Brun Motorsport GmbH was a Swiss auto racing team founded by driver Walter Brun in 1983. They competed as a Porsche privateer team in sports car racing for their entire existence and they notably won the World Sportscar Championship in 1986 and became a full-fledged chassis constructor. Brun was part of the EuroBrun Formula One team from 1988 to 1990. The team was dissolved in 1992. Brun initially took over GS-Sports BMW M1s and a Sauber SHS C6, the new team would keep Hans Joachim Stuck and Harald Grohs as their drivers, with Walter Brun himself doing driving duties. The 956 would immediately boost Bruns performance, as the team took their first victory that season at an Interserie event at Autodrom Most with Walter Brun driving. This would be followed by a place at the 1000 km Spa. Abandoning the Sehcar project for 1984, a second 956 would be purchased by the team, being used mainly by drivers Massimo Sigala, the team would add sponsorship from Jägermeister and Warsteiner. Running their first full seasons of the WSC and DRM with the 956s, the season opened with a fourth at the 1000 km Monza, followed by fourth and seventh places finishes at the 24 Hours of Le Mans, and third and fourth at the 1000 km Spa.
Brun would secure their first championship by winning the DRM teams title, while Stefan Bellof won the drivers championship, for 1985, Brun added a new Porsche 962C to his fleet of two 956s. The team began to dominate in the combined Interserie-DRM series, taking five victories, the team would remain winless in the World Championship. Even though the team scored a third at Mugello and a second at Hockenheimring, the team would suffer a further loss as Stefan Bellof was killed during the season in an accident while driving for the team at the 1000 km of Spa. Building on the success in 1985, Walter Brun began to expand his team even further for 1986. Two more 962s were purchased, with one being dedicated solely to competing in select rounds of the North American IMSA GT Championship, although only running five rounds, the team managed to finish second at Watkins Glen behind champion Al Holbert. Back in Europe, Brun would rebound in the World Championship, after failing to finish Le Mans the previous year, the team would earn a second place result.
The first victory of the season would come at Jerez and would be followed by another at Spa, Brun would close off the successful year with one final victory at the Interserie round at the Österreichring. 1987 began with success, as Brun opened the year with a second place finish at the 24 Hours of Daytona. However, the World Championship saw Jaguar ascending to become the dominant team and this left the team with their first winless season ever, even though there were some strong performances over the year
The Porsche 917 is a race car that gave Porsche its first overall wins at the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1970 and 1971. The highest official speed ever clocked for a 917 at Le Mans is 362 km/h or 224.4 mph, there are at least eleven variants of the 917. The original version had a removable long tail/medium tail with rear wing flaps. The changes were adopted into a new version of the 917, called the Kurzheck, or short-tail. The 917K, and the special Le Mans long-tail version, dominated the 1970 and 1971 World Sportscar Championships. In 1971, a variant of the 917K appeared with an upswept tail and vertical fins. The fins kept the clean downforce inducing air on the top of the tail and allowed the angle of the deck to be reduced, the result was a more attractive looking car that maintained down force for less drag and higher top speed. By this time the original 4. 5-litre engine, which had produced around 520 bhp in 1969, had been enlarged through 4. 9-litres to 5-litres, the 917K models were generally used for the shorter road courses such as Sebring, Brands Hatch and Spa-Francorchamps.
The big prize for Porsche however, was Le Mans, for the French circuits long, high speed straights, the factory developed special long tail bodywork that was designed for minimum drag and thus highest maximum speed. On the cars debut in 1969, these models proved to be nearly uncontrollable as there was so little down force. In fact, they generated aerodynamic lift at the highest speeds, for 1970, an improved version was raced by the factory and for 1971, after very significant development in the wind tunnel, the definitive 917L was raced by both factory and JW. These cars were so stable that the drivers could take their hands off the wheel at speeds which reached 246 mph. In 1971 Jo Siffert raced an open-top 917PA Spyder in the 1971 CanAm series, there is the Pink Pig aerodynamic research version, and the turbocharged 917/10 and 917/30 CanAm Spyders. Porsche 917s raced in the European Interseries in various configurations, in the 1973 Can-Am series, the turbocharged version Porsche 917/30 developed 1,100 bhp.
