The Porsche 982 is the internal designation of the fourth generation Boxster/Cayman made by Porsche. With the switch to a new turbocharged flat-four engine the marketing name for the models was changed to Porsche 718, in reference to the Porsche 718, which won the Targa Florio race in 1959 and 1960; the name is meant to evoke Porsche's past racing successes with light cars like the 718 that outmanoeuvred competitors with larger and more powerful engines. The new Porsche 718 has a rear mid-mounted flat-four engine with four camshafts, like its original namesake; the 718 Boxster was introduced in January 2016, premiered at the 2016 Geneva Motor Show. The 718 Cayman joined the range in April at the Beijing Motor Show; the 718 featured two new horizontally-opposed flat-4 turbocharged engines at 2.0L and 2.5L displacement with increased torque and horsepower with lower fuel consumption. The S model turbocharger utilizes Variable Turbine Geometry technology. In October 2017, the GTS models were announced with their 2.5 liter engines upgraded to produce 361 bhp.
The Boxster could reach 60 mph from a standstill in 4.1 seconds, the Cayman in 3.9 seconds. The exterior of the 718 Boxster and Cayman is similar to the third generation, more of an evolution than a redesign; the most notable changes are to the rear of the car, which now has a long black-trim bar across the rear connecting the two taillights. The headlights and bumper are heavily reworked. On the sides, the mirrors have been redesigned, taking hue from the SportDesign mirrors on the GT3; the interior remains similar to the 981 Cayman / Boxster and the 991.2 generation of the Porsche 911. The main change is the new PCM 4.0 infotainment system, which replaces the PCM 3.1. The steering wheel comes with a mode selector switch that includes a selection of Sports and Sports Plus driving modes, resulting in snappier throttle response at the cost of fuel efficiency. Overall, the most prominent design features of the 981 Cayman / Boxster remain, including large air induction ports on the side, the prominent horizontal aluminum piece used for adding oil and coolant in the trunk.
Despite the loss of two cylinders, the 718 Cayman / Boxster was assessed to be mechanically superior to the 981 model with improved acceleration and steering, while the new 4 cylinder engine "cheapens the experience". The 718 Cayman was declared Motor Trend's 2nd best Drivers car in 2017, which praised the car's handling and throttle response. Giving the award, Miguel Cortina noted, "The suspension is just what you want to feel in a car like this—stiff, rigid. You get a good sense of what is happening on the road."By far, the most contentious reaction to the 718 Cayman was the sound of the engine - which received nearly universal criticism by the automotive press. Car and Driver called it a, "raspy, uncouth sound that strikes some drivers as unpleasant and grating." Top Gear noted that the sound, "fundamentally cheapens the Porsche experience," and make the car, "less upmarket, less cultured and sophisticated than it did before." However, Motor Trend's Ignition tested the 718 Cayman against the 981 Cayman GT4, found that the performance gains were so strong the car had the capability to outmanoeuvre the GT4 at a much lower price.
They concluded that the tradeoff was worth it. The 718 GTS variant of the Cayman and Boxster was released to positive reviews. Visually, the front headlight and rear taillights were smokey black, an aggressive front sports fascia was added. Performance upgrades included Porsche Sports Exhaust, a Sports Chrono Package, Porsche Stability Management were all added as standard features. By expanding the air intake, the 718 GTS has an additional 15 horsepower and more torque than the 718 S. In addition, carmine red was added as a color as a $2580 option. Used in most of Porsche advertising with the GTS, the color is darker than Porsche Guards Red, similar to the Italian racing color used by Ferrari, Rosso Corsa. Many reviewers, including New York Times contributor Tom Voelk, noted that the 718 GTS had a much more pleasing sound than the base 718 and the 718 S. “One of the biggest complaints of the 718 is that its turbo 4 engine doesn’t have the distinctive sound that the outgoing 6 cylinder had,” said Voelk.
