click links in text for more info

Port Macquarie

Port Macquarie is a coastal town in the local government area of Port Macquarie-Hastings. It is located on the Mid North Coast of New South Wales, about 390 km north of Sydney, 570 km south of Brisbane; the town is located on the Tasman Sea coast, at the mouth of the Hastings River, at the eastern end of the Oxley Highway. The town with its suburbs had a population of 47,973 in June 2018. Port Macquarie sits within Birpai Country, the Birpai people are recognised as the traditional custodians of the land on which Port Macquarie is located; the Birpai Land Council provides positive support and responsible governance for the Aboriginal community, while cultivating strong links with the broader community. The site of Port Macquarie was first visited by Europeans in 1818 when John Oxley reached the Pacific Ocean from the interior, after his journey to explore inland New South Wales, he named the location after the Governor of Lachlan Macquarie. Oxley noted that "the port abounds with fish, the sharks were larger and more numerous than I have before observed.

The forest hills and rising grounds abounded with large kangaroos and the marshes afford shelter and support to innumerable wildfowl. Independent of the Hastings River, the area is well watered, there is a fine spring at the entrance to the Port." In 1821, Port Macquarie was founded as a penal settlement, replacing Newcastle as the destination for convicts who had committed secondary crimes in New South Wales. Newcastle, which had fulfilled this role for the previous two decades, had lost the features required for a place for dumping irredeemable criminals, that being isolation, lost as the Hunter Region was opened up to farmers, large amounts of hard labour, which had diminished as the cedar in the area ran out and the settlement grew in size. Port Macquarie, with its thick bush, tough terrain and local aborigines that were keen to return escaping prisoners in return for tobacco and blankets, provided large amounts of both isolation and hard labour to keep the criminals in control. Under its first commandant, Francis Allman, fond of flogging, the settlement became a hell, where the convicts had limited liberties in regard to being in possession of letters and writing papers, which could get a convict up to 100 lashes.

The penal settlement lasted from April 1820 to c. 15 August 1830. The settlement peaked with 1500 convicts by 1825 but by 1828 this had fallen to 530; the commanders of the settlement were: Francis Allman, March 1821–1824 Captain Rolland succeeded Allman in April 1824 Lieutenant Carmac, 1824 Henry Gillman in January 1824– Archibald Clunes Innes 1826–1827Because of the lack of liberties of the settlement, Governor Ralph Darling sent there many'specials' or literate convicts with a decent education who had voiced negative views about him. On in the settlement's history, in the 1830s, disabled convicts started to arrive. One-armed men would be grouped together and required to break stones, men with wooden legs would become delivery men, the blind would be given tasks during the night which they performed more skilfully than those with sight. In 1823 the first sugar cane to be cultivated in Australia was planted there; the region was first opened to settlers in 1830 and on in the decade the penal settlement was closed in favour of a new penal settlement at Moreton Bay.

Settlers took advantage of the area's good pastoral land, timber resources and fisheries. St Thomas's Anglican Church is a Georgian building designed by Francis Greenway and built, under the supervision of military engineer Lieutenant T. Owen, by convicts from 1824 to 1828; this church is among one of the few remaining convict-built churches. Inside there are red cedar box pews; the Walker pipe organ is the only one of its type in the southern hemisphere. The castellated tower permits excellent views of the coastline and river; this church is now classified by the National Trust of Australia and has been registered on the National Estate heritage list. In 1830 Major Archibald Clunes Innes built Lake Innes House Ruins which grew over the next decade into a luxurious establishment and attracted many notable visitors, it is managed by the NSW Parks and Wildlife Service. In 1840 the "Wool Road" from the Northern Tablelands was under construction to enable wool and other produce to be shipped from the port.

Port Macquarie was declared a municipality in 1887, but the town never progressed as a port owing to a notorious coastal bar across the mouth of the river. Over 20 shipwrecks occurred in the Tacking Point area before a lighthouse was designed by James Barnet and erected there in 1879 by Shepard and Mortley. Tacking Point Lighthouse is classified by the National Trust of Australia. Writer Louis Becke was born and grew up in the town in the 1860s and recalled those days, saying Port Macquarie was an, old-time town... a quaint, sleepy little place of six hundred inhabitants, who spend their days in fishing and waiting for better times. There are two or three good hotels pretty scenery along the coast and up the river, a stranger can pass a month without suffering from ennui – that is, of course, if he is fond of fishing and shooting. In 1974, residents of Port Macquarie requested that the Builders Labourers Federation place a green ban against the construction of high rise buildings on beach head and water front.

