The Porsche 914 or VW-Porsche 914 is a mid-engined sports car designed and marketed collaboratively by Volkswagen and Porsche from 1969 to 1976. It was only available as a targa-topped two-seat roadster powered by either a flat-4 or flat-6 engine. By the late 1960s, both Volkswagen and Porsche were in need of new models. At the time the majority of Volkswagen's development work was handled by Porsche as part of an agreement that dated back to Porsche's founding. Volkswagen needed to contract out one last project to Porsche to fulfill the contract, decided to make the 914 that project. Ferdinand Piëch, in charge of research and development at Porsche, was put in charge of the 914 project. In 1966 and 1967, German company Gugelot Design GmbH began showing a proposed design for a sports coupe built with technology developed in partnership with Bayer to several major car builders, including Volkswagen and Porsche; some sources have suggested that the Gugelot proposal, suitably adapted, was the origin of the design of the 914.
The rationale is that an outside design would be able to please both Volkswagen and Porsche without appearing too similar to either of the partners' existing products. Sources have rejected this idea. While acknowledging that Porsche was aware of the Gugelot design, they assert that the 914 design was done in-house at Porsche, is the work of body engineer Heinrich Klie. Intending to sell the vehicle with a flat four-cylinder engine as a Volkswagen and with a flat six-cylinder engine as a Porsche, Porsche decided during development that having Volkswagen and Porsche models sharing the same body would be risky for business in the American market, convinced Volkswagen to allow them to sell both versions as Porsches in North America. On March 1, 1968, the first 914 prototype was presented. However, development became complicated after the death of Volkswagen's chairman, Heinrich Nordhoff, on April 12, 1968, his successor, Kurt Lotz, was not connected with the Porsche dynasty and the verbal agreement between Volkswagen and Porsche fell apart.
In Lotz's opinion, Volkswagen had all rights to the model, no incentive to share it with Porsche if they would not share in tooling expenses. With this decision, the price and marketing concept for the 914 had failed before series production had begun; as a result, the price of the chassis went up and the 914/6 ended up costing only a bit less than the 911T, Porsche's next lowest priced car. The 914 was Motor Trend's Import Car of the Year for 1970. Slow sales and rising costs prompted Porsche to discontinue the 914/6 variant in 1972 after producing 3,351 of them. Production of the 914 ended in 1976; the 2.0 L flat-4 engine continued to be used in the 912E, introduced that year as an entry-level model until the front-engined four-cylinder 924 was introduced the following model year. The 914/4 became Porsche's top seller during its model run, outselling the Porsche 911 by a wide margin with over 118,000 units sold worldwide. Volkswagen versions featured the fuel-injected 1.7 L VW Type 4 flat-four engine producing 80 bhp.
Porsche's 914/6 variant featured the 2.0 L air-cooled Type 901/3 flat-six engine from the 1967–1969 911T model. This was the least powerful flat-six in Porsche's lineup; this engine had revised pistons that reduced the compression ratio to 8.6:1. The cylinder barrels were made of iron, in contrast to the iron and aluminum "Biral" barrels in the engines in the 911S and 911L. New camshafts had less lift, relaxed timing characteristics; the venturis in the Weber 40IDT3C carburetors were 27 mm, smaller than the other 911 engines, the exhaust pipe diameter was reduced in size. Power output was 110 bhp; when the 911T got a 2.2 L engine in 1970, the engine in the 914/6 remained at 2.0 L. All engines were placed amidships in front of a version of the 1969 911's "901" gearbox configured for a mid-engined sports car. Karmann manufactured the rolling chassis at their plant, completing Volkswagen production in-house or delivering versions to Porsche for their final assembly; the 914/6 models came with lower gear ratios and larger brakes to compensate for the greater weight and higher power output of the six-cylinder model.