“But the 718 GTS sounds much better. It has different intakes and a larger turbo.” The sound of the 718 GTS engine has much more prominent bass frequencies, which contrast with a strong treble pitch of the turbocharger. However, Evo magazine argues that, while "capable of challenging the 911 as a true sports car", the "718 version of the GTS doesn't achieve anything more than the Cayman GTS it replaces" and "with its more desirable engine, it's the previous model that feels more exotic and like a much higher quality product." It describes the GTS' engine as "a nasty sounding motor", the noise from the turbo four-cylinder in the cabin as "dreadful" and "tuneless drivel" and contests that "the only redeeming feature of the 718 GTS sonically is that this is the quietest iteration of this motor". On 3 January 2019 the 718 Cayman GT4 Clubsport was unveiled in two variants and Trackday, with first customer cars delivered to customer teams ahead of the 2019 Roar Before the Rolex 24 Hours at Daytona International Speedway.
The race car is powered by a 3.8-litre naturally-aspirated flat-six engine producing 425 PS at 7,500 rpm and 425 N⋅m at 6,600 rpm connected to a 6-speed PDK gearbox. The kerb weight is 1,320 kg. Both variants feature a welded-in roll cage, a six-point harness and race bucket seat, a selection of body parts made of natural-fibre composite materials, the front suspension from the 911 GT3 Cup, racing brakes, light
The Porsche Panamera is an executive car manufactured by the German automobile manufacturer Porsche. It is front-engined and has a rear-wheel-drive layout, with all-wheel drive versions available, it is the only sedan manufactured by Porsche as part of its strategy of expanding its market. The production version of the Porsche Panamera was unveiled at the 13th Auto Shanghai International Automobile Show in Shanghai, China, on April 2009. In 2011, hybrid and diesel versions were launched. In April 2013, a facelift to the Panamera was announced, making its debut again at the Shanghai Auto Show. A plug-in hybrid version, the Panamera S E-Hybrid, was released in the U. S. market in November 2013. The Panamera range received a re-design in 2016; the Panamera's name is derived, like the Porsche Carrera lineage, from the Carrera Panamericana race. The Panamera is considered to be the long-awaited fruit of Porsche's 989 concept vehicle from the late 1980s. Like the Porsche Cayenne SUV, the Panamera upset many Porsche purists, since it was seen as an attempt to broaden Porsche's appeal beyond that of hardcore fans.
The Panamera ran contrary to the company's signature offerings its light two-door rear-engine sports cars like the 911. The Panamera on the other hand is considered a full-size luxury car, weighing nearly 4,000 pounds, with four doors, its engine mounted in the front; the Panamera's appearance with its long hood and rear hatch bears resemblance to a stretched 911. The 911 has a sparse interior, as it was focused on raw performance, while the Panamera has a sumptuous interior loaded with modern technological amenities and expensive leather upholstery. Engines are first assembled in Stuttgart, the car's body is built and assembled in Leipzig, alongside the Cayenne and Macan. From 2009 to 2016, the bodies were built at the Volkswagen Group facility in Hannover. Production began in April one month after its debut in the Shanghai Motor Show in China; the V8-powered Panamera S, 4S, Turbo models were the first versions that debuted in 2009. In addition to the 4.8L Twin Turbo 507 PS V8 powered models, Porsche launched two further models in 2010: the Panamera and Panamera 4 which are both powered by 3.0-litre and 3.6-litre V6 engines producing 304 PS.
Being derived from the V8 engine of the Panamera S and Panamera 4S, the V6 retains the V8's technologies like Direct Fuel Injection, infinitely variable intake camshaft adjustment with variable valve lift, an on-demand oil pump, water cooling with thermal management, a variable intake manifold, as well as integrated dry sump lubrication with two-stage extraction of oil, an Auto Start-Stop function. Turbo version uses active aerodynamics with a adjustable rear spoiler. Optional Sports Chrono Packages include a Sport Plus button, which has tighter damping and air springs, lowers the car's body by 25 mm. In 2011, the Panamera S Hybrid, Turbo S, GTS variants were added to the range; the GTS achieves a lateral acceleration of 0.96g. The Panamera, S, Hybrid and Diesel models are rear-wheel drive, while the Panamera 4, 4S, GTS have the same four-wheel drive system as the Turbo and Turbo S, called Porsche Traction Management; the Panamera featured Adaptive air suspension, the Porsche Dynamic Chassis Control, active anti-roll bars and the Porsche Active Suspension Management.