Port Macquarie has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Port Macquarie First Burying G

Sikh Pilgrimage to Pakistan

Sikh Pilgrimage to Pakistan is a book by Anup Singh Choudry and Hardip Singh Chowdhary, published by Gurbani Centre, UK, in 1985 and printed in Great Britain by Jarrold and Sons Ltd, Norwich. This a short book aimed at visitors of Sikh shrines in Pakistan. With the recent relaxation of the visa requirements for Indian citizens and more visitor now travel to Pakistan every year. Guru Nanak, the founder of the Sikh religion was born on the outskirts of Lahore, the book contains illustrations of various sacred places in Pakistan connected with the Guru from his birth to death; the events of the first Guru are now represented by sacred Gurdwaras which are pictured in this book. These holy places or Gurdwaras serve to educate the world and remind us about the life of Guru Nanak, his teachings and message of love, kindness and forgiveness. Pilgrimage is not uncommon to most major religions of the world; the Sikhs, in their thousands, visit Pakistan each year to celebrate the birth anniversary of their founder, Guru Nanak, at Nankana Sahib, his birthplace.

This illustrated guide introduces most of the Sikh shrines in Pakistan connected with the founding Guru. It is hoped that it will serve as an effective guide to assist and encourage prospective pilgrims to visit these shrines. For non-Sikhs and students of comparative religions, the authors hope the guide will provide available information as an introduction to the Sikh faith and its philosophy, but above all, it will provide to everyone, Guru Nanak’s universal message of love and brotherhood, the emphasis on the worship of one God. The chapter on the Sikh Raj gives some background to the Sikhs’ history and their present political status; some of the recent events have been cited in passing in one or two places where they have been of historical importance and significance in the context of references made in the text. H. S. Chowdhary, A. S. Choudry, Authors London, September 1985

155th New York Volunteer Infantry

The 155th New York Volunteer Infantry was an infantry regiment in the Union Army during the American Civil War. The 155th New York Infantry was organized at New York City, New York, mustered in for three years service on November 18, 1862, at Newport News, under the command of Colonel William McEvily; the regiment was attached to Newport News, Department of Virginia, to December 1862. Corcoran's Brigade, Division at Suffolk, Virginia, VII Corps, Department of Virginia, to April 1863. 3rd Brigade, 1st Division, VII Corps, to July 1863. Corcoran's Brigade, King's Division, XXII Corps, Defenses of Washington, to November 1863. 1st Brigade, Corcoran's Division, XXII Corps, to December 1863. 2nd Brigade, Tyler's Division, XXII Corps, to May 1864. 4th Brigade, 2nd Division, II Corps, Army of the Potomac, to June 1864. 2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, II Corps, to July 1865. The 155th New York Infantry mustered out of service July 15, 1865. Left New York for Newport News, Va. November 10, 1862. Duty at Newport News, Va. until December 1862, at Suffolk, Va. until June 1863.

Expedition toward Blackwater January 8–10, 1863. Action at Deserted House January 30. Siege of Suffolk April 12-May 4. Edenton Road and Nansemond April 15. Edenton Road April 24. Providence Church Road, Nansemond River, May 3. Siege of Suffolk raised May 4. Expedition to Blackwater June 12–18. Carrsville June 16. Blackwater June 17. Dix's Peninsula Campaign June 24-July 7. Moved to Washington, D. C. July 10, duty in the defenses of that city and guard duty on Orange & Alexandria Railroad until May 1864. Actions at Sangster's Station December 15 and 17, 1863. Ordered to join the Army of the Potomac in the field May 1864. Rapidan Campaign May 17-June 15. Spotsylvania Court House May 17–21. North Anna River May 23–26. On line of the Pamunkey May 26–28. Totopotomoy May 28–31. Cold Harbor June 1–12. Before Petersburg June 16–18. Siege of Petersburg June 16, 1864, to April 2, 1865. Jerusalem Plank Road, Weldon Railroad, June 22–23, 1864. Demonstration north of the James July 27–29. Deep Bottom July 27–28. Demonstration north of the James August 13–20.