The 917 is one of the most iconic racing cars of all time, largely for its high speeds and high power outputs. 2009 marked the 40th anniversary of the 917, and Porsche held a celebration at the Goodwood Festival of Speed. This capacity reduction would serve to entice manufacturers who were already building three-litre Formula One engines into endurance racing and this targeted existing cars like the aging Ford GT40 Mk. I and the newer Lola T70 coupe. With Ferrari absent in 1968, mainly Porsche 908s and Ford P68s were entered there, as a result, old 2. 2-litre Porsche 907s often won that category, with John Wyers 4. 7-litre Ford GT40 Mk. I taking wins at faster tracks
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element in the boron group with symbol Al and atomic number 13. It is a silvery-white, nonmagnetic, ductile metal, Aluminium metal is so chemically reactive that native specimens are rare and limited to extreme reducing environments. Instead, it is combined in over 270 different minerals. The chief ore of aluminium is bauxite, Aluminium is remarkable for the metals low density and its ability to resist corrosion through the phenomenon of passivation. Aluminium and its alloys are vital to the industry and important in transportation and structures, such as building facades. The oxides and sulfates are the most useful compounds of aluminium, despite its prevalence in the environment, no known form of life uses aluminium salts metabolically, but aluminium is well tolerated by plants and animals. Because of these salts abundance, the potential for a role for them is of continuing interest. Aluminium is a soft, lightweight, ductile. It is nonmagnetic and does not easily ignite, a fresh film of aluminium serves as a good reflector of visible light and an excellent reflector of medium and far infrared radiation.
The yield strength of aluminium is 7–11 MPa, while aluminium alloys have yield strengths ranging from 200 MPa to 600 MPa. Aluminium has about one-third the density and stiffness of steel and it is easily machined, cast and extruded. Aluminium atoms are arranged in a cubic structure. Aluminium has an energy of approximately 200 mJ/m2. Aluminium is a thermal and electrical conductor, having 59% the conductivity of copper. Aluminium is capable of superconductivity, with a critical temperature of 1.2 kelvin. Aluminium is the most common material for the fabrication of superconducting qubits, the strongest aluminium alloys are less corrosion resistant due to galvanic reactions with alloyed copper. This corrosion resistance is reduced by aqueous salts, particularly in the presence of dissimilar metals. In highly acidic solutions, aluminium reacts with water to form hydrogen, primarily because it is corroded by dissolved chlorides, such as common sodium chloride, household plumbing is never made from aluminium
Porsche 919 Hybrid
It utilises a 2.0 L four-cylinder turbocharged engine with a battery-based hybrid system. The car made its debut at the 20146 Hours of Silverstone. The 919 nomenclature is a reference to the successful Porsche 917 race car of the 1970s, Porsche made an initial announcement of the new program on 11 June 2012, with Timo Bernhard and Romain Dumas named as the initial development and race drivers of the car. Exactly one year after its announcement, the first test chassis completed its initial rollout, the first public showing of the car was on 14 December 2013. The 919 uses a Lithium-ion battery hybrid system, and can store up to 6 MJ of energy per lap of Le Mans, the car will have an exhaust-energy recovery system that runs through a turbine in the exhaust. The 919 Hybrid made its debut at the 20146 Hours of Silverstone at the Silverstone Circuit. Before the hour was out, Marc Lieb was forced to pit the No.14 entry with the same issue, Porsche have stated that they will be able to fully utilise this extra battery capacity for Circuit de la Sarthe although it might struggle on shorter circuits.
The 919 achieved pole positions in Spa and Silverstone before finally picking up a pole, after Le Mans it won the five remaining races of the season. Races in bold indicate pole position and races in italics indicate fastest lap Audi R18 e-tron quattro Nissan GT-R LM Nismo Toyota TS040 Hybrid Rebellion R-One Porsche 919 website
World Sportscar Championship
The World Sportscar Championship was the world series run for sports car racing by the FIA from 1953 to 1992. The official name of the series changed throughout the years, however it has generally been known as the World Sportscar Championship from its inception in 1953. The World Sportscar Championship was, with the Formula One World Championship, in 2012 the World Sportscar Championship was revived and renamed as the World Endurance Championship. Cars were split into Sports Car and GT categories and were divided into engine displacement classes. The Ferrari and Maserati works teams were fierce competitors throughout much of the decade, notably absent from the overall results were the Jaguar works team, who did not enter any events other than Le Mans, despite the potential of the C- and D-Types. In 1962, the calendar was expanded to include smaller races, the World Sportscar Championship title was discontinued, being replaced by the International Championship for GT Manufacturers. They group cars into three categories with specific sizes, less than one litre, less than two litres, and over two litres.