The newly introduced ZF 7-speed PDK dual clutch transmission was standard on the Panamera 4, 4S and Turbo models. The addition of the optional sport chrono package provided faster acceleration times. In some markets a 6-speed manual was available for rear-wheel drive petrol versions; the S Hybrid and Diesel models had an Aisin-supplied eight-speed automatic transmission called the Tiptronic S. The engine of the Panamera Turbo S features larger turbochargers than the standard Panamera Turbo’s 4.8-litre V8, as well as high-pressure fuel injection, aluminium-alloy pistons. The piston rings are coated in a low-friction surface to help eke out more performance; the Panamera Turbo S accelerates to 62 mph in 3.8 seconds with launch control engaged. Roll-on acceleration should be more impressive, changes to the PDK gearbox allow for faster gearshifts, the alleged 27.7mpg fuel economy is no worse than the less powerful Panamera Turbo. Drag Coefficient: 0.30 0–60 mph: 3.2 seconds 0–100 mph: 7.2 seconds 1/4 mile: 11.5 seconds at 127 mph Braking 70 mph to 0 mph: 135 feet In 2008, Porsche AG announced the development of a parallel hybrid system for the Panamera, in February 2011, Porsche unveiled the Panamera S Hybrid.
Using the same drivetrain seen in the Cayenne S Hybrid—an Audi-sourced supercharged 3.0-litre V6 engine producing 333 PS along with an electric motor rated at 47 PS, as well as the Cayenne's 8-speed Tiptronic S transmission—the 380 PS Panamera S Hybrid could accelerate from 0–62 mph in 6.0 seconds. The Panamera S Hybrid produced only 193 grams of carbon dioxide per kilometre, rendering it the most environment friendly car in the entire Porsche model range, while still maintaining a top speed of 167.8 mph. Deliveries began in the United States in 2011, cumulative sales reached 684 units through March 2013; the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency rated the fuel economy for the 2013/2012 model year Panamera Hybrid at 22 mpg‑US for city driving, 30 mpg‑US for highway, 25 mpg‑US combined; the Panamera Diesel was launched in May 2011
Rear-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout
In automotive design, an RR, or Rear-engine, Rear-wheel-drive layout places both the engine and drive wheels at the rear of the vehicle. In contrast to the RMR layout, the center of mass of the engine is between the rear axle and the rear bumper. Although common in transit buses and coaches due to the elimination of the drive shaft with low-floor bus, this layout has become rare in passenger cars. Most of the traits of the RR configuration are shared with the mid-engine rear-wheel-drive, or MR. Placing the engine near the driven rear wheels allows for a physically smaller, less complex, more efficient drivetrain, since there is no need for a driveshaft, the differential can be integrated with the transmission referred to as a transaxle; the front-engine front-wheel-drive layout has this advantage. Since the engine is the heaviest component of the car, putting it near the rear axle results in more weight over the rear axle than the front referred to as a rear weight bias; the farther back the greater the bias.
Typical weight bias for an FR, is 55/45 front/rear. A static rear weight requires less forward brake bias, as load is more evenly distributed among all four wheels under braking. A rear weight bias means that the driven wheels have increased traction when accelerating, allowing them to put more power on the ground and accelerate faster; the disadvantage to a rear weight bias is that the car can become unstable and tend to oversteer when decelerating. When this happens, rotational inertia dictates that the added weight away from the axis of rotation will be more to maintain the spin under braking; this is an inherent instability in the design, making it easier to induce and more difficult to recover from a slide than in a less rear-weight-biased vehicle. Under hard acceleration, the decreased weight over the front wheels means less traction, sometimes producing a tendency for rear-engined cars to understeer out of a corner. In these respects, an RR can be considered to be an exaggeration of MR - harder braking and earlier acceleration, increased oversteer.
