Sarah Baartman District Municipality
Sarah Baartman District Municipality is situated in the western part of the Eastern Cape province, covering an area of 58 242 square kilometres. The area of the district municipality includes nine local municipalities; the seat of Sarah Baartman is the city of Port Elizabeth, although Port Elizabeth is not itself in the district. The largest languages among the 388,201 people are Xhosa and Afrikaans.. The district code is DC10; the municipality is a new, multi-ethnic administration, formed by the ANC government through the merging of the predominantly Afrikaans-speaking western part of the Eastern Cape, together with Xhosa areas near the Fish river, the English district of Albany. In 2015, Cacadu District was renamed for Saartjie "Sarah" Baartman, a Khoikhoi woman, brought to London to perform at freak shows and after death her body parts were exhibited until 1974; the renaming is part of an effort to redress marginalisation of the Khoikhoi people. The Executive Mayor of Sarah Baartman District Municipality is Khunjuzwa Eunice Kekana, the Municipal Manager is Ted Pillay.
The Sarah Baartman district covers an area of 58,243 square kilometres in the southwestern part of the Eastern Cape province. It extends to the Sneeuberge in the north; the metropolitan area around Port Elizabeth is excluded from the district, forming the Nelson Mandela Bay Metropolitan Municipality. The southwestern part of the district is marked by several ranges of mountains that run parallel to the sea, including the Baviaanskloof Mountains, the Kouga Mountains and the Tsitsikamma Mountains. In the southeastern part is the Albany region around the city of Grahamstown; the northern interior of the district is the southeastern end of the Karoo. To the west the district borders on the Garden Route and Central Karoo districts of the Western Cape. Sarah Baartman district is divided into nine local municipalities, described in the following table. After the municipal elections on 3 August 2016, the Camdeboo and Baviaans municipalities were merged to form the new Dr Beyers Naudé Local Municipality, with its headoffices in Graaff-Reinet.
This merger resulted in there being 7 local municipalities within the Sarah Baartman District. The following statistics are from the 2001 census. Election results for Cacadu in the South African general election, 2004. Population 18 and over: 252,570 Total votes: 161,399 Voting % estimate: 63.90% votes as a % of population 18 and over Sarah Baartman District Municipality Official Website
Coloureds are a multiracial ethnic group native to Southern Africa who have ancestry from more than one of the various populations inhabiting the region, including Khoisan, Afrikaner, Austronesian, East Asian or South Asian. Because of the combination of ethnicities, different families and individuals within a family may have a variety of different physical features. In the Western Cape, a distinctive Cape Coloured and affiliated Cape Malay culture developed. In other parts of Southern Africa, people classified as Coloured were the descendants of individuals from two distinct ethnicities. Genetic studies suggest. Mitochondrial DNA studies have demonstrated that the maternal lines of the Coloured population are descended from African Khoisan women; this ethnicity shows a gender-biased admixture. Male lines have been African, Asian Indian, Southeast Asian. Coloureds are to be found in the western part of South Africa. In Cape Town, they form 45.4% of the total population, according to the South African National Census of 2011.
The apartheid-era Population Registration Act, 1950, subsequent amendments, codified the Coloured identity, defined its subgroups. Indian South Africans were classified under the act as a subgroup of Coloured; the Coloured community is predominantly descended from numerous interracial sexual unions between Western European men and Khoisan or mixed-race women in the Cape Colony from the 17th century onwards. In KwaZulu-Natal, the Coloured possess a diverse heritage including British, German, Saint Helenian, Indian and Zulu. Zimbabwean Coloured are descended from Shona or Ndebele and Afrikaner settlers, as well as Arab and Asian people. Griqua, on the other hand, are descendants of Afrikaner Trekboers. Despite these major differences, as both groups have ancestry from more than one naturalised racial group, they are classified as coloured in the South African context; such mixed-race people did not self-identify this way. The Griqua were subjected to an ambiguity of other creole people within Southern African social order.
