Shire of Douglas
The Shire of Douglas is a local government area in Far North Queensland. It is located on the coast north of the city of Cairns; the shire, administered from the town of Mossman, covers an area of 2,436.7 square kilometres, existed as a local government entity from 1880 until 2008, when it was amalgamated with the City of Cairns to become the Cairns Region. Following a poll in 2013, the Shire of Douglas was re-established on 1 January 2014; the major industries are sugar production. Minor industries include tropical beef. On 11 November 1879, the Cairns Division was one of the initial 74 divisions created under the Divisional Boards Act 1879. On 3 June 1880, the northern part of Cairns Division was excised to create Douglas Division. With the passage of the Local Authorities Act 1902, Douglas Division became the Shire of Douglas on 31 March 1903. On 15 March 2008, under the Local Government Act 2007 passed by the Parliament of Queensland on 10 August 2007, the Shire of Douglas merged with the City of Cairns to form the Cairns Region.
In 2012, a proposal was made to de-amalgamate the Shire of Douglas from the Cairns Region. On 6 December 2012, the Queensland Minister for Local Government, the Hon. David Crisafulli, granted the people of the former Douglas Shire a vote on possible de-amalgamation from the Cairns Regional Council though the Queensland Treasury Corporation had calculated the costs to be too high a burden on the few ratepayers of this small Shire, the Shire to be unviable in the long term. Despite strong opposition from many parties, on 9 March 2013 the citizens of the former Douglas shire voted in a referendum to de-amalgamate; the shire was re-established on 1 January 2014. The Shire of Douglas includes the following settlements: 1 - shared with the Shire of Cook2 - until 1995, it was part of the Shire, now it's part of the Cairns Region The Douglas Shire Council operates public libraries at Mossman and Port Douglas; the following were the chairmen and mayors of the Shire of Douglas in its first incarnation: Andrew Jack: 1900 James Reynolds: 1901–1903 Richard Augustine Donnelly: 1904–1905 William Mackay: 1906 Daniel Joseph Kirwan: 1907 Robert David Low: 1908 Richard James Walsh: 1909 Robert Punton Tunnie: 1910 Frederick Thompson: 1911–1912 James Patrick Reynolds: 1913 Robert Punton Tunnie: 1914 James Patrick Reynolds: 1915–1921 John Quill: 1921–1927 Severin Berner Andreassen: 1927–1933 Raymond David Rex: 1933–1955 Ernest William Berzinski: 1955–1964 George Quaid Jr.: 1964–1967 J. S. Allen: 1967–1970 Onslow Rutherford Andrews: 1970–1981 Anthony Mijo: 1982–1991 Mike Berwick: 1991–2008The following were the mayors of Shire of Douglas in its second incarnation: Julia Leu: 2014— University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Douglas Shire Douglas Shire Historical Society Pro amalgamation website Happy With Cairns Pro amalgamation website People Of Douglas De-amalgamation website Friends Of Douglas Shire
Royal Australian Air Force
The Royal Australian Air Force, formed March 1921, is the aerial warfare branch of the Australian Defence Force. It operates the majority of the ADF's fixed wing aircraft, although both the Australian Army and Royal Australian Navy operate aircraft in various roles, it directly continues the traditions of the Australian Flying Corps, formed on 22 October 1912. The RAAF provides support across a spectrum of operations such as air superiority, precision strikes, intelligence and reconnaissance, air mobility, space surveillance, humanitarian support; the RAAF took part in many of the 20th century's major conflicts. During the early years of the Second World War a number of RAAF bomber, fighter and other squadrons served in Britain, with the Desert Air Force located in North Africa and the Mediterranean. From 1942, a large number of RAAF units were formed in Australia, fought in South West Pacific Area. Thousands of Australians served with other Commonwealth air forces in Europe, including during the bomber offensive against Germany.