Hillclimbs, sprint races and smaller races expanded the championship, which now had about 15 races per season, for 1963 the three engine capacity classes remained but a prototype category was added. For 1965 the engine classes became for cars under 1300 cc, under 2000 cc, in 1972 the Group 6 Prototype and Group 5 Sports Car classes were both replaced by a new Group 5 Sports Car class. These cars were limited to 3.0 L engines by the FIA, the new Group 5 Sports Cars, together with Group 4 Grand Touring Cars, would contest the FIAs newly renamed World Championship for Makes from 1972 to 1975. Prototypes returned in 1976 as Group 6 cars with their own series, the World Championship for Sports Cars, in 1981, the FIA instituted a drivers championship. While this change was unwelcome amongst some of the private teams, several of the old guard manufacturers returned to the WSC within the next two years, with each marque adding to the diversity of the series. Under the new rules, it was possible for normally aspirated engines to compete with the forced induction engines that had dominated the series in the 70s.
In addition, most races ran for either 500 or 1000 km, Group B cars, which was a GT class, were allowed to race, but entries in this class were sparse, and Group B cars disappeared from the series, with sports-prototypes dominating the championship. Porsche was the first constructor to join the series, with the 956, as costs increased, a C2 class was created for privateer teams and small manufacturers, with greater limits to fuel consumption. In this lower class, most cars used either the BMW M1 engine or the new Cosworth DFL, like in the main class, Tiga and Ecurie Ecosse were among the most competitive in this class. While the Group C formula had brought back to the sport. For 1986, the World Endurance Championship became the World Sports-Prototype Championship, the new classification, known as Group C Category 1, was designed to mandate Formula One engines
Robert Bosch GmbH
Robert Bosch GmbH, or Bosch, is a German multinational engineering and electronics company headquartered in Gerlingen, near Stuttgart, Germany. It is the worlds largest supplier of automotive components measured by 2011 revenues, the company was founded by Robert Bosch in Stuttgart in 1886. Bosch is 92% owned by Robert Bosch Stiftung, Boschs core products are automotive components, industrial products and building products. The history of the started in a backyard in Stuttgart-West as the Werkstätte für Feinmechanik und Elektrotechnik on November 15,1886. One year later, Bosch presented the first low voltage magneto for gas engines, twenty years later, the first magneto for automobiles followed. The first factory was opened by Bosch in Stuttgart in 1901, in 1906, the company produced its 100, 000-th magneto. In the same year, Bosch introduced the 8-hours day for workers, in 1910, the Feuerbach plant was founded and built close to Stuttgart. In this factory, Bosch started to produce headlights in 1913, in 1917, Bosch was transformed into a corporation.
In 1926, Bosch started to produce windscreen wipers, and in 1927, Bosch bought the gas appliances production from Junkers & Co. in 1932. In the same year, the company developed its first power drill, in 1937, Bosch was transformed into a limited liability company. Boschs subsidiary, Dreilinden Maschinenbau GmbH was a manufacturer in Kleinmachnow. This subsidiary employed forced laborers, prisoners of war and concentration camp detainees, there are two books published by Angela Martin and Hanna Sjöberg that report about Boschs use of slave labor. Since 2006, there is a commemoration in the forced labor camp. On March 12,1942, the founder, Robert Bosch. After the second war, Bosch established a partnership with the Japanese company Denso. In 1964, the Robert Bosch Stiftung was founded, Bosch founded a new development center in Schwieberdingen in 1968, and headquarters moved to Gerlingen in 1970. In 1981, the company participated on an equity basis in the Telefonbau & Normalzeit GmbH that was renamed Telenorma in 1985, in 1994, this part of the company was renamed as Bosch Telecom GmbH.
