The Porsche 944 is a sports car manufactured by German automobile manufacturer Porsche from 1982 to 1991. A front-engine, rear-wheel drive mid-level model based on the 924 platform, the 944 was available in coupé or cabriolet body styles, with either aspirated or turbocharged engines; the 944 was to continue production in the 1990s but major revisions planned for a 944 "S3" model morphed into the 968, which became its replacement. Over 163,000 cars were produced in total, making it the most successful sports car in Porsche's history until the introductions of the Boxster and 997 Carrera; the 924 had been a project of VW-Porsche, a joint Porsche/Volkswagen company incorporated to develop and produce the 914, sold in Europe badged as both a Porsche and a Volkswagen. In 1972, a replacement for the Volkswagen version of the 914, code named; the model was to be sold as an Audi as part of the VW-Audi-Porsche marketing arrangement. Porsche was to manufacture its own version of the car. At one point, Volkswagen head Rudolf Leidig declared the EX-425 was going to be a Volkswagen thus denying Porsche's version of the 914's replacement.
Although testing had begun in the Spring of 1974, Volkswagen cancelled the EX-425 program, the reason being significant financial losses due to declining sales and rising development costs for new vehicles as well as the departure of Leidig. The introduced Volkswagen Scirocco was expected to fill the sports coupé market segment and the unfinished project was handed over to Audi to serve as the replacement for the Audi 100; the cancellation of the EX-425 program led Porsche to market an entry level car to replace the 912E, a US-only stop-gap model for 1976, their version of the 914, discontinued in 1975. Porsche purchased the design and the finished development mule with a Bosch K-Jetronic mechanical fuel injection system from Volkswagen; the vehicle, dubbed the 924, received positive reviews, but was criticised by Porsche enthusiasts for its Audi-sourced 2.0 L engine. In 1979, Porsche introduced a Turbocharged version of the 924 to increase performance, but this model carried a high price. Rather than scrapping the model from its line-up, Porsche decided to develop the 944, as they had done with generations of the 911.
The prototype of this mid level model debuted at LeMans in 1981, an unusual strategy implemented by Porsche at the time. Called the 924 GTP LeMans, the car was based on the 924 Carrera GT LeMans that competed in the event prior to the GTP's introduction; the most noticeable change in the new race car was the departure from the Audi sourced 2.0 L inline-4 engine in favour of the 2.5 L engine developed by Porsche. The new engine was mounted at an angle of 45 degree to the right and utilised a dual overhead camshaft along with counter rotating balance shafts, an unusual and unique feature for its time that provided better weight distribution and ensured smooth power delivery by eliminating inherent vibrations resulting in the engine lasting longer. A single KKK turbocharger producing 15.5 psi enabled the engine to generate a maximum power output of 420 PS at 6,800 rpm. The engine utilised Bosch's prototype Motronic engine management system to control ignition timing, fuel injection and boost pressure.
The new race car proved to be much more fuel efficient than its predecessor, stopping only 21 times in 24 hours for fuel. The 924 GTP managed seventh position overall behind the race winning 936 in 1981 before being retired and stored in the Porsche museum. In 1982, Porsche debuted the production road legal version of the race car, called the 944, the car utilised many technologies that its race bred sibling had used, including the balance shafts and the engine management system, but power was toned down for safety purposes; the new all-alloy 2,479 cc inline-four engine, with a bore of 100 mm and stroke of 78.9 mm, was in essence, half of the 928's 5.0 L V8 engine, although few parts were interchangeable. Not typical in luxury sports cars, the four-cylinder engine was chosen for fuel efficiency and size, because it had to be fitted from below on the Neckarsulm production line. To overcome roughness caused by the unbalanced secondary forces that are typical of inline four-cylinder engines, Porsche included two counter-rotating balance shafts running at twice the engine speed.
Invented in 1904 by British engineer Frederick Lanchester, further developed and patented in 1975 by Mitsubishi Motors, balance shafts carry eccentric weights which produce inertial forces that balance out the unbalanced secondary forces, making a four-cylinder engine feel as smooth as a six-cylinder engine. Porsche spent some time trying to develop their own system, but when they realised that they could not improve on the system developed by Mitsubishi, they chose to pay the licensing fees rather than come up with a variation just different enough to circumvent the patent; the licensing fees were about US$7–8 per car, which translated to about US$100 for the consumer to pay. The engine was factory-rated at 150 hp in its U. S. configuration. Revised bodywork with wider wheel arches, similar to that of the 924 Carrera GT, a fresh interior and upgrades to the braking and suspension systems rounded out the major changes. Porsche introduced the 944 for the 1982 model year, it was faster, was better equipped and more refined than the 924.
