Melaleuca is a genus of nearly 300 species of plants in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae known as paperbarks, honey-myrtles or tea-trees. They range in size from small shrubs that grow to more than 1 m high, to trees up to 35 m, their flowers occur in groups, forming a “head” or “spike” resembling a brush used for cleaning bottles, containing up to 80 individual flowers. They are superficially like Banksia species, which have their flowers in a spike, but the structures of individual flowers in the two genera are different. Second only to members of the family Proteaceae, melaleucas are an important food source for nectarivorous insects and mammals. Many are popular garden plants, either as dense screens. Most melaleucas are endemic to Australia, with a few occurring in Malesia. Seven are endemic to New Caledonia, one is found only on Lord Howe Island. Melaleucas are found in a wide variety of habitats. Many are adapted for life in swamps and boggy places, while others thrive in the poorest of sandy soils or on the edge of saltpans.
Some have a wide distribution and are common, whilst others are rare and endangered. Land clearing, exotic myrtle rust, draining and clearing of swamps threaten many species. Melaleucas range in size from small shrubs such as M. aspalathoides and M. concinna which grow to more than 1 m high, to trees like M. cajuputi and M. quinquenervia, which can reach 35 m. Many, like M. lineariifolia, are known as paperbarks and have bark that can be peeled in thin sheets, whilst about 20% of the genus, including M. bracteata, have hard, rough bark and another 20% have fibrous bark. Every species in the genus is an evergreen, the leaves vary in size from minute and scale-like to 270 mm long. Most have distinct oil glands dotted in the leaves, making the leaves aromatic when crushed. Melaleuca flowers are arranged in spikes or heads. Within the head or spike, the flowers are in groups of two or three, each flower or group having a papery bract at its base. Five sepals occur, although these are sometimes fused into a ring of tissue and five petals which are small, not showy, fall off as the flower opens or soon after.
The stamens vary in colour, from white to cream or yellow, red, or mauve with their yellow tips contrasting with their "stalks". The fruit are woody, cup-shaped, barrel-shaped, or spherical capsules arranged in clusters along the stems; the seeds are sometimes retained in the fruit for many years, only opening when the plant, or part of it, dies or is heated in a bushfire. In tropical areas, seeds are released annually in the wet season; the first known description of a Melaleuca species was written by Rumphius in 1741, in Herbarium amboinense before the present system of naming plants was written. The plant he called; the name Melaleuca was first used by Linnaeus in 1767. Many species known as Metrosideros were placed in Melaleuca. In Australia, Melaleuca is the third most diverse plant genus with up to 300 species; the genus Callistemon was raised by Robert Brown, who noted its similarity to Melaleuca, distinguishing it only on the basis of whether the stamens are free of each other, or joined in bundles.
Botanists in the past, including Ferdinand von Mueller and Lyndley Craven have proposed uniting the two genera but the matter is not decided. Evidence from DNA studies suggests that either Callistemon and some other genera be incorporated into Melaleuca or that at least 10 new genera be created from the present genus. In 2014, Lyndley Craven and others proposed, on the basis of DNA evidence, that species in the genera Beaufortia, Conothamnus, Lamarchea, Petraeomyrtus and Regelia be transferred to Melaleuca; the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families maintained by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew lists Calothamnus and the other genera as synonyms of the accepted genus Melaleuca. The move has not been adopted by all Australian herbaria with some taxonomists, including Alex George opposing the move; the name Melaleuca is derived from the Ancient Greek μέλας meaning “dark" or "black” and λευκός meaning “white” because one of the first specimens described had fire-blackened white bark. The common name "tea-tree" has been applied to species in the genera Leptospermum, Melaleuca and Baeckea because the sailors on the Endeavour used the leaves of a shrub from one of these groups as a replacement for tea Camellia sinensis during Captain James Cook's 1770 voyage to Australia.