In off road and low-traction situations, the RR layout has some advantages compared to other 2WD layouts. The weight is biased towards the driven wheels- as with FF vehicles; this both reduces the tendency for the undriven wheels to dig in. In addition, the driving and steering requirements are split between front and rear- as with FR vehicles- making it less for either to lose traction. Many dune buggies use a Volkswagen beetle as the donor car for this reason; the relative simplicity and light weight compared to 4WD can therefore sometimes outweigh the disadvantage of only having two driven wheels. Where RR differs from MR is in that the engine is located outside the wheelbase; the major advantage of MR - low moment of inertia - is negated somewhat, there is more room for passengers and cargo. Furthermore, because both axles are on the same side of the engine, it is technically more straightforward to drive all four wheels, than in a mid-engined configuration. A rear-mounted engine has empty air behind it when moving, allowing more efficient cooling for air-cooled vehicles.
For liquid-cooled vehicles, this layout presents a disadvantage, since it requires either increased coolant piping from a front-mounted radiator, or relocating the radiator to the sides or rear, adding air ducting to compensate for the lower airflow at the rear of the car. Due to the handling difficulty, the need for more space efficiency, the near ubiquitous use of liquid-cooled engines in modern cars, most manufacturers have abandoned the RR layout; the major exception is Porsche, who has developed the 911 for over 40 years and has taken advantage of the benefits of RR while mitigating its drawbacks to acceptable levels with the help of electronic aids. One of first RR cars was Tatra 77 of 1934, the first serial-produced aerodynamic car, designed by Hans Ledwinka. Tatra used this layout until end of production of T700 in 1999. In case of T613 and T700 Tatra used layout with engine above rear axle, which reduced some disadvantages of RR layout. Mercedes-Benz produced several models of RR cars in this period, starting with the 130H.
The radical 1930s Tatra format was an influence on Ferdinand Porsche's'People's Car' for Adolf Hitler. As well as being the most produced car it set a trend for RR small cars that lasted well into the 1960s; the final form of the RR Volkswagen was the Type 3 of 1961, which flattened the engine, allowing for luggage spaces front and rear. A similar format has been revived with the 2014 Renault Twingo III and second-generation Smart Forfour. Porsche has continued to develop its 911 model as a rear-engined vehicle, although they have introduced multiple all-wheel-drive models. Most notably, the 911 Turbo has been sold as AWD-only since the release of the 993 model. Race-oriented models such as the GT3 and twin-turbocharged GT2 remain RR, however. Another manufacturer to implement the RR configuration was the
Bentley Motors Limited is a British manufacturer and marketer of luxury cars and SUVs—and a subsidiary of the Volkswagen Group since 1998. Headquartered in Crewe, the company was founded as Bentley Motors Limited by W. O. Bentley in 1919 in Cricklewood, North London—and became known for winning the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1924, 1927, 1928, 1929, 1930, 2003. Prominent models extend from the historic sports-racing Bentley 4 1/2 Bentley Speed Six. Today most Bentleys are assembled at the company's Crewe factory, with a small number assembled at Volkswagen's Dresden factory and with bodies for the Continental manufactured in Zwickau and for the Bentayga manufactured at the Volkswagen Bratislava Plant; the joining and eventual separation of Bentley and Rolls-Royce followed a series of mergers and acquisitions, beginning with the 1931 purchase by Rolls-Royce of Bentley in receivership. In 1971, Rolls-Royce itself was forced into receivership and the UK government nationalised the company—splitting into two companies the aerospace division and automotive divisions—the latter retaining the Bentley subdivision.