By the time the war ended, a total of 216,900 men and women served in the RAAF, of whom 10,562 were killed in action. The RAAF served in the Berlin Airlift, Korean War, Malayan Emergency, Indonesia–Malaysia Confrontation and Vietnam War. More the RAAF has participated in operations in East Timor, the Iraq War, the War in Afghanistan, the military intervention against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant; the RAAF has 259 aircraft. The RAAF traces its history back to the Imperial Conference held in London in 1911, where it was decided aviation should be developed within the armed forces of the British Empire. Australia implemented this decision, the first dominion to do so, by approving the establishment of the "Australian Aviation Corps"; this consisted of the Central Flying School at Point Cook, opening on 22 October 1912. By 1914 the corps was known as the "Australian Flying Corps". Soon after the outbreak of war in 1914, the Australian Flying Corps sent aircraft to assist in capturing German colonies in what is now north-east New Guinea.
However, these colonies surrendered before the planes were unpacked. The first operational flights did not occur until 27 May 1915, when the Mesopotamian Half Flight was called upon to assist the Indian Army in protecting British oil interests in what is now Iraq; the corps saw action in Egypt, Palestine and on the Western Front throughout the remainder of the First World War. By the end of the war, four squadrons—Nos. 1, 2, 3 and 4 -- had seen operational service. 5, 6, 7 and 8—had been established. A total of 460 officers and 2,234 other ranks served in the AFC, whilst another 200 men served as aircrew in the British flying services. Casualties included 111 wounded, 6 gassed and 40 captured; the Australian Flying Corps remained part of the Australian Army until 1919, when it was disbanded along with the First Australian Imperial Force. Although the Central Flying School continued to operate at Point Cook, military flying ceased until 1920, when the Australian Air Corps was formed; the Australian Air Force was formed on 31 March 1921.
King George V approved the prefix "Royal" in June 1921 and became effective on 31 August 1921. The RAAF became the second Royal air arm to be formed in the British Commonwealth, following the British Royal Air Force; when formed the RAAF had more aircraft than personnel, with 21 officers and 128 other ranks and 153 aircraft. In September 1939, the Australian Air Board directly controlled the Air Force via RAAF Station Laverton, RAAF Station Richmond, RAAF Station Pearce, No. 1 Flying Training School RAAF at Point Cook, RAAF Station Rathmines and five smaller units. In 1939, just after the outbreak of the Second World War, Australia joined the Empire Air Training Scheme, under which flight crews received basic training in Australia before travelling to Canada for advanced training. A total of 17 RAAF bomber, fighter and other squadrons served in Britain and with the Desert Air Force located in North Africa and the Mediterranean. Thousands of Australians served with other Commonwealth air forces in Europe during the Second World War.
About nine percent of the personnel who served under British RAF commands in Europe and the Mediterranean were RAAF personnel. With British manufacturing targeted by the German Luftwaffe, in 1941 the Australian government created the Department of Aircraft Production to supply Commonwealth air forces, the RAAF was provided with large numbers of locally built versions of British designs such as the DAP Beaufort torpedo bomber and Mosquitos, as well as other types such as Wirraways and Mustangs. In the European theatre of the war, RAAF personnel were notable in RAF Bomber Command: although they represented just two percent of all Australian enlistments during the war, they accounted for twenty percent of those killed in action; this statistic is further illustrated by the fact that No. 460 Squadron RAAF flying Avro Lancasters, had an official establishment of about 200 aircrew and yet had 1,018 combat deaths. The squadron was therefore wiped out five times over. Total RAAF casualties in Europe were 5,488 killed or missing.
The beginning of the Pacific War—and the rapid advance of Japanese forces—threatened the Australian mainland for the first time in its history. The RAAF was quite unprepared for the emergency, had negligible forces available for service in the Pacific. In 1941 and early 1942, many RAAF airmen, including Nos. 1, 8, 21 and 453
Port Douglas Wharf
Port Douglas Wharf is a heritage-listed wharf at 6 Dixie Street, Port Douglas, Shire of Douglas, Australia. It was built in 1904, it was known as Shipwreck Museum. It was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 October 1992. Port Douglas Wharf and Storage Shed were erected in 1904 for the Douglas Shire Council, with extensions to the storage shed made in the 1920s. Port Douglas was established in 1877 as a port to service the newly opened Hodgkinson Goldfield, west of the Great Dividing Range. In the period 1877 to 1893, Port Douglas functioned as a port for the mining hinterland and secondarily as an administrative and service centre for the surrounding developing agricultural districts; the development of Port Douglas outpaced that of its nearby rival, established in 1876. However, following the 1885 political decision to site the terminus for the Atherton Tableland Railway at Cairns, this town advanced at the expense of Port Douglas. After the opening of the Cairns to Mareeba railway in 1893, trade between Port Douglas and the mining hinterland declined markedly, ceased after the extension of the railway to Mount Molloy in 1908.