The factory-claimed a 0–97 km/h acceleration time of less than 9 seconds (8.3
Edward Francis Twining, Baron Twining, known as Sir Edward Twining from 1949 to 1958, was a British diplomat Governor of North Borneo and Governor of Tanganyika. He was a member of the Twining tea family. In 1960 he published. Twining was born in 1899 in Westminster to William Henry Greaves Twining, vicar of St Stephen's, Rochester Row and his wife, Agatha Georgina, fourth daughter of Lieutenant-Colonel Robert Bourne, his brother Stephan Twining became the managing director of Twinings. He was a Provost scholar to Lancing before training at Sandhurst, he married Helen Mary, daughter of Arthur Edmund Du Buisson, in 1928 and they had two sons. He served in Dublin with the Worcestershire Regiment between 1919 and 1922, inadvertently capturing Éamon de Valera in 1921, he was appointed MBE for his services in Ireland. He entered the colonial administrative service following two tours of Uganda with the 4th King's African Rifles, returning there in 1929 as an assistant district commissioner, he moved to Mauritius as director of labour in 1939, before becoming administrator in St Lucia in 1943.
Twining served as Governor of North Borneo from 2 December 1946. In 1949 he was promoted to KCMG and became Governor of Tanganyika on 16 May, serving there until 1958, he was promoted to GCMG in 1953 This was prompted because as a governor of a colony under the auspices of United Nations supervision, he was more than happy to receive Inspectors to the east African country on biennial missions. In 1952 he had paved the way for independence in 1961 by trialling an-all communities constitutional arrangement that guaranteed democratic representation for minority populations in the state that would become Tanzania. Following his retirement, he became a life peer as Baron Twining, of Tanganyika and of Godalming in the County of Surrey, on 22 August 1958. Lord Twining made his maiden speech on 27 July 1959 during the debate on the Colonial Development Corporation. Colonial governors had always had difficulty developing East African countries given the huge distances between scattered populations, the tendency of African politics to deteriorate into tribal loyalties.
However back in London he encouraged development corporations to work with governments and business to secure more investment in African territories. Describing himself as a "paternal governor" he called upon better organized schemes because they were "rather haphazard." He warned the Westminster model should not be imposed upon Africa, rather that the local leaders should be allowed to draft their own party political arrangements to articulate independence movements. Like most Liberal Imperialists he was sympathetic to self-determination because it stimulated progress or debate on the progress of institutional development towards the principles of freedom. After independence the African states suffered large-scale migration. Twining was among those peers who asked the Commonwealth Office to donate more money to alleviate the world refugee crisis. Twining was among those peers who opposed the second reading of the Misrepresentation bill, a flagship piece of fraud legislation for the Wilson Government.
He was appointed a Knight of the Venerable Order of Saint John in 1950. He served as Honorary Colonel to 6th Battalion King's African Rifles from 1955 to 1958. A History of the Crown Jewels of Europe. London: B. T. Batsford, 1960. European Regalia. London: B. T. Batsford, 1967. Fletcher-Cooke, John. "Twining, Edward Francis, Baron Twining". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/36598. Retrieved 12 December 2010. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Mr Francis Twining
South Humberside is a former postal county of England. It was introduced by the Royal Mail on 1 July 1974, when some addresses were altered in response to the changes in administration brought about under the Local Government Act 1972; the postal county corresponded to the part of the new non-metropolitan county of Humberside south of the Humber Estuary. All of the post towns included in South Humberside had been part of the Lincolnshire postal county. A changeover period of one year was allowed by the postal authorities, with the new county compulsory from 1 July 1975, it included the following post towns, all with DN postcodes: BARNETBY BARROW-UPON-HUMBER BARTON-UPON-HUMBER BRIGG CLEETHORPES GRIMSBY IMMINGHAM SCUNTHORPE ULCEBY In 1996 the Royal Mail ceased to use counties as part of the routing instructions for mail. South Humberside is now a "former postal county". Coincidentally, Humberside was abolished for local government purposes in the same year, with the area south of the Humber becoming two unitary authority areas: North Lincolnshire and North East Lincolnshire.
Although counties are no longer used for sorting mail, under the Royal Mail's flexible addressing policy users can choose to add a county to an address as long as the post town and postcode are included. The policy allows for the use of either the "former postal", "traditional" or "administrative" county