Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race
The Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race is an annual event hosted by the Cruising Yacht Club of Australia, starting in Sydney, New South Wales on Boxing Day and finishing in Hobart, Tasmania. The race distance is approximately 630 nautical miles, the race is run in co-operation with the Royal Yacht Club of Tasmania, and is widely considered to be one of the most difficult yacht races in the world. The 2004 race marked the 60th running of the event. In 2012 Wild Oats XI set a new record by crossing the line in 1 day,18 hours,23 minutes and 12 seconds, beating its own record of 1 day,18 hours,40 minutes and 10 seconds, set in 2005. Wild Oats XI is the first boat to claim the treble – race record, line honours and his yacht, still holds the record for the slowest elapsed time. Only two sailors from the race are still alive – Geoffrey Ruggles from the Wayfarer crew. Bass Strait, and the waters of the Pacific Ocean immediately to its east, are renowned for their high winds, even though the race is held in the Australian summer, southerly buster storms often make the Sydney–Hobart race cold and very challenging for the crew.
It is typical for a number of yachts to retire, often at Eden on the New South Wales south coast. The inaugural race in 1945 had nine starters, John Illingworths Rani, built in Speers Point, New South Wales was the winner, taking six days,14 hours and 22 minutes. Race records for the fastest time dropped rapidly, there have been some notable achievements by yachts over the years. Sydney yacht, won the second and fourth races and then, under new owners Frank and John Livingston from Victoria, other yachts to win three or more titles are Astor and Bumblebee IV firstly in 1979 and again in 1988 and 1990 as Ragamuffin. When Wild Oats XI won back-to-back titles in 2006, it was the first yacht to do so since Astor in the 1960s. In 2008, Wild Oats XI broke Mornas long-standing record of three titles in a row, by completing a four-in-a-row, the first yacht to achieve that remarkable achievement, for the handicap race the highly respected Halvorsen brothers Freya won three titles back-to-back between 1963 and 1965.
Although not consecutive, Love & War equalled Freyas three titles by winning its third in 2006 to add to its 1974 and 1978 titles. The 1998 Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race was marred by tragedy when, during a strong storm, five boats sank. Of the 115 boats that started, only 44 made it to Hobart, as a result, the crew eligibility rules were tightened, requiring a higher minimum age and experience. G. Bruce Knecht wrote a book about this race called The Proving Ground, a coronial enquiry into the race was critical of both the race management at the time and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. In 1999 the race record was broken by Nokia, a water-ballasted VO60 yacht and she sailed the course in 1 day,19 hours,48 minutes and 2 seconds
Sydney Opera House
The Sydney Opera House is a multi-venue performing arts centre in Sydney, Australia. It is one of the 20th centurys most famous and distinctive buildings, designed by Danish architect Jørn Utzon, the building was formally opened on 20 October 1973 after a gestation beginning with Utzons 1957 selection as winner of an international design competition. The government of New South Wales, led by the premier, Joseph Cahill, performances are presented by numerous performing artists, including four resident companies, Opera Australia, The Australian Ballet, the Sydney Theatre Company and the Sydney Symphony Orchestra. As one of the most popular attractions in Australia, more than eight million people visit the site annually. The building is managed by the Sydney Opera House Trust, an agency of the New South Wales State Government, on 28 June 2007, the Sydney Opera House became a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The building covers 1.8 hectares of land and is 183 m long and 120 m wide at its widest point and it is supported on 588 concrete piers sunk as much as 25 m below sea level.
Although the roof structures are referred to as shells, they are precast concrete panels supported by precast concrete ribs. Though the shells appear uniformly white from a distance, they feature a subtle chevron pattern composed of 1,056,006 tiles in two colours, glossy white and matte cream. The tiles were manufactured by the Swedish company Höganäs AB which generally produced stoneware tiles for the paper-mill industry. Apart from the tile of the shells and the curtain walls of the foyer spaces. Significant interior surface treatments include off-form concrete, Australian white birch plywood supplied from Wauchope in northern New South Wales, of the two larger spaces, the Concert Hall is in the western group of shells, the Joan Sutherland Theatre in the eastern group. The scale of the shells was chosen to reflect the internal requirements, with low entrance spaces. The smaller venues are within the podium, beneath the Concert Hall, a smaller group of shells set to the western side of the Monumental Steps houses the Bennelong Restaurant.
