring served to tie the wheel segments together for use, providing a wear-resistant surface to the perimeter of the wheel. The word tire thus emerged as a variant spelling to refer to the bands used to tie wheels. The first patent for what appears to be a standard pneumatic tire appeared in 1847 lodged by the Scottish inventor Robert William Thomson, this never went into production. The first practical pneumatic tire was made in 1888 on May Street, Belfast, by Scots-born John Boyd Dunlop and it was an effort to prevent the headaches of his 10-year-old son Johnnie, while riding his tricycle on rough pavements.
His doctor, Sir John Fagan, had prescribed cycling as an exercise for the boy, Fagan participated in designing the first pneumatic tires. In Dunlops tire patent specification dated 31 October 1888, his interest is only in its use in cycles, in September 1890, he was made aware of an earlier development but the company kept the information to itself
A mid-engine layout describes the placement of an automobile engine between the rear and front axles. The mid-engine layout makes ABS brakes and traction control systems work better, the mid-engine layout may make a vehicle safer, since an accident can occur if a vehicle cannot stay in its own lane around a curve or is unable to stop quickly enough. This balance is harder to achieve when the weight of the engine is located far to the front or far to the rear of the vehicle. Some automobile designs strive to balance the fore and aft weight distribution by means, such as putting the engine in the front. Another benefit comes when the mass of the engine is located close to the back of the seats. It makes it easier for the suspension to absorb the force of bumps so the riders feel a smoother ride, but in sports cars the engine position is once again used to increase performance and the potentially smoother ride is usually more than offset by stiffer shock absorbers. The largest drawback of mid-engine cars is restricted rear passenger space, the engine in effect pushes the passenger compartment forward towards the front axle.
The mid-engine layout was common in buses in the 1950s and 1960s. The Ferrari Mondial is to date the only example of a true mid-engined convertible with seating for 4. A version of the Lotus Evora with a roof panel is anticipated. Like any layout where the engine is not front-mounted and facing the wind and this has been a problem in some cars, but this issue seems to have been largely solved in newer designs. For example, the Saleen S7 employs large engine-compartment vents on the sides, mid engined cars are more dangerous than front-engined cars if the driver loses control - although this may be initially harder to provoke due to the superior balance - and the car begins to spin. Conversely, a car is more likely to break away in a progressive. The term mid-engine has usually been applied to cars having the engine located between the driver and the drive axles. This layout is referred to here as RMR layout and racing cars typically have this mid-engine layout, as these vehicles handling characteristics are more important than other features, such as capacity.
Additionally the mechanical layout and packaging of an RMR car is substantially different from that of a front engine or rear engine car, in handling and vehicle layout FMR is substantially the same as FR. Some vehicles could be classified as FR or FMR depending on the installed engine. Historically most classical FR cars such as the Ford Models T and A would qualify as a FMR engine car, not all manufacturers use the Front-Mid designation
The Porsche 911 is a two-door, 2+2 high performance and one of the most powerful sports cars made since 1963 by Porsche AG of Stuttgart, Germany. It has a six cylinder boxer engine and all round independent suspension. It has undergone development, though the basic concept has remained little changed. The engines were air-cooled until the introduction of the Type 996 in 1998, with Porsches 993 series, produced in model years 1994–1998, the 911 has been modified by private teams and by the factory itself for racing and other forms of automotive competition. It is among the most successful competition cars, in the mid-1970s, naturally aspirated 911 Carrera RSRs won major world championship sports car races, such as Targa Florio and 24 Hours of Daytona, even against prototypes. The 911-derived 935 turbo won the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1979, in the 1999 international poll for the award of Car of the Century, the 911 came fifth. It is one of the oldest sports coupé nameplates still in production, around 150,000911 cars from the model years 1964 to 1989 are still on the road today.
Dilip Chhabria of DC Design said that the most difficult car to customise has to be the Porsche 911 and it hasn’t dated since it was designed. It is a desirable car. I have attempted to redraw, redesign it but could not do anything with it, I realised that it is difficult to alter the perfect design. Although Porsche changes the internal codes for its models, all 911 models were and are sold as a 911.2 The series letter is used by Porsche to indicate the revision for production cars. It often changes annually to reflect changes for the new model year, the first 911 models are the A series, the first 993 cars are the R series. Not all of the Porsche 911 models ever produced are mentioned here, the listed models are notable for their role in the advancements in technology and their influence on other vehicles from Porsche. Carrera, Also offered in upgrades of S and GTS, Carrera 4, 4S, Also offered in upgrades of S and GTS. Targa 4, 4S, Also offered in upgrades of S, turbo S, Also offered in upgrades of S.