Most melaleucas occur only on the Australian mainland. Eight occur in Tasmania. One is endemic to Lord Howe Island and seven are endemic to Grande Terre, the main island of New Caledonia. A few tropical species occur in Papua New Guinea, the distribution of one subspecies, Melaleuca cajuputi subsp. Cumingiana extends as far north as Myanmar and Vietnam; the southwest of Western Australia has the greatest density of species, in the tropical north of the continent, species such as M. argentea and M. leucadendra are the dominant species over large areas. Melaleucas grow in a range of soil types and many tolerate occasional or permanent waterlogging; some species the South Australian swamp paperbark, M. halmaturorum, thrive in saline soils where few other species survive. Many
Bay of Islands Coastal Park
Bay of Islands Coastal Park is a 32 kilometres long coastal reserve located in Victoria, Australia on the Great Ocean Road between Peterborough and Warrnambool. Lookout areas with parking are provided at the Bay of Martyrs, the Bay of Islands, Three Mile Beach and Childers Cove. Official Website for 12 Apostles Region of Victoria Bay of Islands Coastal Park
Baw Baw National Park
The Baw Baw National Park is a national park located on the boundaries between the Central Highlands and Gippsland regions of Victoria, Australia. The 13,530-hectare national park is situated 120 kilometres east of Melbourne and 50 kilometres north of the Latrobe Valley; the park borders the Mount Baw Baw Alpine Resort. Geographically, the Baw-Baw Plateau is a plateau of several peaks that includes Mount Baw Baw, Mount St Gwinear, Mount St Phillack, Mount Erica and Mount Whitelaw. Much of the slopes of the plateau within the national park form the catchment area for the Thomson River and the Thomson Reservoir, the Tanjil and Tyers rivers; the traditional custodians of the land surrounding Baw Baw National Park are the Wurundjeri people of the Kulin Nation. Through their cultural traditions, the Gunaikurnai people identify the Baw Baw National Park as their traditional country; the area was first explored by Europeans in 1860 by botanist Ferdinand von Mueller. The area was settled after the discovery of gold in the area.
Baw Baw National Park was declared in April 1979. On 7 November 2008 the park was added to the Australian National Heritage List as one of eleven areas constituting the Australian Alps National Parks and Reserves; the Baw Baw National Park represents the southerly extent of the sub-alpine environment on mainland Australia. The typical vegetation in the park is low-lying grasses and snow gums, this is described as sub-alpine. Fauna abounds on the foothills to Baw Baw Plateau, including Leadbeater's possum, endangered and Victoria's state fauna emblem; the critically endangered Baw Baw frog, listed on the IUCN Red List, is native to the region. The deciduous Baw Baw berry may be found on the plateau; the national park draws its name from Mount Baw Baw. In the Australian Aboriginal Woiwurrung language the name for the mountain was thought to be variously bo-ye, meaning "ghost". In the Bunurong language, the mountain was thought to be named Bore Bore and in the Gunai language, Bo Bo, both meaning "echo".
The major uses of the park are bushwalking in summer. It is popular for cross country skiing, downhill skiing, summer bushwalking and canoeing, scenic drives and picnics; the Australian Alps Walking Track traverses its entire length, starting at Walhalla and continuing north towards the Alpine National Park. The Baw Baw section takes a bit less than three days to walk with plenty to see for those interested in botany or geology; the highest peak in the park is a granite plateau standing at 1,566 metres. There is popular ski touring along the Baw Baw Plateau between Mount Baw Baw, past Mount St Phillack to Mount St Gwinear. There is a volunteer ski patrol group who run on weekends and patrol around the St Gwinear portion of the national park, they access the park from the opposite side of the plateau to the ski resort at Mount Baw Baw. Other popular skiing is Nordic skiing at Mount Baw Baw, introduced in 1972 including championship races and a ski school. Australian Alps National Parks and Reserves List of reduplicated Australian place names Protected areas of Victoria "Baw Baw National Park".
Parks Victoria. Government of Victoria. "Map of Baw Baw National Park, VIC". Bonzle Digital Atlas of Australia
Melbourne is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, the second most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Its name refers to an urban agglomeration of 9,992.5 km2, comprising a metropolitan area with 31 municipalities, is the common name for its city centre. The city occupies much of the coastline of Port Phillip bay and spreads into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley, it has a population of 4.9 million, its inhabitants are referred to as "Melburnians". The city was founded on 30 August 1835, in the then-British colony of New South Wales, by free settlers from the colony of Van Diemen’s Land, it was incorporated as a Crown settlement in 1837 and named in honour of the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne. In 1851, four years after Queen Victoria declared it a city, Melbourne became the capital of the new colony of Victoria. In the wake of the 1850s Victorian gold rush, the city entered a lengthy boom period that, by the late 1880s, had transformed it into one of the world's largest and wealthiest metropolises.