According to Nurse and Jenkins, the leader of this “mixed” group, Adam Kok I, was a former slave of the Dutch governor, manumitted and provided land outside Cape Town in the eighteenth century. With territories beyond the Dutch East India Company’s administration, Kok provided refuge to deserting soldiers, runaway slaves, remaining members of various Khoikhoi tribes. In South Africa and neighbouring countries, the white minority governments segregated Africans from Europeans after settlement had progressed, they classified all such mixed race people together in one class, despite their numerous ethnic and national differences in ancestry. The imperial and apartheid governments categorized them as Coloured. In addition, other distinctly homogeneous ethnic groups traditionally viewed the mixed-race populations as a separate group. During the apartheid era in South Africa of the second half of the 20th century, the government used the term "Coloured" to describe one of the four main racial groups it defined by law.
This was an effort to maintain racial divisions. Individuals were classified as white South Africans, black South Africans and Indians. Coloured people may have ethnic ancestry from Indonesia, mixed-race, Khoisan ancestry; the Apartheid government treated them as one people, despite their differences.'Cape Muslims' were classified as'coloured.' They have Indonesian and black ancestry, as many Indonesian slaves had children with African partners. Many Griqua began to self-identify as Coloureds during the apartheid era, because of the benefits of such classification. For example, Coloureds did not have to carry a dompas, while the Griqua, who were seen as an indigenous African group, did. In the 21st century, Coloured people constitute a plurality of the population in the provinces of Western Cape, a large minority in the Northern Cape, both areas of centuries of mixing among the populations. In the Eastern Cape, they make up 8.3% of the population. Most speak Afrikaans, as they were descendants of Dutch and Afrikaner men and grew up in their society.
About twenty percent of the Coloured speak English as their mother tongue those of the Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal. All Cape Town Coloured are bilingual; some can comfortably codeswitch between Kaapse taal and suiwer Afrikaans, South African English. At least one genetic study indicates that Cape Coloureds have ancestries from the following ethnic groups. Indigenous Khoisan: Bantu peoples, chiefly from Southern Africa: Peoples from Western Europe, chiefly the Low Countries: Peoples from South and Southeast Asia: The Malagasy component in the Coloured composite gene pool is itself a blend of Malay and Bantu genetic markers; this genetic admixture appears to be gender-biased. A majority of maternal genetic material is Khoisan; the Coloured population is descended predominantly from unions of European and European-African males with autochthonous Khoisan females. Colou
Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke and the King died in 1820, Victoria was raised under close supervision by her mother, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, she inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. The United Kingdom was an established constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held little direct political power. Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Victoria married her first cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1840, their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the sobriquet "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria avoided public appearances.
As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration, her reign of 63 years and seven months was longer than that of any of her predecessors and is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, political and military change within the United Kingdom, was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire, she was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, initiated the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father. Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III; until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children.
In 1818 he married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a widowed German princess with two children—Carl and Feodora —by her first marriage to the Prince of Leiningen. Her brother Leopold was Princess Charlotte's widower; the Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London. Victoria was christened by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace, she was baptised Alexandrina after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, Victoria, after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parents—Georgina and Augusta—were dropped on the instructions of Kent's eldest brother, the Prince Regent. At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after the four eldest sons of George III: George, the Prince Regent; the Prince Regent had no surviving children, the Duke of York had no children. The Duke of Clarence and the Duke of Kent married on the same day in 1818, but both of Clarence's legitimate daughters died as infants.
The first of these was Princess Charlotte, born and died on 27 March 1819, two months before Victoria was born. Victoria's father died in January 1820. A week her grandfather died and was succeeded by his eldest son as George IV. Victoria was third in line to the throne after York and Clarence. Clarence's second daughter was Princess Elizabeth of Clarence who lived for twelve weeks from 10 December 1820 to 4 March 1821 and, while Elizabeth lived, Victoria was fourth in line; the Duke of York died in 1827. When George IV died in 1830, he was succeeded by his next surviving brother, Clarence, as William IV, Victoria became heir presumptive; the Regency Act 1830 made special provision for Victoria's mother to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor. King William distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, in 1836 he declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided. Victoria described her childhood as "rather melancholy".