Rolls-Royce Motors was subsequently sold to engineering conglomerate, Vickers and in 1998, Vickers sold Rolls-Royce to Volkswagen AG. Intellectual property rights to both the name Rolls-Royce as well as the company's logo had been retained not by Rolls-Royce Motors, but by aerospace company, Rolls-Royce Plc, which had continued to license both to the automotive division, thus the sale of "Rolls-Royce" to VW included the Bentley name and logos, vehicle designs, model nameplates and administrative facilities, the Spirit of Ecstasy and Rolls-Royce grille shape trademarks —but not the rights to the Rolls-Royce name or logo. The aerospace company, Rolls-Royce Plc sold both to BMW AG. Before World War I, Walter Owen Bentley and his brother, Horace Millner Bentley, sold French DFP cars in Cricklewood, North London, but W. O, as Walter was known, always wanted to build his own cars. At the DFP factory, in 1913, he noticed an aluminium paperweight and thought that aluminium might be a suitable replacement for cast iron to fabricate lighter pistons.
The first Bentley aluminium pistons were fitted to Sopwith Camel aero engines during World War I. In August 1919, W. O. registered Bentley Motors Ltd. and in October he exhibited a car chassis, with dummy engine, at the London Motor Show. Ex–Royal Flying Corps officer Clive Gallop designed an innovative four valves per cylinder engine for the chassis. By December the engine was running. Delivery of the first cars was scheduled for June 1920, but development took longer than estimated so the date was extended to September 1921; the durability of the first Bentley cars earned widespread acclaim and they competed in hill climbs and raced at Brooklands. Bentley's first major event was the 1922 Indianapolis 500, a race dominated by specialized cars with Duesenberg racing chassis, they entered a modified road car driven by works driver, Douglas Hawkes, accompanied by riding mechanic, H. S. "Bertie" Browning. Hawkes completed the full 500 miles and finished 13th with an average speed of 74.95 miles per hour after starting in 19th position.
The team was rushed back to England to compete in the 1922 RAC Tourist Trophy. In an ironic reference to his heavyweight boxer's stature, Captain Woolf Barnato was nicknamed "Babe". In 1925, he acquired a 3-litre. With this car he won numerous Brooklands races. Just a year he acquired the Bentley business itself; the Bentley enterprise was always underfunded, but inspired by the 1924 Le Mans win by John Duff and Frank Clement, Barnato agreed to finance Bentley's business. Barnato had incorporated Baromans Ltd in 1922, which existed as his investment vehicle. Via Baromans, Barnato invested in excess of £100,000, saving the business and its workforce. A financial reorganisation of the original Bentley company was carried out and all existing creditors paid off for £75,000. Existing shares were devalued from £ 1 each to 5 % or their original value. Barnato held 149,500 of the new shares giving him control of the company and he became chairman. Barnato injected further cash into the business: £35,000 secured by debenture in July 1927.
With renewed financial input, W. O. Bentley was able to design another generation of cars; the Bentley Boys were a group of British motoring enthusiasts that included Barnato, Sir Henry "Tim" Birkin, steeple chaser George Duller, aviator Glen Kidston, automotive journalist S. C. H. "Sammy" Davis, Dudley Benjafield. The Bentley Boys favoured Bentley cars. Many were independently wealthy and many had a military background, they kept the marque's reputation for high performance alive. In 1929, Birkin developed the 4½-litre, lightweight Blower Bentley at Welwyn Garden City and produced five racing specials, starting with Bentley Blower No.1, optimised for the Brooklands racing circuit. Birkin overruled Bentley and put the model on the market before it was developed; as a result, it was unreliable. In March 1930, during the Blue Train Races, Barnato raised the stakes on Rover and its Rover Light Six, having raced and beaten Le Train Bleu for the first time, to better that record with his 6½-litre Bentley Speed Six on a bet o
Porsche Mission E
The Porsche Mission E is the internal designation for an all-electric 4-door coupe from Porsche, unveiled as a concept car at the 2015 Frankfurt Motor Show. It is Porsche's first electric car, save for some early models like the Lohner-Porsche and C.2 Phaeton designed by Ferdinand Porsche. Porsche chairman Oliver Blume told CAR Magazine in September 2017 that the Misson E will be "priced like entry-level Panamera," which begins at $85,000; the car is planned to be sold in several variants of different performance levels, as are other models in the Porsche range, could spawn derivatives in a future line-up of Mission E platform-based models. In June 2018 at Porsche's "70 years of sports cars" ceremony it was announced that the Mission E's production car name would be Porsche Taycan translated from Turkish as "lively young horse" in reference to the steed of the Stuttgart coat of arms on the Porsche crest; the Mission E, built on an new platform codenamed J1, is expected to go into production at Porsche’s Zuffenhausen plant in 2019 with a projected production of around 40,000 units per year.