In 2000, Bosch sold the Private Networks area, in 2001, Bosch acquired the Mannesmann Rexroth AG which was renamed to Bosch Rexroth AG
John Fitzpatrick (racing driver)
John Fitzpatrick is a former English racing driver, winning many titles throughout his career. He works within motorsport as a consultant doing corporate events and driver management and he still participates in historic races. He was one of the best Porsche drivers of his era and he began his career driving Touring cars in the BSCC and ETCC, winning the British Saloon Car Championship in 1966. First it was Minis, Ford Anglias and Escorts, BMW CSs and he became renowned for his expertise at driving the German machines. He was crowned European GT Champion in 1972, and again in 1974 and he moved to the United States in 1980, driving for Dick Barbour Racing, and capturing the IMSA Camel GT Championship in the process. In 1981, he moved from driver to team owner-driver, with some success, Fitzpatrick had little racing experience before he entered the British Saloon Car Championship, with his pre-career largely unknown. From 1963, Team Broadspeed, employed Fitzpatrick to race their Austin Mini Cooper S in the three of the rounds of the year.
He won points, although his season was brought to a close with two retirements in the final rounds, for 1964, Fitzpatrick switched to the factory backed Cooper Car Company team, taking his first victory at the first race. A second win resulted from the meeting, ultimately finishing second in the championship to Jim Clark. In 1965, Fitzpatrick returned to Team Broadspeed, remaining with them for the rest of his BSCC career, the season saw Fitzpatrick claim three podiums in his Morris Mini Cooper S970. It would be in 1966, that Fitzpatrick put his name into the BSCC history books, Team Broadspeed were contracted by Ford to run two 1000cc Ford Anglias in the BSCC, to be driven by Fitzpatrick and Peter Proctor. Peter Proctor had an accident in the Goodwood race and his place was taken by Anita Taylor. Fitzpatrick followed this with a second overall the following year. In the final four years that he competed in the BSCC, Team Broadspeed bought a Ford Escort for Fitzpatrick, which meant he would compete directly with the Mini Coopers once more.
1968 saw the Escort struggle early on, however, as the car was not homologated until the race of the year. Nonetheless, Fitzpatrick took four wins on the trot during the middle of the season. 1969 saw a further three wins for Fitzpatrick, resulting in a 7th place overall, in 1970 and 1971, Fitzpatrick would claim a further fifteen wins in class, taking third on the championship in 1970. The new regulations introduced that year seemed to provoke Fitzpatrick to end his career in the series
Techniques d'Avant Garde
TAG Group S. A. is a private holding company based in Luxembourg City, Luxembourg. TAG Group S. A. generates revenue through its various subsidiaries that offer products and services in the aviation, hospitality, consumer products. TAG is an acronym of Techniques dAvant Garde, TAG was formed in 1977 by Akram Ojjeh and is currently led by Chief Executive Officer Mansour Ojjeh, the son of the founder. In 1985, TAG Group S. A. purchased Swiss watchmaker Heuer, TAG Group combined the TAG and Heuer brands to create the TAG Heuer brand and gave its newly acquired watchmaking subsidiary the combined TAG Heuer name. Under TAG Groups ownership, TAG Heuer modernised its product line, LVMH purchased the TAG Heuer subsidiary in 1999 for US$740 million. TAG Group is now primarily a company for Ojjehs shareholdings in TAG Aviation. TAG Aeronautics was distributor of Bombardier aircraft for the Middle East until an announcement from Bombardier dated 13 January 2016 which amicably ended the agreement, TAG Aviation SA is the Dealer for the HondaJet business aircraft in Northern Europe.