They featured five lug wheels and an ignition on the left side of the steering wheel. Suspension and handling were otherwise the same. A Volkswagen-Porsche joint venture, Volkswagen of America, handled export to the U. S. where both versions were sold as Porsches. The four-cylinder cars were sold as Volkswagen-Porsches at European Volkswagen dealerships. For 1973 the discontinued 914/6 was replaced in the lineup by a variant powered by a new 100 bhp 2.0 L, fuel-injected version of Volkswagen's Type 4 engine. For 1974, the 1.7 L engine was replaced by an 85 bhp 1.8 L, the new Bosch L-Jetronic fuel injection system was added to American units to help with emissions control. Over the seven model years, Porsche made a number of changes to the 914; some of these changes were cosmetic and others were in response to changing crash protection standards. From 1970 to 1974, the 914 was offered with painted bumpers. In early 1970, rear bumpers were produced with a straight crease on either side of the license plate indent.
Between 1970 and 1972, both front and rear bumpers were smooth without bumper guards. In 1973, bumper guards were added to the front of the car. In 1974, guards were added to the rear bumper. In 1975 and 1976, the chrome or painted bumpers were replaced with heavy, rubber-covered units which made the cars mor
Matthew 2:9 is the ninth verse of the second chapter of the Gospel of Matthew in the New Testament. King Herod has dispatched the magi to Bethlehem to find the infant Jesus. In this verse they follow the Star of Bethlehem to find the infant. In the King James Version of the Bible the text reads: When they had heard the king, they departed; the World English Bible translates the passage as: They, having heard the king, went their way. For a collection of other versions see BibleHub Matthew 2:9 Unlike the previous mention of the Star of Bethlehem this verse indicates that it guided the magi to their destination. In combination with the next verse it seems to be clear that the star pointed out the specific house Jesus was in, or the entire village. How it did this is unspecified in the text, artists have portrayed a wide array of means; the phrase "went before" can mean either that the star was moving throughout their journey or that it remained stationary and served only as a fixed guide. However the phrase "came and stood" unambiguously means that it ceased moving and came to a rest at this point.
Hill comments that the undeniably miraculous behaviour of the star in this verse defies all the various attempts to rationalize the star it as a natural nova or conjunction. This might be a reference to the pillar of cloud. Fortnas notes that the astronomical theory of the time thought of the stars a points of light moving along a fixed heavenly dome; this made it far easier to imagine a star stopping its motion. It is unclear how long after Jesus' birth the magi arrived. Traditionally they were seen to arrive at most a few days after the birth of Jesus as the Gospel of Luke has Jesus leaving for Jerusalem by the time he was forty days old from whence he went to Nazareth; this left a brief window of time for the magi to visit him in Jerusalem considering they needed time to travel from the east via Jerusalem. In this verse the author of Matthew refers to Jesus as a child rather than an infant indicating that he was older. Today most scholars feel that Matthew meant that Jesus was several months old at the time the magi visited.
Arsénio Pompílio Pompeu de Carpo was a Portuguese slave trader, freemason and journalist, active in Angola and Brazil. Born in Funchal in 1792, Arsénio was the son of illiterate unlucky emigrants forced to return to Madeira after a failed attempt to make their fortune in the Portuguese colony of Brazil. Embarking for Rio de Janeiro in 1820, he changed his family name - Santos - to the pompous Pompílio Pompeu de Carpo borrowing it from theatre, a juvenile passion. Fascinated by Roman sonorities and connotations, Arsénio loved to boast of his presumed classic erudition by quoting Latin authors or evoking personalities such as Titus or Nero. However, the choice of similar names denotes a touch of megalomania, the evidence of his need to stand out, it can be considered as the first step towards a career based on self-promotion which culminated in the middle of the 19th century. One of the most remarkable sans-culottes of his time, Arsénio returned to his native island where, in 1823, he was arrested and condemned to a five-year banishment in Portuguese Angola for evoking British protection in case of a secession of Madeira from Portugal, for his incendiary words and sarcastic remarks on monarchy and the saints.