After the federation of Australia in 1901, it served as interim seat of government of the new nation until Canberra became the permanent capital in 1927. Today, it is a leading financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region and ranks 15th in the Global Financial Centres Index; the city is home to many of the best-known cultural institutions in the nation, such as the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the National Gallery of Victoria and the World Heritage-listed Royal Exhibition Building. It is the birthplace of Australian impressionism, Australian rules football, the Australian film and television industries and Australian contemporary dance. More it has been recognised as a UNESCO City of Literature and a global centre for street art, live music and theatre, it is the host city of annual international events such as the Australian Grand Prix, the Australian Open and the Melbourne Cup, has hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. Due to it rating in entertainment and sport, as well as education, health care and development, the EIU ranks it the second most liveable city in the world.
The main airport serving the city is Melbourne Airport, the second busiest in Australia, Australia's busiest seaport the Port of Melbourne. Its main metropolitan rail terminus is Flinders Street station and its main regional rail and road coach terminus is Southern Cross station, it has the most extensive freeway network in Australia and the largest urban tram network in the world. Indigenous Australians have lived in the Melbourne area for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years; when European settlers arrived in the 19th-century, under 2,000 hunter-gatherers from three regional tribes—the Wurundjeri and Wathaurong—inhabited the area. It was an important meeting place for the clans of the Kulin nation alliance and a vital source of food and water; the first British settlement in Victoria part of the penal colony of New South Wales, was established by Colonel David Collins in October 1803, at Sullivan Bay, near present-day Sorrento. The following year, due to a perceived lack of resources, these settlers relocated to Van Diemen's Land and founded the city of Hobart.
It would be 30 years. In May and June 1835, John Batman, a leading member of the Port Phillip Association in Van Diemen's Land, explored the Melbourne area, claimed to have negotiated a purchase of 600,000 acres with eight Wurundjeri elders. Batman selected a site on the northern bank of the Yarra River, declaring that "this will be the place for a village" before returning to Van Diemen's Land. In August 1835, another group of Vandemonian settlers arrived in the area and established a settlement at the site of the current Melbourne Immigration Museum. Batman and his group arrived the following month and the two groups agreed to share the settlement known by the native name of Dootigala. Batman's Treaty with the Aborigines was annulled by Richard Bourke, the Governor of New South Wales, with compensation paid to members of the association. In 1836, Bourke declared the city the administrative capital of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales, commissioned the first plan for its urban layout, the Hoddle Grid, in 1837.
Known as Batmania, the settlement was named Melbourne in 1837 after the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, whose seat was Melbourne Hall in the market town of Melbourne, Derbyshire. That year, the settlement's general post office opened with that name. Between 1836 and 1842, Victorian Aboriginal groups were dispossessed of their land by European settlers. By January 1844, there were said to be 675 Aborigines resident in squalid camps in Melbourne; the British Colonial Office appointed five Aboriginal Protectors for the Aborigines of Victoria, in 1839, however their work was nullified by a land policy that favoured squatters who took possession of Aboriginal lands. By 1845, fewer than 240 wealthy Europeans held all the pastoral licences issued in Victoria and became a powerful political and economic force in Victoria for generations to come. Letters patent of Queen Victoria, issued on 25 June 1847, declared Melbourne a city. On 1 July 1851, the Port Phillip District separated from New South Wales to become the Colony of Victoria, with Melbourne as its capital.
The discovery of gold in Victoria in mid-1851 sparked a
Alpine National Park
The Alpine National Park is a national park located in the Central Highlands and Alpine regions of Victoria, Australia. The 646,000-hectare national park is located northeast of Melbourne, it is the largest National Park in Victoria, covers much of the higher areas of the Great Dividing Range in Victoria, including Victoria's highest point, Mount Bogong at 1,986 metres and the associated subalpine woodland and grassland of the Bogong High Plains. The park's north-eastern boundary is along the border with New South Wales, where it abuts the Kosciuszko National Park. On 7 November 2008 the Alpine National Park was added to the Australian National Heritage List as one of eleven areas constituting the Australian Alps National Parks and Reserves. Ecologically, Alpine refers to areas where the environment is such that trees are unable to grow and vegetation is restricted to dwarfed shrubs, alpine grasses and ground-hugging herbs. In Victoria this is those areas above 1,800 metres AHD . Below this is the sub-alpine zone, an area of open forest dominated by snow-gums, with significant areas of grasslands.