GT3/GT3-RS, Track dedicated version of the 911, no cabriolet available with this variant. The 911 traces its roots to sketches drawn by Ferdinand Butzi Porsche in 1959, the Porsche 911 was developed as a more powerful, more comfortable replacement for the Porsche 356, the companys first model. The new car made its debut at the 1963 Frankfurt Motor Show
A sports prototype, sometimes referred to as simply a prototype, is a type of race car that is used in the highest level categories of sports car racing. These purpose-built racing cars, unlike street-legal and production-based racing cars, are not intended for purchase or production beyond that required to compete. Prototype racing cars have competed in car racing since before World War II. In historic racing, they are called sports racing cars. Sometimes, they are referred to as Le Mans cars. Since the 1960s, various championships have allowed prototypes to compete, most championships have had their own set of rules for their prototype classes. Listed here are some of the commonly known types of prototypes. Group 7 Group 6 Group C Grand Touring Prototype Le Mans Prototype Le Mans Prototype Challenge Daytona Prototype Sports 2000
The McLaren F1 is a sports car designed and manufactured by McLaren Cars. Originally a concept conceived by Gordon Murray, he convinced Ron Dennis to back the project and engaged Peter Stevens to design the exterior and interior of the car. On 31 March 1998, the XP5 prototype set the record for the worlds fastest production car, the F1 surpassed the Jaguar XJ220s 213 mph record from 1992, as well as the low production number RUF CTR2s 217 mph record from 1995. The McLarens record lasted until the Bugatti Veyron 16.4 beat it in 2005 with a top speed of 253.81 mph and it features a powerful engine and is somewhat track oriented, but not to the degree that it compromises everyday usability and comfort. It was conceived as an exercise in creating what its designers hoped would be considered the road car. Production began in 1992 and ended in 1998, in all,106 cars were manufactured, with some variations in the design. In 1994, the British car magazine Autocar stated in a road test regarding the F1, The McLaren F1 is the finest driving machine yet built for the public road.
They further stated, The F1 will be remembered as one of the events in the history of the car. In 2005, Channel4 placed the car at one on their list of the 100 greatest cars. In popular culture, the McLaren F1 has earnt its spot as The greatest automobile ever created and The Most Excellent Sports Car Of All Time amongst a variety of car enthusiasts. Notable past and present McLaren F1 owners include Elon Musk, Jay Leno, chief engineer Gordon Murrays design concept was a common one among designers of high-performance cars, low weight and high power. This was achieved through use of high-tech and expensive materials such as fibre, gold, magnesium. The F1 was the first production car to use a carbon-fibre monocoque chassis, Gordon Murray had been thinking of a three-seat sports car since his youth. When Murray was waiting for a home from the Italian Grand Prix in 1988, he drew a sketch of a three-seater sports car. Murray declared that During this time, we were able to visit with Ayrton Senna, the visit related to the fact that at the time, McLarens F1 Grand Prix cars were using Honda engines.
Of course the car we would create, the McLaren F1, needed to be faster than the NSX, but the NSXs ride quality and handling would become our new design target. Being a fan of Honda engines, I went to Hondas Tochigi Research Center on two occasions and requested that they consider building for the McLaren F1 a 4.5 litre V10 or V12. I asked, I tried to persuade them, but in the end could not convince them to do it, and the McLaren F1 ended up equipped with a BMW engine
FIA GT Championship
The FIA GT Championship was a sports car racing series organized by the Stéphane Ratel Organisation at the behest of the Fédération Internationale de lAutomobile. The championship was mostly concentrated in Europe, but throughout the years has visited other continents including Asia, at the end of 2009, the championship was replaced by the FIA GT1 World Championship, which morphed into the FIA GT Series for 2013. FIA currently defines several categories of GT cars with the top two specifications being GT1, or Grand Touring Cars, and GT2, or Series Grand Touring Cars, each category has an annual driver champion, team champion, and manufacturer champion. Both categories are based on road car designs, which must be produced in a minimum quantity of 25 examples to qualify. For the 2006 season, the FIA created a new class called GT3, GT3 cars are even closer to their production counterparts and are very simply racetrack prepared with the essentials. All cars are performance balanced together via different weights and this car must be able to be used perfectly legally on the open road, and adapted for racing on circuits or closed courses.
The new manufacturers built homologation specials, racing-bred cars that took advantage of the new rules. Chrysler and Marcos, not wanting to accompany the cost escalation and this proved to be the wisest move, as Mercedes completely dominated the new category and the other manufacturers pulled out after the end of the 1998 season. This left Chryslers Viper to become the car in the series, with the aging Porsche 993 GT2. However, there was no lower inexpensive category for drivers. While the manufacturer field in the main class blossomed, the new category became swamped with Porsches and Ferraris, but lower running costs meant both classes enjoyed a balanced number of entries. In order to boost the status, the SRO added the 24 Hours of Spa, previously a touring car race, to the calendar. The FIA banned official manufacturer involvement, although certain teams had preferential treatment, after the end of the 2004 season, the FIA renamed the classes GT1 and GT2, and somewhat liberalized the GT1 regulations, allowing supercars.