The Mission E is powered by two PSM permanently excited synchronous electric motors: one at the front axle and one at the back. All four wheels are individually controlled by the Porsche Torque Vectoring system; the two electric motors are projected to produce more than 440 kW. It has projected performance figures of 0–100 km/h in <3.5 seconds, 0–200 km/h in <12 seconds and a top speed over 250 km/h. Porsche is aiming for the Mission E to achieve a range of over 500 km; the car has a system voltage of 800 V DC. The batteries can be charged with a conventional charger system. Porsche claims that with the Porsche Turbo Charging system the battery is charged to 80% in just 15 minutes, it is not yet clear. The Porsche Mission E Cross Turismo concept is a Mission E derivative, first presented at the 2018 Geneva Motor Show and combines the electric Mission E J1-platform with a 5-door estate body similar to the Panamera Sport Turismo, raised suspension, off-road tyres and cladding to form a crossover utility vehicle.
According to Michael Mauer the concept "shows possibilities of the future lineup." On 18 October 2018 the Supervisory Board of Porsche AG gave the green light for the series production of the Cross Turismo. Tesla Model S Tesla Roadster Jaguar I-Pace Mercedes-Benz EQ Rimac Concept One Fisker Karma Official Porsche Mission E website
Automobili Lamborghini S.p. A. is an Italian brand and manufacturer of luxury sports cars and SUVs based in Sant'Agata Bolognese and tractors Lamborghini Trattori in Pieve di Cento, Italy. The company is owned by the Volkswagen Group through its subsidiary Audi. Ferruccio Lamborghini, an Italian manufacturing magnate, founded Automobili Ferruccio Lamborghini S.p. A. in 1963 to compete with established marques, including Ferrari. The company gained wide acclaim in 1966 for the Miura sports coupé, which established rear mid-engine, rear wheel drive as the standard layout for high-performance cars of the era. Lamborghini grew during its first decade, but sales plunged in the wake of the 1973 worldwide financial downturn and the oil crisis; the firm's ownership changed three times after 1973, including a bankruptcy in 1978. American Chrysler Corporation took control of Lamborghini in 1987 and sold it to Malaysian investment group Mycom Setdco and Indonesian group V'Power Corporation in 1994. In 1998, Mycom Setdco and V'Power sold Lamborghini to the Volkswagen Group where it was placed under the control of the group's Audi division.
New products and model lines were introduced to the brand's portfolio and brought to the market and saw an increased productivity for the brand. In the late 2000s, during the worldwide financial crisis and the subsequent economic crisis, Lamborghini's sales saw a drop of nearly 50 percent. Lamborghini produces sports cars and V12 engines for offshore powerboat racing. Lamborghini produces the V12-powered Aventador and the V10-powered Huracán along with the Urus SUV powered by a twin-turbo V8 engine. Manufacturing magnate Italian Ferruccio Lamborghini founded the company in 1963 with the objective of producing a refined grand touring car to compete with offerings from established marques such as Ferrari; the company's first models, such as the 350 GT, were released in the mid-1960s and were noted for their refinement and comfort. Lamborghini gained wide acclaim in 1966 for the Miura sports coupé, which established rear mid-engine, rear wheel drive as the standard layout for high-performance cars of the era.