The podium is surrounded by substantial open spaces, and the large stone-paved forecourt area with the adjacent monumental steps is regularly used as a performance space. The Sydney Opera House includes a number of venues, Concert Hall, With 2,679 seats. It contains the Sydney Opera House Grand Organ, the largest mechanical action organ in the world. Joan Sutherland Theatre, A proscenium theatre with 1,507 seats, until 16 October 2012 it was known as the Opera Theatre. Drama Theatre, A proscenium theatre with 544 seats, used by the Sydney Theatre Company and other dance, Playhouse, An end-stage theatre with 398 seats
A drainage basin or catchment area is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water. Drainage basins connect into other drainage basins at elevations in a hierarchical pattern, with smaller sub-drainage basins. Other terms used to describe drainage basins are catchment, catchment basin, drainage area, river basin and water basin. In closed drainage basins the water converges to a point inside the basin, known as a sink, which may be a permanent lake. The drainage basin acts as a funnel by collecting all the water within the covered by the basin. Each drainage basin is separated topographically from adjacent basins by a perimeter, drainage basins are similar but not identical to hydrologic units, which are drainage areas delineated so as to nest into a multi-level hierarchical drainage system. Hydrologic units are defined to allow multiple inlets, outlets, or sinks, in a strict sense, all drainage basins are hydrologic units but not all hydrologic units are drainage basins.
Drainage basins of the oceans and seas of the world. Grey areas are endorheic basins that do not drain to the oceans, the following is a list of the major ocean basins, About 48. 7% of the worlds land drains to the Atlantic Ocean. The two major mediterranean seas of the world flow to the Atlantic, The Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico basin includes most of the U. S. The Mediterranean Sea basin includes much of North Africa, east-central Africa, Southern and Eastern Europe and the areas of Israel, Lebanon. Just over 13% of the land in the world drains to the Pacific Ocean, the Indian Oceans drainage basin comprises about 13% of Earths land. It drains the eastern coast of Africa, the coasts of the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, the Indian subcontinent, antarctica comprises approximately eight percent of the Earths land. The five largest river basins, from largest to smallest, are the basins of the Amazon, the Río de la Plata, the Congo, the Nile, and the Mississippi. The three rivers that drain the most water, from most to least, are the Amazon, endorheic drainage basins are inland basins that do not drain to an ocean.
Around 18% of all land drains to endorheic lakes or seas or sinks, the largest of these consists of much of the interior of Asia, which drains into the Caspian Sea, the Aral Sea, and numerous smaller lakes. Some of these, such as the Great Basin, are not single drainage basins but collections of separate, in endorheic bodies of standing water where evaporation is the primary means of water loss, the water is typically more saline than the oceans. An extreme example of this is the Dead Sea, drainage basins have been historically important for determining territorial boundaries, particularly in regions where trade by water has been important
Lane Cove River
The Lane Cove River, a northern tributary of the Parramatta River, is a youthful tide-dominated, drowned valley estuary west of Sydney Harbour, located in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The picturesque river is a tributary of the Parramatta River, winding through a peaceful bushland valley and it joins Parramatta River at Greenwich and Woolwich, where together they form an arm of Sydney Harbour. The Lane Cove River rises near Thornleigh and flows south for about 15 kilometres. Its catchment area is approximately 95.4 square kilometres, the upper reaches are in a narrow, forested valley eroded into the North Shore Plateau. The middle reaches are impounded by a weir just upstream of Fullers Bridge, sections of the valley are richly forested and are protected within the Lane Cove National Park, an area of 598 hectares, formerly a State Recreation Area. The lower reaches of the Lane Cove River, downstream from the weir near Fullers Bridge, are tidal, there are significant areas of mangrove communities along the shores.