While this was made to accommodate the Saleen S7, the biggest beneficiary was the purpose-built Maserati MC12, thanks to a weight penalty system, the fight for the championship is protected from more domineering cars. The level of competition remains tight, with drivers managing to fight for the wins with professional drivers. Following the 2009 season, the SRO announced that the FIA GT Championships two categories, GT1 and GT2, would break off into separate series, the GT1 category became a world championship with rounds across the world. Cars which fit the GT1 class were eligible to only in the FIA GT1 World Championship, as the ACO banned the cars from the event. This meant that the category that once was eligible to race not only in the FIA GT, Le Mans Series and this meant that the San Luis round of the 2011 season was the last ever time GT1 cars contested in international motorsport
A transmission is a machine in a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power. Often the term refers simply to the gearbox that uses gears and gear trains to provide speed. In British English, the term refers to the whole drivetrain, including clutch, prop shaft, differential. In American English, the term more specifically to the gearbox alone. The most common use is in vehicles, where the transmission adapts the output of the internal combustion engine to the drive wheels. Such engines need to operate at a high rotational speed, which is inappropriate for starting, stopping. The transmission reduces the engine speed to the slower wheel speed. Transmissions are used on bicycles, fixed machines. Often, a transmission has multiple gear ratios with the ability to switch between them as speed varies and this switching may be done manually or automatically. Directional control may be provided, single-ratio transmissions exist, which simply change the speed and torque of motor output.
The output of the transmission is transmitted via the driveshaft to one or more differentials, while a differential may provide gear reduction, its primary purpose is to permit the wheels at either end of an axle to rotate at different speeds as it changes the direction of rotation. Conventional gear/belt transmissions are not the mechanism for speed/torque adaptation. Alternative mechanisms include torque converters and power transformation, automatic transmissions use a valve body to shift gears using fluid pressures in conjunction with an ecm. Early transmissions included the right-angle drives and other gearing in windmills, horse-powered devices, and steam engines, in support of pumping, most modern gearboxes are used to increase torque while reducing the speed of a prime mover output shaft. This means that the shaft of a gearbox rotates at a slower rate than the input shaft. A gearbox can be set up to do the opposite and provide an increase in speed with a reduction of torque. Some of the simplest gearboxes merely change the rotational direction of power transmission.
Many typical automobile transmissions include the ability to select one of several gear ratios, in this case, most of the gear ratios are used to slow down the output speed of the engine and increase torque
Rear mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout
In automotive design, a RMR or Rear Mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is one in which the rear wheels are driven by an engine placed just in front of them, behind the passenger compartment. In contrast to the rear-engined RR layout, the center of mass of the engine is in front of the rear axle and this layout is typically chosen for its low moment of inertia and relatively favorable weight distribution. The layout has a tendency toward being heavier in the rear than the front, since there is little weight over the front wheels, under acceleration, the front of the car is prone to lift and cause understeer. Most rear-engine layouts have historically used in smaller vehicles, because the weight of the engine at the rear has an adverse effect on a larger cars handling, making it tail-heavy. It is felt that the low polar inertia is crucial in selection of this layout, the mid-engined layout uses up central space, making it impractical for any but two-seater sports cars. However, some use this layout, with a small.
This makes it possible to move the right to the front of the vehicle. In modern racing cars, RMR is the configuration and is usually synonymous with mid engine. Due to its distribution and resulting favorable vehicle dynamics, this layout is heavily employed in open-wheel Formula racing cars as well as purpose-built sports racing cars. This configuration was common in very small engined 1950s microcars, because of successes in racing, the RMR platform has been popular for road-going sports cars despite the inherent challenges of design and lack of cargo space. The 1900 NW Rennzweier was one of the first race cars with mid-engine, other known historical examples include the 1923 Benz Tropfenwagen. It was based on a design named the Rumpler Tropfenwagen in 1921 made by Edmund von Rumpler. The Benz Tropfenwagen was designed by Ferdinand Porsche along with Willy Walb and it raced in 1923 and 1924 and was most successful in the Italian Grand Prix in Monza where it stood fourth. Later, Ferdinand Porsche used mid-engine design concept towards the Auto Union Grand Prix cars of the 1930s which became the first winning RMR racers and they were decades before their time, although MR Miller Specials raced a few times at Indianapolis between 1939 and 1947.
The 718 followed similarly in 1958, but it was not until the late 1950s that RMR reappeared in Grand Prix races in the form of the Cooper-Climax, soon followed by cars from BRM and Lotus. Ferrari and Porsche soon made Grand Prix RMR attempts with less initial success, the mid-engined layout was brought back to Indianapolis in 1961 by the Cooper Car Company with Jack Brabham running as high as third and finishing ninth. Cooper did not return, but from 1963 on British built mid-engined cars from constructors like Brabham and Lola competed regularly and in 1965 Lotus won Indy with their Type 38. The first rear mid-engined road car was the 1962 Bonnet / Matra Djet, nearly 1700 were built until 1967