Arsénio appealed to have his sentence commuted, hoping to serve confinement in a more welcoming location such as Portuguese Cape Verde but decided to withdraw his appeal. According to João Pedro Marques he was persuaded by the prospect of quick enrichment through slave trade related activities in Angola. Moreover, it has to be said that this decision could be influenced by his network of freemason acquaintances, it seems unlikely that Pompeu de Carpo became a freemason in Portugal, which he left for Angola in 1824 to return, once again as a prisoner, only in 1845. Angolan scholar Carlos Pacheco is inclined to think that he received his initiation in jail, but Brazil is another possible option, since at least until 1834 Dom Miguel's temporary comeback to the throne compelled a significant number of Portuguese liberals to flee to Rio de Janeiro. Of all the contingents of this diaspora, freemasons belonged to the category most persecuted by crown and church. It’s in this context and thanks to his friend Tomás Tolentino da Silva, cleric at the Funchal cathedral and angry liberal and freemason, that Arsénio got acquainted with freemasonry in general and with the group of Portuguese dissidents who printed the periodical Gazeta Estrela.
This publication was known in Angola since the 1820s, but it had to be read undercover because of the measures taken by the Miguelist Governor-General Nicolau de Abreu Castelo Branco, who had outlawed it "for referring irreverently to His Majesty the King and to the highest Portuguese authorities... and for inciting subversive elements to unleash disorder..." During his confinement period Arsénio de Carpo served in the army, but by the end of the 1820s his military career was cut off by Governor General Nicolau de Abreu Castelo Branco and he became an innkeeper. Back in Angola, a logic choice for a political exile: inns were privileged gathering places where business and plots were discussed. New ideas fecundated in Angola after the success of the liberal revolutions in Europe and South America and the local imagination was invaded by the inebriant desire of freedom. During the years following the independence of Brazil soldiers and residents were accused by authorities of supporting "revolutionaries".
Contacts between innkeepers and slave traders were manifest, since aguardente was Angola's main import to be exchanged in the interior for slaves. Arsénio worked as a representative for a well-established trader between 1826 and 1830. Slave traders tried to exploit the period encompassing the issue of the treaty between Britain and Portugal for the abolition of the slave trade and its coming into force before leaving for Brazil, aware of the fact that Angola would fall on hard times, it seems that Arsénio followed the trend: after serving his ban and after being imprisoned again because of some sonnets mocking the governor’s authority, he left Luanda bound for Recife. At least until the 1840s, when Portuguese-Brazilians from Pernambuco hastily left Brazil to settle down in Moçâmedes supported by the Portuguese Crown and Brazilian oligarchies traded exclusively among themselves and Pernambuco was the main market place dealing with Luanda. After spending some years in Brazil and in the United States, Arsénio returned to Angola in 1837, where he started working for the slave trader Francisco Teixeira de Miranda – known as Mirandinha.
His main activities consisted in buying goods in America and distributing them to his agents, who travelled to the African interior and exchanged them for slaves. Arsénio promoted the export of slaves to Brazilian markets, relying upon a web of front men who signed record books and documentation on his behalf, keeping his name unblemished; this was a risky activity: the ephemeral character of such profession was explained by the fact that outlawed slave traders were no longer able to secure their business by bribing the authorities or buying the silence of associates who proved to be too greedy or ambitious. However, by the time of his return to Luanda, Arsénio was an accomplished and wealthy cosmopolitan gentleman, creating a sensation in the capital for the sophisticated luxury he liked to display. In fact if the abolition
The Açunguí River is a river of Paraná state in southern Brazil. It is a headwater of the Ribeira de Iguape River; the Açungui river basin is the last natural reserve of unpolluted water to supply the metropolitan region of Curitiba. The basin includes the Açungui National Forest, created in 1944 under the government of Getúlio Vargas as the Romário Martins Park, with an area of 3,728 hectares; the national forest preserves araucarias. The river basin covers about 1,800 square kilometres; the river rises in the foothills of the Serra de São Luiz do Purunã, Paraná. The river rises to the northwest of Curitiba and flows in a northeast direction to join the Ribeira River, which flows east into São Paulo; the Açungui valley is steep, with many small canyons and close to the National Forest, so the environment has been well preserved. There are rapids along the river in the Canyon do Acalantilado, making it an excellent place for rafting; the Ribeira de Iguape River forms at the confluence of the Ribeirinha River and the Açungui River in the state of Paraná, less than 100 kilometres from Curitiba.