Her mother was protective, Victoria was raised isolated from other children under the so-called "Kensington System", an elaborate set of rules and protocols devised by the Duchess and her ambitious and domineering comptroller, Sir John Conroy, rumoured to be the Duchess's lover. The system prevented the princess from meeting people whom her mother and Conroy deemed undesirable, was designed to render her weak and dependent upon them; the Duchess avoided the court because she was scandalised by the presence of King William's illegitimate children. Victoria shared a bedroom with her mother every night, studied with private tutors to a regular timetable, spent her play-hours with her dolls and her King Charles Spaniel, Dash, her lessons included French, German and Latin, but she spoke only English at home. In 1830, the Duchess of Kent and Conroy took Victoria across the centre of England to visit the Malvern Hills, stopping at towns and great country houses along the way. Similar journeys to oth
The Xhosa people are an ethnic group of people of Southern Africa found in the Eastern and Western Cape, South Africa, in the last two centuries throughout the southern and central-southern parts of the country. There is a small but significant Xhosa community in Zimbabwe, their language, IsiXhosa, is recognised as a national language; the Xhosa people are divided into several tribes with distinct heritages. The main tribes are the AmaGcaleka, AmaRharhabe, ImiDange, ImiDushane, AmaNdlambe. In addition, there are other tribes found near or amongst the Xhosa people such as AbaThembu, AmaBhaca, AbakoBhosha and AmaQwathi that are distinct and separate tribes which have adopted the Xhosa language and the Xhosa way of life; the name "Xhosa" comes from that of a legendary leader and King called uXhosa. There is a fringe theory that, in fact the King's name which has since been lost amongst the people was not Xhosa, but that "xhosa" was a name given to him by the San and which means "fierce" or "angry" in Khoisan languages.
The Xhosa people refer to themselves as the AmaXhosa, to their language as isiXhosa. Presently 8 million Xhosa are distributed across the country, the Xhosa language is South Africa's second-most-populous home language, after the Zulu language, to which Xhosa is related; the pre-1994 apartheid system of Bantustans denied Xhosas South African citizenship, but enabled them to have self-governing "homelands" namely. Many Xhosa live in Cape Town, East London, Port Elizabeth; as of 2003 the majority of Xhosa speakers 5.3 million, lived in the Eastern Cape, followed by the Western Cape, the Free State, KwaZulu-Natal, North West, the Northern Cape, Limpopo. The Xhosa are part of the South African Nguni migration which moved south from the region around the Great Lakes; these tribes lived peacefully together until the frontier wars. Xhosa people were well established by the time of the Dutch arrival in the mid-17th century, occupied much of eastern South Africa from around the Port Elizabeth area to lands inhabited by Zulu-speakers south of the modern city of Durban.
The Xhosa and white settlers first encountered one another around Somerset East in the early 18th century. In the late 18th century Afrikaner trekboers migrating outwards from Cape Town came into conflict with Xhosa pastoralists around the Great Fish River region of the Eastern Cape. Following more than 20 years of intermittent conflict, from 1811 to 1812, the Xhosas were forced east by the British Empire in the Third Frontier War. In the years following, many tribes found in the north eastern parts of South Africa were pushed west into Xhosa country by the expansion of the Zulus in Natal, as the northern Nguni put pressure on the southern Nguni as part of the historical process known as the mfecane, or "scattering"; the Xhosa-speaking people received these scattered tribes and assimilated them into their cultural way of life and followed Xhosa traditions. The Xhosa called these various tribes AmaMfengu, meaning wanderers, were made up of tribes such as the amaBhaca, amaBhele, amaHlubi, amaZizi and Rhadebe.
These newcomers are sometimes considered to be Xhosa. Xhosa unity and ability to resist colonial expansion was to be weakened by the famines and political divisions that followed the cattle-killing movement of 1856–1858. Historians now view this movement as a millennialist response, both directly to a lung disease spreading among Xhosa cattle at the time, less directly to the stress to Xhosa society caused by the continuing loss of their territory and autonomy; some historians argue that this early absorption into the wage economy is the ultimate origin of the long history of trade union membership and political leadership among Xhosa people. That history manifests itself today in high degrees of Xhosa representation in the leadership of the African National Congress, South Africa's ruling political party. Xhosa is an agglutinative tonal language of the Bantu family. While the Xhosas call their language "isiXhosa", it is referred to as "Xhosa" in English. Written Xhosa uses a Latin alphabet–based system.