Strawberry Plains, Deep Bottom, August 14–18. Ream's Station August 25. Boydton Plank Road, Hatcher's Run, October 27–28. Dabney's Mills, Hatcher's Run, February 5–7, 1865. Watkins' House March 25. Appomattox Campaign March 28-April 9. Boydton Road and White Oak Ridge March 29–31. Crow's House March 31. Fall of Petersburg April 2. Pursuit of Lee April 3–9. Sailor's Creek April 6. High Bridge, April 7. Appomattox Court House April 9. Surrender of Lee and his army. At Burkesville until May 2. March to Washington May 2–12. Grand Review of the Armies May 23. Duty at Washington until July; the regiment lost a total of 187 men during service. Colonel William McEvily Major John Byrne - commanded the regiment at the First Battle of Deep Bottom Captain Michael Doheny - commanded the regiment during the Appomattox Campaign List of New York Civil War regiments New York in the Civil War Dyer, Frederick H. A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion, 1908. Attribution This article contains text from a text now in the public domain: Dyer, Frederick H..

A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion. Des Moines, IA: Dyer Publishing Co. Letter from a soldier of the 155th New York Infantry

Hotel Marienlyst

Hotel Marienlyst is a seaside hotel located just north of Kronborg Castle in Helsingør, Denmark. It takes its name after Marienlyst House, a neighboring former royal summer retreat, part of it from its foundation in 1859 until 1896. Facilities include a restaurant, wellness area and a casino; the Danish national football team stays at the hotel in connection with home matches and training sessions. In the second half of the 19th century, the Øresund coast became a popular summer destination for wealthy citizens from Copenhagen. J. S. Nathanson, a broker from Helsingør, rented Marienlyst House from Helsingør Municipality with the intention of opening a spa hotel, his inspiration came from visits to spa towns in Germany. As a publicity stunt, to profit from nearby Kronborg Castle's reputation as the home of Hamlet, he renamed a natural spring in the cliff behind the house Ophelia's Spring and constructed Hamlet's Grave nearby. Marienlyst Spa opened on 1 June 1858. Nathansen charged the architect Niels Peder Christian Holsøe with the design of a new hotel building but went bankrupt before it had been completed and the project was there taken over by Helsingør Municipality.

The new hotel building was inaugurated on 22 June 1861 with J. W. Briggs as operator; when Sarah Benhard was in Copenhagen in the summer of 1880 to perform in Adrienne Lecouvreur at the Royal Theatre, she vusuted Hotel Marienlyst to see the Tomb of Hamlet and Ophelia's Spring. The hotel was acquired by a private consortium in 1883; the hotel was expanded with a new hotel and restaurant building as well as a building used for theatre and concerts. Rge spa hotel was frequented by international high society. King Christian IV's brother, Prince Hans, stayed in the hotel's room 15 in the summer time several years in a row and the king visited it at several occasions. Alexander III of Russia visited it for lunch; the connection between the hotel and the former royal residence ended in 1896. The spa hotel was acquired by master butcher Anders Jensen in 1897, he became alderman of the butchers' guild in Copenhagen in 1906 where he would expand his hotel business with the construction of Palace Hotel in 1908.

In 1998, Jensen launched an invited architectural competition for the expansion of his new spa hotel. The competition was won by Richard Bergmanns and the extension was built in 1898-1900. A new residence was built in 1915 yp design by the architect Poul Holsøe; the hotel was acquired by C. C. Klestrup in 1929, it was purchased by Aage Stentoft and reopened after a comprehensive refurbishment on 12 May 1943. Stentoft had to flee the country due to his involvement with the resistance movement. Stig Lommer's Hornbæk Eevue used the theatre building in the summer of 1844; the German occupying forces confiscated the building in April 1945. After the liberation on 5 May, the hotel was used for housing German refugees until 1947; the hotel went through several crises in the 1990s. Somce 2008, the Danish national football team has stayed at Hotel Marienlyst in connection with home matches and during training sessions; the hotel was damaged in the storm Bodil in 2013. It was acquired by an investor group led by Borris Tangaa Nielsen in 2014 and a plan for a comprehensive refurbishment and extension of the hotel was presented shortly thereafter.