Much of what remained of the township was further decimated in a severe cyclone on 16 March 1911. However, from the 1890s until 1958, Port Douglas survived principally as a sugar port; the town was the administrative centre of Douglas Shire until the 1920s, when headquarters were shifted to Mossman in the heart of the expanding sugar lands. During the 1960s and 1970s, Port Douglas functioned as a fishing and holiday town, retaining much of its historic character, but in the 1980s the town emerged as a booming tourist resort, with strong pressures for development, it appears that the wharf was built to serve the handling of general cargo in preference to at least one other previous proposal for a jetty at Macrossan Street. Prior to this, it seems that all general cargo handling was carried out at the private wharfing facilities, either by direct berthing for smaller vessels or for larger vessels by lightering from the general anchorage some 600 metres off the western end of Island Point. A stone-pitched jetty adjacent to the quarry site on the north-east corner of Island Point had been constructed earlier for passenger traffic, was extended during 1888-1889 to a total length of 60 metres.
In 1904, Douglas Shire Council obtained a loan from the Queensland Government to build a new wharf for the berthing of ships at a more convenient site in the harbour. This wharf was built with a decline from wharf to shore to ease the transfer of loaded rail trucks. A stone pitched; the 1904 wharf structure was about 15 metres wide, with a storage shed 30 metres long by 8 metres wide on the north-east corner of the decking. A jib crane was located on the northern end of the wharf and walkways were constructed alongside the storage shed. During the early 1920s an additional row of piles was driven about 3 metres to the east along the length of the wharf; the 1904 storage shed was relocated over these by sliding the structure back from the wharf outer face. It appears. A lunch room building holding a fresh water tank, on the southern end of the storage shed was relocated to the same respective position when the shed was extended; the wharf was last used for sugar shipment on 1 April 1958. Subsequently the wharf was leased for private enterprise from 1963 until January 1975.
Well known Queensland diver Ben Cropp held a twenty year lease over the storage shed from October 1979. He operated a shipwreck museum in the shed which included his living quarters; the lease was extended into mid-2000. Cropp relocated the museum to Cairns that year; the foreshore near the Port Douglas Wharf was reclaimed in the late twentieth century, the 1904 timber-piled and timber-framed jetty between the stone-pitched ramp and the storage shed was removed. This wharf is at the entrance to Dickson's Inlet opposite the western end of Warner Street; the wharf, constructed parallel to the channel, is of timber construction about 70 metres long by 18 metres wide and supporting a wooden storage shed on the eastern side. The storage shed roof trusses are constructed from 300 by 150 millimetres and 200 by 150 millimetres sections Oregon, the storage shed was planked internally to facilitate the stacking of bagged sugar. A simple gable roofed form building, the former wharf storage building is built out over the water on timber piles braced by diagonal timbers.
The new corrugated steel roof is exposed internally and supported on burlings spanning between major trusses of Oregon members. Timber planes fixed with dogspikes form the floor; the building is an important element in the townscape of Port Douglas, being most visible from the sea and surrounding hills. An earlier stone pitched ramp remains in evidence at the side of the earth-filled access to the former storage shed and wharf; the former Port Douglas Wharf and Storage Shed was listed on the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 October 1992 having satisfied the following criteria. The place is important in demonstrating the pattern of Queensland's history; the building is significant for its historical association with the development of Port Douglas as a shipping terminal. This Wikipedia article was based on "The Queensland heritage register" published by the State of Queensland under CC-BY 3.0 AU licence (acces
Postcodes in Australia
Postcodes are used in Australia to more efficiently sort and route mail within the Australian postal system. Postcodes in Australia are placed at the end of the Australian address. Postcodes were introduced in Australia in 1967 by the Postmaster-General's Department and are now managed by Australia Post, are published in booklets available from post offices or online from the Australia Post website. Australian envelopes and postcards have four square boxes printed in orange at the bottom right for the postcode; these are used. Postcodes were introduced in Australia in 1967 by the Postmaster-General's Department to replace earlier postal sorting systems, such as Melbourne's letter and number codes and a similar system used in rural and regional New South Wales; the introduction of the postcodes coincided with the introduction of a large-scale mechanical mail sorting system in Australia, starting with the Sydney GPO. By 1968, 75% of mail was using postcodes, in the same year post office preferred-size envelopes were introduced, which came to be referred to as “standard envelopes”.