Xhosa is spoken by about 18% of the South African population, has some mutual intelligibility with Zulu Zulu spoken in urban areas. Many Xhosa speakers those living in urban areas speak Zulu and/or Afrikaans and/or English. Traditional healers of South Africa include diviners; this job is taken by women, who spend five years in apprenticeship. There are herbalists and healers for the community; the Xhosas have a strong oral tradition with many stories of ancestral heroes. One of Xhosa's descendents named Phalo gave birth to two sons, Gcaleka kaPhalo, the heir, Rarabe ka Phalo, a son from the Right Hand house. Rarabe was a great warrior and a man of great ability, much loved by his father. Gcaleka was a meek and listless man who did not possess all the qualities befitting of a future king. Matters were complicated by Gcaleka's initiation as a diviner, a forbidden practice for members of the royal family. Seeing the popularity of his brother and fearing that he might one day challenge him for the throne, Gcaleka attempted to usurp the throne from his father, but Rarabe would come to his father's aid and quell the insurrection.
With the blessing of
Klipplaat is a town in Sarah Baartman District Municipality in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. The town is 75 km south-east of Aberdeen, it takes its name from large slabs of rock on the surface of the ground.
N2 (South Africa)
The N2 is a national route in South Africa that runs from Cape Town through Port Elizabeth, East London and Durban to Ermelo. It is the main highway along the Indian Ocean coast of the country, its total distance of 2,255 kilometres makes it the longest numbered route in South Africa. Major towns and cities along the route of the N2 include Cape Town, Somerset West, Swellendam, Mossel Bay, Knysna, Plettenberg Bay, Port Elizabeth, King William's Town, East London, Kokstad, Port Shepstone, KwaDukuza, The N2 begins in central Cape Town at the northern end of Buitengracht Street outside the entrance to the Victoria & Alfred Waterfront; the first section of the N2 is shared with the beginning of the N1. On the eastern edge of the city centre the two roads split, the N2 turns south as Nelson Mandela Boulevard, crossing above the yards and approach tracks of Cape Town railway station; the N2 descends to ground level in Woodstock before approaching the major interchange known as "Hospital Bend" because of its proximity to Groote Schuur Hospital.
In this interchange, the N2 and the M3 merge to form a massive 10-lane freeway before diverging again. Because Hospital Bend is built on a steeply sloping curve, lane-changing is necessary to travel through the intersection, it was notorious for congestion and accidents, until it was upgraded between 2008 and 2010. After Hospital Bend the N2 turns east to travel across the Cape Flats as a 6-lane freeway to Somerset West. Along this route it crosses the M7 and R300 freeways. In Somerset West it is reduced to an undivided highway, passing through several intersections with traffic lights, which cause frequent congestion. East of Somerset West the N2 climbs Sir Lowry's Pass to enter the Overberg region, it passes near the town of Grabouw on the Hottentots-Holland plateau before descending the Houwhoek Pass to Botrivier. After Botrivier it passes across the agricultural plains through the towns of Caledon, Riviersonderend and Riversdale to re-approach the coast at Mossel Bay, which marks the beginning of the Garden Route.
Just west of Mossel Bay the N2 again becomes a divided freeway, remains one as far as the intersection with the N9 just outside George. From there it travels across Kaaiman's Pass on to Knysna and Plettenberg Bay. After Plettenberg Bay a section of the road is tolled as the Tsitsikamma Toll Route because of the Bloukrans Bridge; the Bloukrans Bridge marks the border with the Eastern Cape and is the site of the worlds highest bridge bungy, Bloukrans Bridge Bungy. In the Eastern Cape the N2 passes near Humansdorp and Jeffrey's Bay before becoming a four-lane divided freeway through the city of Port Elizabeth, ending at Colchester, Eastern Cape; the N2 continues in a north-easterly direction from Port Elizabeth, moving away from the coast towards Grahamstown. After Grahamstown the N2 passes through the former Ciskei; the N2 passes around East London on a bypass. After East London, the N2 turns again towards the interior in a northeasterly direction to avoid the difficult terrain of the Wild Coast.