The confluence of the river is with Scout Creek in Lane Cove National Park at Cheltenham, at North Epping, still within the confines of the national park, it is joined by Devlins Creek from the south and Terrys Creek near Macquarie Park. Devlin Creek was named after the Devlin family, who lived in Willandra, the area surrounding the river, no more than 1 kilometre wide, is called Lane Cove National Park, and is a site of ecological importance, listed on the Australian Register of the National Estate. It contains a community of fungi, significant by international standards. A popular caravan park and campground known as Lane Cove River Tourist Park is located on the side of the valley above the river. The Lane Cove River is the site of many old trails and tracks and they are now used extensively for recreational purposes. Many of them have been incorporated into the Great North Walk and this trail passes along the Lane Cove River between Boronia Avenue, Hunters Hill, and Thornleigh Oval, Thornleigh.
On the east side of Thornleigh Oval, the trail makes use of Lorna Pass, the pass was named after Lorna Brand, who raised money for the work. From 1913 to the early 1970s, the Swan family operated a picnic area called Fairyland, the area was originally a market garden, but the family turned it into a picnic area when they realized the commercial potential. Facilities were developed to the point where Fairyland had its own footbridge, BBQ fireplaces, boat swing, razzle dazzle ride, dance hall, the area has now returned to nature and is contained within the Lane Cove National Park. The Great North Walk passes through it, harry Smith was a businessman who owned land in what is now the Marsfield area. Smith created an area in a section of his property he called Curzon Park. The picnic area has long since returned to nature, but a set of stone steps can still be seen at the top of the escarpment above the river and it is almost certain that Smith had these steps built to provide access to the picnic area
A ria is a coastal inlet formed by the partial submergence of an unglaciated river valley. It is a river valley that remains open to the sea. Typically, rias have a dendritic, treelike outline although they can be straight and this pattern is inherited from the dendritic drainage pattern of the flooded river valley. The drowning of river valleys along a stretch of coast and formation of rias results in an extremely irregular, there are islands, which are summits of partly submerged, pre-existing hill peaks. A ria coast is a coastline having several parallel rias separated by prominent ridges, the sea level change that caused the submergence of a river valley may be either eustatic, or isostatic. The result is often a large estuary at the mouth of a relatively insignificant river. The word ria comes from Portuguese ria or Galician ría, which is related to Spanish and Galician río, Rias are present all along the Galician coast in Spain. As originally defined, the term was restricted to drowned river valleys cut parallel to the structure of the rock that was at right angles to the coastline.
However, the definition of ria was expanded to other flooded river valleys regardless of the structure of the country rock, for a period of time, European geomorphologists regarded rias to include any broad estuarine river mouth, including fjords. These are long, narrow inlets with steep sides or cliffs, in the 21st century, the preferred usage of ria by geologists and geomorphologists is to refer solely to drowned unglaciated river valleys. It therefore excludes fjords by definition, since fjords are products of glaciation, the country has no rias as such, the Ria de Aveiro in Aveiro, and Ria Formosa in Eastern Algarve are actually lagoons. Atlantic coast of Spain Galicia, The Rias Baixas, like the Ria of Vigo, Ria of Pontevedra, Ria de Arousa, Ria of Muros and Noia, Ria of Corcubion and Ria de Aldán. The Rias Altas like the Ria of Corunna, Ria of Ares and Betanzos, Ria of Cedeira, Ria of O Barqueiro, Ria of Ferrol, Ria of Ortigueira, Ria of Viveiro, Ria of Foz and Ria of Ribadeo. Asturias, Ria of Avilés, Ria of Ribadeo, Ria of Navia, Ria of Villaviciosa, Ria of Ribadesella, Ria of Llanes, basque Country, Ria of Bilbao, mouth of the rivers Nervión, and Cadagua.