Postcode squares were introduced in June 1990 to enable Australia Post to use optical character recognition software in its mail sorting machines to automatically and more sort mail by postcodes. Australian postcodes consist of four digits, are written after the name of the city, suburb, or town, the state or territory: Mr John Smith 100 Flushcombe Road BLACKTOWN NSW 2148When writing an address by hand, a row of four boxes is pre-printed on the lower right hand corner of an envelope, the postcode may be written in the boxes. If addressing a letter from outside Australia, the postcode is recorded before'Australia'. Australian postcodes are sorting information, they are linked with one area. Due to post code rationalisation, they can be quite complex in country areas; the south-western Victoria 3221 postcode of the Geelong Mail Centre includes twenty places around Geelong with few people. This means that mail for these places is not sorted until it gets to Geelong; some postcodes cover large populations, while other postcodes have much smaller populations in urban areas.
Australian postcodes range from 0200 for the Australian National University to 9944 for Cannonvale, Queensland. Some towns and suburbs have two postcodes — one for street deliveries and another for post office boxes. For example, a street address in the Sydney suburb of Parramatta would be written like this: Mr John Smith 99 George Street PARRAMATTA NSW 2150But mail sent to a PO Box in Parramatta would be addressed: Mr John Smith PO Box 99 PARRAMATTA NSW 2124Many large businesses, government departments and other institutions receiving high volumes of mail had their own postcode as a Large Volume Receiver, e.g. the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital has the postcode 4029, the Australian National University had the postcode 0200. More postcode ranges were made available for LVRs in the 1990s. Australia Post has been progressively discontinuing the LVR programme since 2006; the first one or two numbers show the state or territory that the postcode belongs to Sometimes near the state and territory borders, Australia Post finds it easier to send mail through a nearby post office, across the border: Some of the postcodes above may cover two or more states.
For example, postcode 2620 covers both a locality in NSW as well as a locality in the ACT, postcode 0872 covers a number of localities across WA, SA, NT and QLD. Three locations straddle the NSW-Queensland border. Jervis Bay Territory, once an exclave of the ACT but now a separate territory, is geographically located on the coast of NSW, it is just south of the towns of Huskisson, with which it shares a postcode. Mail to the Jervis Bay Territory is still addressed to the ACT; the numbers used to show the state on each radio callsign in Australia are the same number as the first number for postcodes in that state, e.g. 2xx in New South Wales, 3xx in Victoria, etc. Radio callsigns pre-date postcodes in Australia by more than forty years. Australia's external territories are included in Australia Post's postcode system. While these territories do not belong to any state, they are addressed as such for mail sorting: Three scientific bases in Antarctica operated by the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions share a postcode with the isolated sub-Antarctic island of Macquarie Island: Each state's capital city ends with three zeroes, while territorial capital cities end with two zeroes.
Capital city postcodes were the lowest postcodes in their state or territory range, before new ranges for LVRs and PO Boxes were made available. The last number can be changed from "0" to "1" to get the postcode for General Post Office boxes in any capital city: While the first number of a postcode shows the state or territory, the second number shows a region within the state. However, postcodes with the same second number are not always next to each other; as an example, postcodes in the range 2200–2299 are split between the southern suburbs of Sydney and the Central Coast of New South Wales. Postcodes with a second number of "0" or "1" are always located within the metropolitan area of the state's capital city. Postcodes with higher secon
The Coral Sea is a marginal sea of the South Pacific off the northeast coast of Australia, classified as an interim Australian bioregion. The Coral Sea extends 2,000 kilometres down the Australian northeast coast, it is bounded in the west by the east coast of Queensland, thereby including the Great Barrier Reef, in the east by Vanuatu and by New Caledonia, in the northeast by the southern extremity of the Solomon Islands. In the northwest, it reaches to the south coast of eastern New Guinea, thereby including the Gulf of Papua, it merges with the Tasman Sea in the south, with the Solomon Sea in the north and with the Pacific Ocean in the east. On the west, it is bounded by the mainland coast of Queensland, in the northwest, it connects with the Arafura Sea through the Torres Strait; the sea is characterised with frequent rains and tropical cyclones. It contains numerous islands and reefs, as well as the world's largest reef system, the Great Barrier Reef, declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1981.