Lamborghini grew during its first ten years, but sales plunged in the wake of the 1973 worldwide financial downturn and the oil crisis. Ferruccio Lamborghini sold ownership of the company to Georges-Henri Rossetti and René Leimer and retired in 1974; the company went bankrupt in 1978, was placed in the receivership of brothers Jean-Claude and Patrick Mimran in 1980. The Mimrans purchased the company out of receivership by 1984 and invested in the company's expansion. Under the Mimrans' management, Lamborghini's model line was expanded from the Countach to include the Jalpa sports car and the LM002 high performance off-road vehicle; the Mimrans sold Lamborghini to the Chrysler Corporation in 1987. After replacing the Countach with the Diablo and discontinuing the Jalpa and the LM002, Chrysler sold Lamborghini to Malaysian investment group Mycom Setdco and Indonesian group V'Power Corporation in 1994. In 1998, Mycom Setdco and V'Power sold Lamborghini to the Volkswagen Group where it was placed under the control of the group's Audi division.
New products and model lines were introduced to the brand's portfolio and brought to the market and saw an increased productivity for the brand Lamborghini. In the late 2000s, during the worldwide financial crisis and the subsequent economic crisis, Lamborghini's sales saw a drop of nearly 50 percent; as of the 2018 model year, Lamborghini's automobile product range consists of three model lines, two of which are mid-engine two-seat sports cars while the third one is a front engined, all-wheel drive SUV. The V12-powered Aventador line consists of the LP 740 -- roadster; the V10-powered Huracán line includes the all-wheel-drive LP 610-4 coupé and spyder, the low cost rear-wheel-drive LP 580-2 coupé and spyder and the most powerful, track oriented LP 640-4 Performanté coupé and spyder. With the intention of doubling its sales volume by 2019, Lamborghini added an SUV named Urus in its line-up, powered by a twin-turbo V8 engine and utilises a front engine, all-wheel drive layout. Motori Marini Lamborghini produces a large V12 marine engine block for use in World Offshore Series Class 1 powerboats.
A Lamborghini branded marine engine displaces 8,171 cc and outputs 940 hp. In the mid-1980s, Lamborghini produced a limited-production run of a 1,000 cc sports motorcycle. UK weekly newspaper Motor Cycle News reported in 1994 – when featuring an example available through an Essex motorcycle retailer – that 24 examples were produced with a Lamborghini alloy frame having adjustable steering head angle, Kawasaki GPz1000RX engine/transmission unit, Ceriani front forks and Marvic wheels; the bodywork was plastic and integrated with front fairing merged into fuel tank and seat cover ending in a rear tail-fairing. The motorcycles were produced by French business Boxer Bikes. Lamborghini licenses its brand to manufacturers that produce a variety of Lamborghini-branded consumer goods including scale models, accessories, bags and laptop computers. In contrast to his rival Enzo Ferrari, Ferruccio Lamborghini had decided early on that there would be no factory-supported racing of Lamborghinis, viewing motorsport as too expensive and too draining on company resources.
This was unusual for the time, as many sports car manufacturers sought to demonstrate the speed and technical superiority through motorsport participation. Enzo Ferrari in particular was known for considering his road car business a source of funding for his participation in motor racing. Ferruccio's policy led to tensions between him a
The Porsche 924 is a sports car produced by Porsche AG of Germany from 1976 to 1988. A two-door, 2+2 coupé, the 924 was intended to replace the Porsche 914 as the company's entry-level model. Although the water-cooled, front-engined 928 gran turismo was designed first, the 924 was the first road-going Porsche to have a front engine rear wheel drive configuration, it was the first Porsche to be offered with a automatic transmission. The 924 made its public debut in November 1975, it was criticised by enthusiasts for its mediocre performance, but was a sales success with just over 150,000 produced during a 1977-1988 production run, an important profits generator for the company. The related 944 introduced in the U. S. market in 1983 was meant to replace the 924, but 924 production continued through 1985, followed by a 944-engined 924S through 1988. The 924 was a joint project of Volkswagen and Porsche created by the Vertriebsgesellschaft, the joint sales and marketing company funded by Porsche and VW to market and sell sports cars.