Andalusia, Ria of Carreras, Ria of Huelva at the mouth of the rivers Odiel, The rias in northern Brittany are called Abers, Aber Wrach, Aber Benoît, Aber Ildut. Ireland, Lough Swilly located on the tip of Ireland on the Inishowen peninsula region is an example of an Irish ria. Wales, Milford Haven in Pembrokeshire is a ria, others include the River Towy and the River Loughor. On the north coast is the River Camel and the River Taw, in Essex is the Blackwater River and River Crouch
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the worlds sixth-largest country by total area, the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east, and New Zealand to the south-east. Australias capital is Canberra, and its largest urban area is Sydney, for about 50,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians, who spoke languages classifiable into roughly 250 groups. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored, on 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia has since maintained a liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy comprising six states.
The population of 24 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard, Australia has the worlds 13th-largest economy and ninth-highest per capita income. With the second-highest human development index globally, the country highly in quality of life, education, economic freedom. The name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis a name used for putative lands in the southern hemisphere since ancient times, the Dutch adjectival form Australische was used in a Dutch book in Batavia in 1638, to refer to the newly discovered lands to the south. On 12 December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office that it be formally adopted, in 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known officially as Australia. The first official published use of the term Australia came with the 1830 publication of The Australia Directory and these first inhabitants may have been ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. The Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, were originally horticulturists, the northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited sporadically by fishermen from Maritime Southeast Asia.
The first recorded European sighting of the Australian mainland, and the first recorded European landfall on the Australian continent, are attributed to the Dutch. The first ship and crew to chart the Australian coast and meet with Aboriginal people was the Duyfken captained by Dutch navigator, Willem Janszoon. He sighted the coast of Cape York Peninsula in early 1606, the Dutch charted the whole of the western and northern coastlines and named the island continent New Holland during the 17th century, but made no attempt at settlement. William Dampier, an English explorer and privateer, landed on the north-west coast of New Holland in 1688, in 1770, James Cook sailed along and mapped the east coast, which he named New South Wales and claimed for Great Britain. The first settlement led to the foundation of Sydney, and the exploration, a British settlement was established in Van Diemens Land, now known as Tasmania, in 1803, and it became a separate colony in 1825. The United Kingdom formally claimed the part of Western Australia in 1828.
Separate colonies were carved from parts of New South Wales, South Australia in 1836, Victoria in 1851, the Northern Territory was founded in 1911 when it was excised from South Australia
History of Australia
The history of Australia refers to the history of the area and people of the Commonwealth of Australia and its preceding Indigenous and colonial societies. Aboriginal Australians are believed to have first arrived on the Australian mainland by sea from Maritime Southeast Asia between 40,000 and 70,000 years ago, the artistic and spiritual traditions they established are among the longest surviving such traditions in human history. The first known landing in Australia by Europeans was by Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606, twenty-nine other Dutch navigators explored the western and southern coasts in the 17th century, and dubbed the continent New Holland. Macassan trepangers visited Australias northern coasts after 1720, possibly earlier, a First Fleet of British ships arrived at Botany Bay in January 1788 to establish a penal colony. In the century that followed, the British established other colonies on the continent, Indigenous Australians were greatly weakened and their numbers diminished by introduced diseases and conflict with the colonists during this period.
Gold rushes and agricultural industries brought prosperity, autonomous Parliamentary democracies began to be established throughout the six British colonies from the mid-19th century. The colonies voted by referendum to unite in a federation in 1901, Australia fought on the side of Britain in the two world wars and became a long-standing ally of the United States when threatened by Imperial Japan during World War II. Trade with Asia increased and an immigration program received more than 6.5 million migrants from every continent. The ancestors of Indigenous Australians are believed to have arrived in Australia 40,000 to 60,000 years ago and they developed a hunter-gatherer lifestyle, established enduring spiritual and artistic traditions and used stone technologies. There is considerable discussion as to the route taken by the first colonisers. People appear to have arrived by sea during a period of glaciation, the journey still required sea travel however, making them amongst the worlds earlier mariners.