This zone includes basins. In wetter areas these basins form Sphagnum bogs. Water enters the alps as rain. Bogs and frost hollows collect the water as snow run off. A key element of these bogs is Sphagnum Moss, which acts as a sponge, absorbing up to twenty times its weight in water; these bogs release the water over summer, ensuring creeks flow throughout most of the year maintaining the alps’ creeks and streams. The greatest risk to this system is damage to the Sphagnum bogs. Trampling by feral animals reduces their ability to absorb and release water. Fire can remove riparian vegetation increasing run-off and erosion. Below the sub-alpine zone is the montane zone. On the alps southern fall, this exists as wet forest and rainforest, a consequence of the higher rainfall on this side of the park. Tall forests of Alpine Ash and Mountain Ash grow in deep soils while species like Mountain Gum are found in shallower soils or drier sites; the understory is shrubby, with a dense ground-layer of grasses, lilies and the like.
Rainforests are areas where the canopy cover is high, greater than 70%. The tree species are specialists, such as Myrtle Beech in Cool Temperate Rainforest and Lilly Pilly in Warm Temperate Rainforest. Rainforest species are shade tolerant and able to regenerate below an undisturbed canopy or in small gaps created when a tree falls. Rainforest merges with the surrounding damp or wet, eucalypt forests; these forests are home to a diverse bird life and many mammals, some of which are restricted to a particular ecological niche within the ecosystem. This can include particular vegetation for foraging, or the presence of older trees with their larger hollows, a requirement for some arboreal mammals and birds. Rainforest species regenerate without fire and may be intolerant to fire, while other eucalypt species require fire. Fire can affect the breeding of some mammals. Fire in Spring, for example, is considered to put juvenile Spot-tailed Quolls at risk; the montane zone on the alps drier, northern fall consists of dry forest and woodland with eucalypt species such as stringybarks and peppermints.
Dry forest and woodlands surround the wet forests on the southern side of the alps. These forests provide habitat for a wide range of species. Dry forest and woodland abut private land in many areas and as a consequence have been subject to clearing and fragmentation. Thus, the major threat in these areas is fire management, weed invasion and lack of connectivity between patches; the national park protects many threatened species, including the spotted tree frog, she-oak skink, smoky mouse, broad-toothed mouse and mountain pygmy possum. Alpine Bogs and Associated Fens have now been listed as a threatened ecological community by the Australian government; the park has been affected by bushfires with lightning strikes starting large fires in January 2003 and again in December 2006, each fire burning over 10,000 square kilometres over a number of weeks. The largest previous fire was the Black Friday fires of 1939. While fire is a feature of most Australian ecosystems, some alpine ecosystems, such as Alpine Bogs and Fens, are susceptible due to the sensitivity of the component species.
The 2003 fires created a mosaic of unburnt areas. In some areas where the 2006-07 fires burnt over the same ground and communities have struggled to recover. A lightning strike on the slopes of Mount Feathertop near Harrietville in January 2013 started a 35,000-hectare bushfire which burnt for around two months. For much of the European history of the national park, agricultural activity was conducted in the park, with quotas of cattle allowed to graze on the High Plains during summer. Australia's alpine area was first used for grazing around the 1840s. Concerns about the environmental effects led various governments to remove grazing from parts of the alps over the next century. Grazing was temporarily halted in Mount Buffalo National Park in the 1920s and stopped altogether in 1952. Cattle were taken out of Kosciuszko National Park in NSW during the 1950s and 1960s due to concerns about the effect of grazing on water quality for the Snowy River Scheme. Grazing was removed from Mounts Feathertop
Olearia axillaris is a shrub of the Asteraceae family, found in coastal areas of Australia. Known as the coastal daisybush, or wild rosemary, it was one of the first Australian edible plants to be recognised as such by Europeans; the species is an erect shrubby herb growing to 2 metres high, many branched, densely covered with small leaves, has a silvery green appearance. It is identifiable, by its height, when amongst the vegetation venturing onto dune systems - pioneer plants, it is tolerant of strong winds and poor soils. The leaves are small and many, in whorled arrangement at the stem, covered in fine white hairs which contribute to the silvery colour of the shrub; these are about 12 mm long and may be 1 – 3 mm across, linear in shape, having a margin rolled toward the reverse, are fragrant when crushed. Older leaves may become smooth and green; the yellow florets are supported by white bracts at the flowerhead. The fruit produced are achenes, 1.5 – 2 mm long, the pappus are bristles twice this length.