The river's hydroelectric potential has been of interest since the 1950s, but the larger plants on the Iguaçu River gained priority. Large hydroelectric plants, with their large environmental impact, are now out of fashion, the potential for a series of small hydroelectric plants along the Açungui was being considered in 2015. List of rivers of Paraná
Barunggam is an extinct Aboriginal language spoken by the Barunggam people of Queensland in Australia. The Barunggam language shared many words with the neighboring languages, including Jarowair to the east, Wakka Wakka to the north and Mandandanji to the west. Kite and Wurm describe Barunggam as a dialect of Wakka Wakka. Tindale gives the traditional lands for the Barunggam who spoke the language as:"Headwaters of Condamine River east of Jackson to about Dalby, their country is on the red soils south and west of the Dividing Range". Bibliography of Barunggam language and people resources, at the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies
Applied engineering is the field concerned with the application of management and technical skills for the design and integration of systems, the execution of new product designs, the improvement of manufacturing processes, the management and direction of physical and/or technical functions of a firm or organization. Applied-engineering degree programs include instruction in basic and applied engineering principles, project management, industrial processes and operations management, systems integration and control, quality control, statistics. On completion of an applied engineering program, students will demonstrate the following management competencies that distinguish them from traditional engineering graduates: • Use appropriate statistical techniques in variable and attribute control charts and in sampling tables for continuous improvement. • Evaluate and/or implement total quality systems in industry. • Perform production scheduling and monitor an inventory control system, utilize appropriate production planning techniques, identify and exhibit key factors in project management.
• Exhibit knowledge of federal and state safety legislation and identify the role of management in an industrial safety program. • Recognize and control varied industrial health and safety hazards. • Demonstrate knowledge of traditional management functions and practices, including applications and limitations of various management schemes. • Solve problems in typical industrial organizations, work in teams, demonstrate knowledge of the managed area of an industrial enterprise. • Apply business and economic principles to solve problems. • Identify responsibility of supervision and management within various industries. • Demonstrate communication skills and efficient individual and group work habits, leadership within groups and an attitude of cooperation and tolerance. Applied engineering students specialize with a technical area of study and blend hands-on process experience with theory. Examples of these technical specialties include: automation/robotics, computer aided drafting & design, electro-mechanical, construction, graphic communications, nanofabrication.
Applied engineers are employed in a large and wide-array of industries including: manufacturing, construction, healthcare, printing/publishing and distribution. They are responsible for implementing a process improvement. Although a degree in applied engineering is not considered a traditional design engineering degree, it is quite common for employers to hire applied engineering and technology graduates with the term "engineer" in their job titles. Examples of the use of Applied Engineering titles include: applications engineers, control engineers, manufacturing engineers, field engineer, process engineers, product engineers, safety engineers, sales engineers. Graduates of applied engineering programs are found in management positions due to their coursework and experience in Mathematics, statistics, financial accounting, operations management, quality management, industrial safety, supervision. Common management-related titles may include: engineering managers, construction managers, team leaders, plant managers, project managers, technical managers.
Applied engineers are prepared to take an engineering design and see it through implementation and execution. They wear many hats in industry, commanding the necessary resources and personnel to contribute to an organization's bottom line. There is no clear distinction made between engineer or applied engineering as in most jobs in industry, the degree or course of study is applied engineering, the career is engineering. Accreditation and certification The Association of Technology and Applied Engineering, accredits selected collegiate programs in applied engineering. An instructor or graduate of an applied engineering program may choose to become a certified technology manager by sitting for a rigorous exam administered by ATMAE covering production planning and control, safety and management/supervision. ATMAE program accreditation is recognized by the Council for Higher Education Accreditation for accrediting Applied Engineering programs. CHEA recognizes ATMAE in the US for accrediting associate and master's degree programs in technology, applied technology, engineering technology, technology-related disciplines delivered by national or regional accredited institutions in the United States.
Retrieved on December 18, 2019: https://nces.ed.gov/ipeds/cipcode/cipdetail.aspx?y=56&cipid=93052 Retrieved on December 18, 2019: https://nces.ed.gov/ipeds/cipcode/cipdetail.aspx?y=56&cipid=93053