All previous oil exploration projects were terminated at the GBR in 1975, fishing is restricted in many areas. The reefs and islands of the Coral Sea are rich in birds and aquatic life and are a popular tourist destination, both nationally and internationally. While the Great Barrier Reef with its islands and cays belong to Queensland, most reefs and islets east of it are part of the Coral Sea Islands Territory. In addition, some islands west of and belonging to New Caledonia are part of the Coral Sea Islands in a geographical sense, such as the Chesterfield Islands and Bellona Reefs; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Coral Sea as follows: On the North. The South coast of New Guinea from the entrance to the Bensbach River to Gadogadoa Island near its Southeastern extreme, down this meridian to the 100 fathom line and thence along the Southern edges of Uluma Reef and those extending to the Eastward as far as the Southeast point of Lawik Reef off Tagula Island, thence a line to the Southern extreme of Rennell Island and from its Eastern point to Cape Surville, the Eastern extreme of San Cristobal Island, Solomons.
On the Northeast. From the Northernmost island of the Duff Islands, through these islands to their Southeastern extreme, thence a line to Méré Lava, Vanuatu Islands and down the Eastern coasts of the islands of this Group to Anatom Island in such a way that all the islands of these Groups, the straits separating them, are included in the Coral Sea. On the Southeast. A line from the Southeastern extreme of Anatom Island to Nokanhoui off the Southeast extreme of New Caledonia, thence through the East point of Middleton Reef to the Eastern extreme of Elizabeth Reef and down this meridian to Latitude 30° South. On the South; the parallel of 30° South to the Australian coast. On the West; the Eastern limit of the Arafura Sea and the East Coast of Australia as far south as Latitude 30° South. The Coral Sea basin was formed between 58 million and 48 million years ago when the Queensland continental shelf was uplifted, forming the Great Dividing Range, continental blocks subsided at the same time; the sea has been an important source of coral for the Great Barrier Reef, both during its formation and after sea level lowering.
The geological formation processes are still proceeding, as evidenced by the seismic activity. Several hundred earthquakes with the magnitude between 2 and 6 were recorded in the period 1866–2000 along the Queensland coast and in the Coral Sea. On 2 April 2007, the Solomon Islands were struck by a major earthquake followed by a several metres tall tsunami; the epicentre of this magnitude 8.1 earthquake was 349 km northwest of Honiara, at a depth of 10 kilometres. It was followed by more than 44 aftershocks of a magnitude greater; the resulting tsunami destroyed more than 900 homes. The sea received its name because of its numerous coral formations, they include the GBR, which extends about 2,000 km along the northeast coast of Australia and includes 2,900 individual reefs and 1000 islands. The Chesterfield Islands and Lihou Reef are the largest atolls of the Coral Sea. Major Coral Sea currents form a counter-clockwise gyro, it brings warm nutrient-poor waters from the Coral Sea down the east coast of Australia to the cool waters of the Tasman Sea.
This current is the strongest along the Australian coasts and transforms 30 million m3/s of water within a flow band of about 100 kilometres wide and 500 metres deep. The current is weakest around August; the major river flowing into the sea is the Burdekin River, which has its delta southeast of Townsville. Owing to the seasonal and annual variations in occurrence of cyclones and in precipitation, its annual discharge can vary more than 10 times between the two succeeding years. In particular, in the period 1920–1999, the average flow rate near the delta was below 1000 m3/s in 1923, 1931, 1939, 1969, 1982, 1985, 1987, 1993 and 1995; this irregul
The Daintree River is a river that rises in the Daintree Rainforest near Cape Tribulation in Far North Queensland, Australia. The river is located about 100 kilometres northwest of Cairns in the UNESCO World Heritage–listed Wet Tropics of Queensland; the area is now a tourist attraction. The river rises on the slopes of the Great Dividing Range within the Daintree National Park below Black Mountain at an elevation of 1,270 metres AHD ; the river flows in meandering course north, than east south and east, through the rainforest where the water is fresh. At this convergence point, an abundance of wildlife congregate fish; the river is joined by two minor tributaries before flowing through the Cairns Marine Park through thick mangrove swamps where the water is saline. The mouth of the Daintree River opens onto a giant sandbar; the river descends 1,270 metres over its 127-kilometre course. The catchment area of the river occupies an 2,107 square kilometres of which an area of 33 square kilometres is composed of estuarine wetlands.