Given that the likely landfall regions have been under around 50 metres of water for the last 15,000 years, the earliest known human remains were found at Lake Mungo, a dry lake in the southwest of New South Wales. Remains found at Mungo suggest one of the worlds oldest known cremations, According to Australian Aboriginal mythology and the animist framework developed in Aboriginal Australia, the Dreaming is a sacred era in which ancestral totemic spirit beings formed The Creation. The Dreaming established the laws and structures of society and the ceremonies performed to ensure continuity of life and it remains a prominent feature of Australian Aboriginal art. Aboriginal art is believed to be the oldest continuing tradition of art in the world, evidence of Aboriginal art can be traced back at least 30,000 years and is found throughout Australia. In terms of age and abundance, cave art in Australia is comparable to that of Lascaux, manning Clark wrote that the ancestors of the Aborigines were slow to reach Tasmania, probably owing to an ice barrier existing across the South East of the continent.
The Aborigines, he noted, did not develop agriculture, probably owing to a lack of seed bearing plants, but trepang fisherman did reach the north coast, which they called Marege or land of the trepang. For centuries, Makassan trade flourished with Aborigines on Australias north coast, the greatest population density for Aborigines developed in the southern and eastern regions, the River Murray valley in particular
Attack on Sydney Harbour
In late May and early June 1942, during World War II, submarines belonging to the Imperial Japanese Navy made a series of attacks on the cities of Sydney and Newcastle in New South Wales, Australia. Two of the submarines were detected and attacked before they could successfully engage any Allied vessels. These submarines were recovered by the Allies, the third submarine attempted to torpedo the heavy cruiser USS Chicago, but instead sank the converted ferry HMAS Kuttabul, killing 21 sailors. This midget submarines fate was unknown until 2006, when amateur scuba divers discovered the wreck off Sydneys northern beaches, immediately following the raid, the five Japanese fleet submarines that carried the midget submarines to Australia embarked on a campaign to disrupt merchant shipping in eastern Australian waters. Over the next month, the submarines attacked at least seven merchant vessels, during this period, between midnight and 02,30 on 8 June, two of the submarines bombarded the ports of Sydney and Newcastle.
The Imperial Japanese Navy originally intended to use six submarines in the attack on Sydney Harbour, B1-type submarines I-21, I-27, I-28, and I-29, the six submarines made up the Eastern Attack Group of the 8th Submarine Squadron, under the command of Captain Hankyu Sasaki. I-21 scouted Nouméa in New Caledonia, Suva in Fiji, Auckland in New Zealand, while I-29 went to Sydney, Australia. On 11 May, I-22, I-24, I-27, and I-28 were ordered to proceed to the Japanese naval base at Truk Lagoon, in the Caroline Islands, I-28 failed to reach Truk, she was torpedoed on the surface by the US submarine USS Tautog on 17 May. The three remaining submarines left Truk around 20 May for a point south of the Solomon Islands, I-24 was forced to return a day when an explosion in her midget submarines battery compartment killed the midgets navigator and injured the commander. The midget submarine intended for I-28 replaced the damaged midget, the naval officer-in-charge of Sydney Harbour at the time of the attack was Rear Admiral Gerard Muirhead-Gould of the Royal Navy.