It passes through its former capital Mthatha. Near Kokstad, KwaZulu-Natal the N2 crosses into the province of KwaZulu-Natal. At Kokstad the N2 turns again back towards the coast; the R56 separates from the N2 at Stafford's Post, running in a northeasterly direction past Umzimkhulu and Richmond towards Pietermaritzburg. The N2 meets the coast at Port Shepstone, is tolled once again; the R56 can be used as a alternative to avoid the toll plaza at Port Shepstone, one can follow the R56 to Pietermaritzburg, using the N3 from Pietermaritzburg to Hillcrest, where one can use the M13 as an alternative to Durban. From Port Shepstone it runs as a freeway past the resort towns of the KwaZulu-Natal South Coast, including Umzumbe, Ifafa Beach, Scottburgh and Amanzimtoti, before passing on a bypass around the city of Durban. At the Westville EB Cloete Interchange, the N2 meets the N3 from Johannesburg. After Durban, the N2 runs as a toll freeway passing through Umhlanga Rocks and Tongaat; the N2 runs close to King Shaka International Airport and a tolled offramp provides access to the airport.
It is tolled twice before the freeway section ends at KwaDukuza, once at Tongaat and again before KwaDukuza. It continues as a single carriageway with two lanes on both sides and passes through sugar cane plantations on the KwaZulu-Natal North Coast, it is tolled once again, for the final time at Mtunzini and meets the R34 which provides access to Richards Bay to the east and Empangeni and Ulundi to the west. The 34 km stretch of the N2 between Mtunzini and Empangeni is being upgraded to a dual carriageway. After Richards Bay, the N2 turns north, moving away from the coast into the heart of Zululand where it runs past the town of Mkuze before running close to the border of Swaziland before passing the town of Pongola. After leaving Pongola, the N2 makes a direct line for Piet Retief and meets the R33 that links Piet Retief and Pietermaritzburg vi
Lord Charles Somerset
General Lord Charles Henry Somerset PC, born in Badminton, was a British soldier and colonial administrator. He was governor of the Cape Colony, South Africa, from 1814 to 1826. Somerset was the second son of Henry Somerset, 5th Duke of Beaufort, Elizabeth, daughter of Admiral the Hon. Edward Boscawen, he was the brother of Henry Somerset, 6th Duke of Beaufort, General Lord Edward Somerset, Lord Arthur Somerset and Field Marshal FitzRoy Somerset, 1st Baron Raglan. Somerset sat as Member of Parliament for Scarborough between 1796 and 1802 and for Monmouth Boroughs between 1802 and 1813, he served as Comptroller of the Household between 1797 and 1804 and as Joint Paymaster of the Forces between 1804 and 1806 and 1807 and 1813 and was sworn of the Privy Council on 26 April 1797. In 1814 he was appointed Governor of the Cape Colony, a post he held until 1826; the towns of Somerset West and Somerset East in South Africa are named after him. Somerset married firstly Lady Elizabeth Courtenay, on 7 June 1788, following their elopement.
She was the daughter of the 8th Earl of Devon. They had six children: Hon. Elizabeth Somerset, married General the Hon. Sir Henry Wyndham in July 1812 Hon. Mary Georgiana Somerset, married Lt-Col. Stirling Freeman Glover on 25 June 1833 Lieutenant-General Hon. Sir Henry Somerset Hon. Charlotte Augusta Somerset, married Herbert Cornewoll in May 1822 Lieutenant-Colonel Hon. Charles Henry Somerset Reverend Hon. Villiers Somerset, married Frances Dorothy Ley on 8 August 1844 and had issueAfter the death of Lady Elizabeth, he married secondly Lady Mary Poulett, daughter of the 4th Earl Poulett, on 9 August 1821, they had three children: Hon. Colonel Poulett Somerset Hon. Mary Sophia Somerset Hon. Augusta Anne Somerset, married Sir Henry Barron, 1st Baronet on 1 August 1863. Somerset died in February 1831, aged 63, his second wife died in June 1860, aged 72. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Lord Charles Somerset