The river is surrounded by deep valleys. Combined with the climatic conditions of the area the river is prone to developing floods with little warning due to the high rainfalls on the 1,000-metre-high mountain ranges around the catchment and the influence of the cyclonic forces in the adjacent Coral Sea. In March 1996, record flood levels swamped properties throughout the Daintree region. Statistics gathered at the time recorded 606 millimetres of rain falling in 24 hours. In 2011, two new causeways were completed over Cape Tribulation Road, making the drive floodproof in all but the most severe rain events. In particular, the notorious bottleneck at Cooper Creek was raised 3 metres. People are drawn to the area for its ancient vegetation, scenic surroundings and the vast array of native wildlife and plant species that inhabit the area. There is no bridge to enable crossing the river, so access is limited to the Daintree River Ferry, a commercial ferry that traverses the river for the purpose of tourism.
Other features that surround the river include Black Mountain, Daintree Range, Thornton Peak and the Cape Tribulation Rainforest. The Daintree River is home to a dazzling array of tropical life; the Kuku Yulanji is the indigenous people who once inhabited the regions surrounded by the Daintree River. The tribespeople were hunter-gatherers who lived in groups of eight to twelve, camping along the banks of the river and living on a staple diet that included a selection of bush tucker harvested from the vegetation from the forest surrounding the Daintree, it has been estimated that the tribe resided on the banks of the Daintree river for over 9,000 years. Due to the ever-shifting deep centre of the sandbar, entering the Daintree River has always been a problem for ship captains; the area was missed by Captain Cook when passing in the voyage where his ship was wrecked on the Great Barrier Reef. The Daintree River was discovered by Europeans in 1873 after they were attracted to nearby regions due to its vast natural reserves of gold.
George Elphinstone Dalrymple, the Queensland Gold Commissioner on the Gilbert gold field at that time, was the first European to discover the river and he named the river in honour of Richard Daintree, an English geologist and the Agent-General for Queensland in London. The Daintree was rated second to the Proserpine River, as the river in Queensland where people were most to spot a saltwater crocodile from 2000 to 2012, with 145 sightings recorded over the period; the Wet Tropics of Queensland was given UNESCO World Heritage listing, inclusive of the Daintree River in recognition of "its outstanding natural universal value as an outstanding example representing. The river is part of the much larger Daintree Rainforest, region in Northern Queensland encompassing 894,000 hectares; the river and its surroundings are home to some of the most primitive forms of animal and plant life in the world. The surrounding mountains and valleys provided protection from the forces to adapt to climate change by sheltering several species of plants.
A notable example is the primitive She-oak Gymnostoma australianum. This pine-like tree is the only remaining species in the Gymnostoma group of plants in Australia, is now restricted to isolated pockets north of the Daintree River; the genus was once widespread throughout Gondwana, its relatives are still found in parts of the Pacific and south-east Asia. Of the five species of ringtail possum found in north Queensland rainforests, the Cinereus ringtail possum is wholly restricted to the Daintree catchment. Within the park, this species is found only in upland rainforest on Thornton Peak and the upper reaches of the Daintree and Mossman Rivers. Once considered a light-coloured form of the Herbert River ringtail possum found throughout the Atherton Tablelands, it was described as a distinct species in 1989. Black and white Striped possums are quite common throughout the park in the coastal lowlands north of the Daintree River, although to see one while spotlighting requires a mixture of luck and know-how.
Due to the river's isolation, saltwater crocodiles - once threatened in the region due to hunting - have flourished in recent years, beneficiaries of legislation that