On the night of the attack, three vessels were present in Sydney Harbour, the heavy cruisers USS Chicago and HMAS Canberra. A converted ferry—HMAS Kuttabul—was alongside at Garden Island where she served as a barracks for sailors transferring between ships. The hospital ship Oranje had been in the harbour, the central section of the net was complete and support piles were in place to the west, but 400 m wide gaps remained on either side. Material shortages prevented the completion of the net prior to the attack. On the day of the attack, the six outer indicator loops were inactive, the North Head – South Head indicator loop had been giving faulty signals since early 1940, and as civilian traffic regularly passed over the loop, readings were often ignored. The Japanese Navy used five Ko-hyoteki-class midget submarines in an operation against US battleships during the attack on Pearl Harbor. Therefore, on 16 December 1941, the navy initiated plans for a midget submarine operation. The plans called for two attacks against Allied naval vessels in the Indian and South Pacific oceans
Botany Bay, an open oceanic embayment, is located in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia,13 km south of the Sydney central business district. The total catchment area of the bay is approximately 55 km2, despite its relative shallowness, the bay serves as greater metropolitan Sydneys main cargo seaport, located at Port Botany, with facilities managed by Sydney Ports Corporation. Two runways of Sydney Airport extend into the bay, Botany Bay National Park is located on the northern and southern headlands of the bay. The area surrounding the bay is generally managed by Roads and Maritime Services, the land adjacent to Botany Bay was settled for many thousands of years by the Tharawal and Eora Aboriginal peoples and their associated clans. On 29 April 1770, Botany Bay was the site of James Cooks first landing of HMS Endeavour on the mass of Australia. Later the British planned Botany Bay as the site for a penal colony, out of these plans came the first European habitation of Australia at Sydney Cove.
Archaeological evidence from the shores of Botany Bay has yielded evidence of Aboriginal settlement dating back 5,000 years, the Aboriginal people of Sydney were known as the Eora with sub-groups derived from the languages they spoke. The people living between the Cooks River and the Georges River were the Bidjigal clan, on the shores of the bay were the Gweagal clan. An artefact collected on Cooks first voyage in Botany Bay is the bark shield left behind by a member of a local Aboriginal tribe. This very rare object is now in the British Museums collection and was the subject of a programme in the BBC radio series A History of the World in 100 Objects. Lieutenant James Cook first landed at Kurnell, on the banks of Botany Bay, on Sunday 29 April 1770. Cooks landing marked the beginning of Britains interest in Australia and in the colonisation of this new ‘southern continent’. Initially the name Sting Ray Harbour was used by Cook and other journal keepers on his expedition and that name was recorded on an Admiralty chart.
Cooks log for 6 May 1770 records The great quantity of these sort of found in this place occasioned my giving it the name of Stingrays Harbour. Eighteen years later, in 1788, Governor Arthur Phillip sailed the armed tender HMS Supply into the bay on 18 January, two days the remaining ships of the First Fleet arrived to found the planned penal colony. However, the land was ruled unsuitable for settlement as there was insufficient fresh water. Phillip decided instead to move to the excellent natural harbour of Port Jackson to the north, on the morning of 24 January the French exploratory expedition of Jean-François de Galaup, comte de Lapérouse was seen outside Botany Bay. On 26 January, the Supply left the bay to move up to Port Jackson, on the afternoon of 26 January, the remaining ships of First Fleet arrived at Sydney Cove
The catchment area of Middle Harbour is approximately 100 square kilometres. There are only a few patches of flat land on its shores. There are many creeks draining the surrounding hills, but no significant rivers flow into Middle Harbour. Middle Harbour is a significant physical barrier between Sydney and the known as the Northern Beaches area which lie north and east of Middle Harbour. There are only two bridges - the Spit Bridge and the Roseville Bridge, because of this obstacle, historically the main transport between Manly and Sydney was by ferry. Since the 1920s, most of the land on the ridge-tops around Middle Harbour have been developed for suburban housing, much of the rugged shore of the Middle Harbour remains covered with bushland, most of it now protected by parks and reserves. Middle Harbour is an area for recreational boating and fishing. Middle Harbour Creek Middle Harbour Public School Sydney Harbour and Parramatta River catchment, NSW State of the Beaches 2011–2012, Sydney Estuarine Beaches region p.242 Sydney Metropolitan Catchment Management Authority
Sydney Cove is a small bay on the southern shore of Sydney Harbour, one of several harbours in Port Jackson, on the coast of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Sydney Cove was named after the British Home Secretary, The 1st Baron Sydney, the exact site where the flag was planted is not apparent, as in its place is Circular Quay and buildings of the CBD. Phillips instructions were to establish the settlement at Botany Bay, a large bay down the coast, but Phillip discovered that Botany Bay offered neither a secure anchorage nor a reliable source of fresh water. Sydney Cove offered both of these, being serviced by a creek which was soon to be known as Tank Stream. The site of the settlement was Sydney Cove and it was one of the smaller inlets, chosen because it had fresh water and good anchorage for ships close into the land. Today the Tank Stream is encased in a drain beneath the streets of the central business district. The head of the cove is occupied by the Circular Quay ferry terminal, on Bennelong Point at the northern end of the eastern shore of the cove stands the Sydney Opera House.