The species occurs in southern coastal regions of Western Australia, South Australia, New South Wales and Tasmania. The plant is found in the vegetation claiming sand dunes, appears on limestone and rocky slopes along the coastline. While the species is restricted to the coast in other states, West Australian specimens have been found in similar habitat at inland locations. Two early visitors to the coast and islands of Western Australia, Willem de Vlamingh and William Dampier, ventured to eat this plant - its aromatic quality inspiring its use as a herb. Vlamingh's crew made use of leaves collected, when anchored at Rottnest Island, adding it to their meagre onboard diet
The peregrine falcon known as the peregrine, as the duck hawk in North America, is a widespread bird of prey in the family Falconidae. A large, crow-sized falcon, it has a blue-grey back, barred white underparts, a black head, it is believed to be the fastest bird in the world. According to a National Geographic TV programme, the highest measured speed of a peregrine falcon is 389 km/h; as is typical of bird-eating raptors, peregrine falcons are sexually dimorphic, with females being larger than males. The peregrine is renowned for its speed, reaching over 320 km/h during its characteristic hunting stoop, making it the fastest member of the animal kingdom; the peregrine's breeding range includes land regions from the Arctic tundra to the tropics. It can be found nearly everywhere on Earth, except extreme polar regions high mountains, most tropical rainforests; this makes it the world's most widespread raptor, one of the most found bird species. In fact, the only land-based bird species found over a larger geographic area is not always occurring, but one introduced by humans, the rock pigeon, which in turn now supports many peregrine populations as a prey species.
The peregrine is a successful example of urban wildlife in much of its range, taking advantage of tall buildings as nest sites and an abundance of prey such as pigeons and ducks. Both the English and scientific names of this species mean "wandering falcon," referring to the migratory habits of many northern populations. Experts recognize 17 to 19 subspecies, which vary in range; the two species' divergence is recent, during the time of the last ice age, therefore the genetic differential between them is tiny. They are only about 0.6–0.8% genetically differentiated. While its diet consists exclusively of medium-sized birds, the peregrine will hunt small mammals, small reptiles, or insects. Reaching sexual maturity at one year, it mates for life and nests in a scrape on cliff edges or, in recent times, on tall human-made structures; the peregrine falcon became an endangered species in many areas because of the widespread use of certain pesticides DDT. Since the ban on DDT from the early 1970s, populations have recovered, supported by large-scale protection of nesting places and releases to the wild.
The peregrine falcon is a well respected falconry bird due to its strong hunting ability, high trainability, – in recent years – availability via captive breeding. It is effective on most game bird species, from small to large; the peregrine falcon has a wingspan from 74 to 120 cm. The male and female have similar markings and plumage, but as in many birds of prey the peregrine falcon displays marked sexual dimorphism in size, with the female measuring up to 30% larger than the male. Males weigh the noticeably larger females weigh 700 to 1,500 g. In most subspecies, males weigh less than 700 g and females weigh more than 800 g, with cases of females weighing about 50% more than their male breeding mates not uncommon; the standard linear measurements of peregrines are: the wing chord measures 26.5 to 39 cm, the tail measures 13 to 19 cm and the tarsus measures 4.5 to 5.6 cm. The back and the long pointed wings of the adult are bluish black to slate grey with indistinct darker barring; the white to rusty underparts are barred with thin clean bands of dark brown or black.
The tail, coloured like the back but with thin clean bars, is long and rounded at the end with a black tip and a white band at the end. The top of the head and a "moustache" along the cheeks are black, contrasting with the pale sides of the neck and white throat; the cere is yellow, as are the feet, the beak and claws are black. The upper beak is notched near the tip, an adaptation which enables falcons to kill prey by severing the spinal column at the neck; the immature bird is much browner with streaked, rather than barred and has a pale bluish cere and orbital ring. Falco peregrinus was first described under its current binomial name by English ornithologist Marmaduke Tunstall in his 1771 work Ornithologia Britannica; the scientific name Falco peregrinus is a Medieval Latin phrase, used by Albertus Magnus in 1225. The specific name is taken from the fact that juvenile birds were taken while journeying to their breeding location rather than from the nest, as falcon nests were difficult to get at.
The Latin term for falcon, falco, is related to falx, meaning "sickle", in reference to the silhouette of the falcon's long, pointed wings in flight. The peregrine falcon belongs to a genus whose lineage includes the hierofalcons and the prairie falcon; this lineage diverged from other falcons towards the end of the Late Miocene or in the Early Pliocene, about 5–8 million years ago. As the peregrine-hierofalcon group includes both Old World and North American species, it is that the lineage originated in western Eurasia or Africa, its relationship to other falcons is not clear, as the issue is complicated by widespread hybridization confounding mtDNA sequence analyses. For example, a genetic lineage of the saker falcon is known which origina