For Volkswagen, it was intended to be that company's flagship coupé sports car and was dubbed "Project 425" during its development. For Porsche, it was to be its entry-level sports car replacing the 914. At the time, Volkswagen lacked a significant internal research and design division for developing sports cars. In keeping with this history, Porsche was contracted to develop a new sporting vehicle with the caveat that this vehicle must work with an existing VW/Audi inline-four engine. Porsche chose a rear-wheel drive layout and a rear-mounted transaxle for the design to help provide 48/52 front/rear weight distribution; the 1973 oil crisis, a series of automobile-related regulatory changes enacted during the 1970s and a change of directors at Volkswagen made the case for a Volkswagen sports car less striking and the 425 project was put on hold. After serious deliberation at VW, the project was scrapped after a decision was made to move forward with the cheaper, more practical, Golf-based Scirocco model instead.
Porsche, which needed a model to replace the 914, made a deal with Volkswagen leadership to buy the design back. The 914 was discontinued before the 924 entered production, which resulted in the reintroduction of the Porsche 912 to the North American market as the 912E for one year to fill the gap; the deal specified that the car would be built at the ex-NSU factory in Neckarsulm located north of the Porsche headquarters in Stuttgart, Volkswagen becoming the subcontractor. Hence, Volkswagen employees would do the actual production line work and that Porsche would own the design, it made its debut at a November 1975 press launch at the harbour at La Grande Motte, Camargue in the south of France rather than a motor show. The relative cheapness of building the car made it both profitable and easy for Porsche to finance. While criticised for its performance, it became one of Porsche's best-selling models; the original design used an Audi-sourced four-speed manual transmission from a front wheel drive car but now placed and used as a rear transaxle.
It was mated to VW's EA831 2.0 L I4 engine, variants of which were used in the Audi 100 and the Volkswagen LT van. The Audi engine, equipped with a Weber/Holley carburetor, was used in the 1977-1979 AMC Gremlin and Spirit; the 924 engine used producing 95 horsepower in North American trim. This was brought up to 110 horsepower in mid-1977 with the introduction of a catalytic converter, which reduced the need for power-robbing smog equipment; the four-speed manual was the only transmission available for the initial 1976 model this was replaced by a five-speed dog-leg unit. An Audi three-speed automatic was offered starting with the 1977.5 model. In 1980, the five-speed transmission was changed to a conventional H-pattern, with reverse now on the right beneath fifth gear. In 1980, the model received some minor changes including a three-way catalyst and higher compression, which brought power up to 115 hp. Nonetheless, the strong Deutschemark and US inflation hampered sales, as a well equipped 924 now could cost twice as much as the more powerful Nissan 280ZX.
European models, which did not require any emissions equipment, made 125 hp. They differed visually from the US spec model by not having the US cars' low-speed impact bumpers and the round reflectors plus side-marker lamps on each end of the body; the 924 was sold in Japan at Mizwa Motors dealerships that specialize in North American and European vehicles, with left hand drive for its entire generation. Sales were helped by the fact that it was in compliance with Japanese Government dimension regulations with regards to its engine displacement and exterior dimensions. A five-speed transmission, available in aspirated cars starting in 1979 and standard on all turbos, was a dog-leg shift pattern Porsche unit, with first gear below reverse on the left side; this was robust, but expensive due to some 915 internal parts, was replaced for 1980 with a normal H-pattern Audi five-speed on all non-turbo cars. This lighter duty design was not used on the more powerful 924 Turbo; the brakes were drums at the rear.
The car was criticized in Car and Driver magazine for this