On the western shore is the district known as The Rocks. The Hyundai A-League football team Sydney FCs active supporter group The Cove takes its name from the site, wedgwood found it excellent, and made a commemorative medal that became known as the Sydney Cove Medallion. Sydney Cove is a point for community celebrations, due to its central Sydney location between the Sydney Opera House and the Sydney Harbour Bridge. It is one of the main points for Sydney New Years Eve. Water Polo by the Sea is held every year by Australian Water Polo with the Australia mens national water polo team take on the International All Stars. Sydney FC draw support from right across Sydney, and is one of the most heavily supported clubs in Australia, the largest supporter group of Sydney FC is known as The Cove, and are located at the Paddington end of Sydney Football Stadium in bays 22 –26. The name came from the name given to the colonial settlement of Sydney — Sydney Cove. Destiny in Sydney, An epic novel of convicts and Chinese embroiled in the birth of Sydney, Australia
Great White Fleet
It consisted of 16 battleships divided into two squadrons, along with various escorts. Roosevelt sought to demonstrate growing American martial power and blue-water navy capability, hoping to enforce treaties and protect overseas holdings, the United States Congress appropriated funds to build American sea power. Beginning with just 90 small ships, over one-third of them wooden, the hulls of these ships were painted a stark white, giving the armada the nickname Great White Fleet. The hulls were painted white, the Navys peacetime color scheme, decorated with gilded scrollwork with a red and these ships would come to be known as the Great White Fleet. The purpose of the deployment was multifaceted. Ostensibly, it served as a showpiece of American goodwill, as the fleet visited numerous countries, in this, the voyage was not unprecedented. Naval courtesy calls, many times in conjunction with the birthdays of various monarchs and they became increasingly important with the rise of nationalism. In 1891, a large French fleet visited Kronstadt, Russia, as navies grew larger, naval pageants grew longer, more elaborate, and more frequent.
The United States began participating in events in 1902 when Roosevelt invited Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany to send a squadron for a courtesy call to New York City. Invitations for U. S. Navy ships to participate in celebrations in the United Kingdom, France. It was not the first flexing of U. S and that gesture capitalized on a war scare that had resulted from anti-Japanese riots in San Francisco. Roosevelt did so on the assurance from experts that Japan had been drained from the Russo-Japanese War. The voyage provided an opportunity to improve the sea- and battle-worthiness of the fleet and they were intended as modern warships capable of long-range operations. Nevertheless, the experience gained in the recent war with Spain had been limited, the fleet was untested in making such a voyage, and Tsushima had proven that extended deployments had no place in practical strategy. The Japanese navy was close to coaling and repair facilities, while American ships could coal in the Philippines, an extended stop on the West Coast of the United States during the voyage for overhaul and refurbishment in dry dock would be a necessity.
Planning for the voyage, showed a dearth of adequate facilities there, the main sea channel of the Mare Island Navy Yard near San Francisco was too shallow for battleships, which left only the Puget Sound Navy Yard in Bremerton, for refit and repair. The Hunters Point civilian yard in San Francisco could accommodate capital ships, President Roosevelt ordered that Hunters Point be reopened, facilities be brought up to date, and the fleet to report there. Also, the question of adequate resources for coaling existed and this was not an issue when the Atlantic fleet cruised the Atlantic or Caribbean, as fuel supplies were readily available