Based in Geneva, Switzerland, TAG Aviation is a provider of aviation services, aircraft management, aircraft charter, sales. TAG Aviation USA, Inc is the American aviation management company located in San Francisco, TAG is a broker for and part owner of the AMI Jet Charter company in San Francisco that holds the FAA air carrier certificate to operate in the U. S. In late 2007 AMI Jet Charters air carrier certificate was revoked by the FAA due to alleged operational control violations, there is ongoing speculation the FAA had other motives other than operational control. The company now operates solely as a broker of aircraft, in August 2016, TAG Aviation signed a partnership with Stratajet to offer its customers TAGs fixed base operator services as part of their booking options. TAG Farnborough Airport Ltd. is a subsidiary of TAG Aviation which owns the freehold on Farnborough Airport southwest of London in the United Kingdom, the freehold was bought from the UK MOD Ministry of Defence in 2007 following the previous 99 lease agreement signed in 1999.
TAG sponsored Formula One team Williams during the early 1980s, including when team drivers Alan Jones, Ojjeh agreed and the McLaren relationship continues to this day, with the TAG Group holding a stake in the McLaren Group. While still a sponsor of Williams, Ojjeh financed the development of a turbocharged Porsche V6 engine for use by McLaren, the engines would be badged as TAG as Ojjeh owned the naming rights, though the engines displayed the words Made by Porsche. The engine made its Formula One debut at the 1983 Dutch Grand Prix at Zandvoort, buzzi took back the money that was initially given to McLaren to develop the TAG/Porsche turbo engine, which Lauda wanted to do himself with race testing. This infuriated Ron Dennis and the teams Technical Director and McLaren MP4/1 designer John Barnard, Barnard had designed 1984s McLaren MP4/2 just for the new engine, and now had to re-design his MP4/1 to E specification to run the V6 TAG engine rather than the Cosworth V8 engine. However, the car was only a test car, despite being raced.
Better was to come for the TAG engines in 1984, with Lauda, the Drivers Championship became a battle between Lauda and Prost, with the Austrian winning his third World Championship by only half a point from his team mate
McLaren Racing Limited, competing as McLaren Honda, is a British Formula One team based at the McLaren Technology Centre, Surrey, England. McLaren is best known as a Formula One constructor but has competed in and won the Indianapolis 500. The team is the second oldest active team after Ferrari and they are one of the most successful teams in Formula One history, having won 182 races,12 drivers championships and eight constructors championships. The team is an owned subsidiary of McLaren Technology Group. Further American triumph followed, with Indianapolis 500 wins in McLaren cars for Mark Donohue in 1972, the combination of Prost and Senna was particularly dominant—together they won all but one race in 1988—but their rivalry soured and Prost left for Ferrari. Fellow English team Williams offered the most consistent challenge during this period, however, by the mid-1990s, Honda had withdrawn from Formula One, Senna had moved to Williams, and the team went three seasons without a win. Ron Dennis retired as McLaren team principal in 2009, handing the role to longtime McLaren employee Martin Whitmarsh.
At the end of 2013, after the teams worst season since 2004, McLaren announced in 2013 that they would be using Honda engines from 2015 onwards, replacing Mercedes-Benz. The team raced as McLaren-Honda for the first time since 1992 at the 2015 Australian Grand Prix, Bruce McLaren Motor Racing was founded in 1963 by New Zealander Bruce McLaren. Bruce was a driver for the British Formula One team Cooper with whom he had won three Grands Prix and come second in the 1960 world championship. In 1964 and 1965, McLaren were based in New Malden, during this period, Bruce drove for his team in sports car races in the United Kingdom and North America and entered the 1965 Tasman Series with Phil Hill, but did not win it. He continued to drive in Grands Prix for Cooper, but judging that teams form to be waning, Bruce made the teams Grand Prix debut at the 1966 Monaco race. His race ended after nine laps due to an oil leak. Neither car brought great success, the best result being a fourth at Monaco, for 1968, after driving McLarens sole entry for the previous two years, Bruce was joined by 1967 champion and fellow New Zealander Denny Hulme, who was already racing for McLaren in Can-Am.
That years new M7A car, Herds final design for the team, was powered by Cosworths new and soon to be ubiquitous DFV engine, Hulme won the Italian and Canadian Grands Prix in the year, helping the team to second in the constructors championship. The year 1970 started with a place each for Hulme. After his death, Teddy Mayer took over control of the team, Hulme continued with Dan Gurney. Gurney won the first two Can-Am events at Mosport and St. Jovite and placed ninth in the third, but left the team mid-season, and Gethin took over from there