A new residential wing was inaugurated on New Year's Eve 2017. Artha, a private equity fund, acquired 49.9% of the hotel in August 2017. ESS Group acquired Hotel Marienlyst in 2019. Hotel Marienlyst has 227 rooms, including suites. Facilities include two restaurants, two bars, a lounge, cafés and a shop, 19 conference rooms, a spa with swimming pool, a yoga and wellness section, a beach sauna and a sun terrace. Casino Marienlyst, the first opened in Denmark, is situated in the same building. Official website

Plumpungan Inscription

The Plumpungan Inscription is a stone monolith carving which found in the area of Salatiga, a small town in Central Java in Indonesia. The monolith is located about 4 km towards Beringin village. //Srir = astu swasti prajabyah sakakalatita 672/4/31/.. Jnaddyaham //O// //dharmmartham ksetradanam yad = udayajananam yo dadatisabhaktya hampragramam triaramyamahitam = anumatam siddhadewyasca tasyah kosamragrawalekhaksarawidhiwidhitam prantasimawidhanam tasyaitad = bhanunamno bhuwi bhatu yaso jiwitamcatwa nityam Semoga bahagia! Selamatlah rakyat sekalian! Tahun Saka telah berjalan 672/4/31 pada hari Jumat tengah hari Dari beliau, demi agama untuk kebaktian kepada yang Maha Tinggi, telah menganugerahkan sebidang tanah atau taman, agar memberikan kebahagiaan kepada mereka yaitu desa Hampra yang terletak di wilayah Trigramyama dengan persetujuan dari Siddhdewi berupa daerah bebas pajak atau perdikan ditetapkan dengan tulisan aksara atau prasasti yang ditulis menggunakan ujung mempelam dari beliau yang bernama Bhanu.

Dengan bangunan suci atau candi ini. Selalu menemukan hidup abadi Be happy! All the Peoples! The Saka year is 672/4/31 on Friday mid day From Him, for the faith, for the congregation to the Almighty, has given a land or park, for their prosperity, the village of Hampra, located in the vicinity of Trigramyama with the blessing of Siddhewi as a tax-free are, or perdikan noted with writing or monolith which uses the tip of palm from Him, called Bhanu. with this sacred building or temple. Always find eternal life Monolith of Plumpungan in Google Maps

Anchoa mitchilli

Anchoa mitchilli is a species of fish in the family Engraulidae, the anchovies. Its common names include common anchovy, it is native to Gulf of Mexico. It is one of the most common fish species along the coastlines of the western Atlantic; the bay anchovy is somewhat variable in appearance. It is a small, schooling fish with a greenish body and a silvery stripe, it is characterized by its long jaw, silvery belly, lateral stripe, single dorsal fin. The dorsal fin is located directly above the anal fin origin; the adult male is about 6 centimeters long, with a maximum length of 10 to 11 centimeters. It has 14 to 16 rays in its dorsal fin, 24 to 30 in its anal fin, 11 to 12 in the pectoral, it may live more than three years. The bay anchovy is similar to other species in the genus Anchoa; the broad-striped anchovy grows to a larger size, up to 15 centimeters. The Cuban anchovy has its anal fin set farther back on the body; this species is distributed in the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico along the eastern coasts of North America from Maine to Yucatán.

It does not occur in the West Indies. It is well known in the Chesapeake Bay, it occurs in a wide range of water temperatures and salinities, including some hypersaline environments. It does not tolerate low-oxygen waters and asphyxiates when deprived of oxygen; this fish spends most of its time cruising the water column. It can be found over bare substrates at the ocean floor and in tide pools and surf zones, it can live in brackish waters. It enters waters deeper than 25 meters; this fish feeds on zooplankton, including copepods and crab larvae. It is in turn an important prey item for a variety of larger fish, including weakfish, striped bass, chain pickerel, bluefish. Birds such as royal terns and Sandwich terns feed on it; this species is an important link in the food web in many ecosystems. It is a major pathway; the bay anchovy is sexually mature. It spawns in the water column in deeper waters. In the southern part of its range it spawns year-round, farther north it breeds during the warmer months.

A female can spawn 50 times in one season. Eggs hatch in 24 hours. Larvae mature in about 45 days, their growth rates may depend on the availability of food. This species is used as a bait fish, it is used for fish oil and fish paste. This fish is not of conservation concern, it has an extensive range, a large and stable population made up of many subpopulations, no major threats. Jung, S. and E. D. Houde. 2004. Recruitment and spawning-stock biomass distribution of bay anchovy in Chesapeake Bay. Fishery Bulletin 102 63-77. North, E. W. and E. D. Houde. 2004. Distribution and transport of bay anchovy eggs and larvae in Chesapeake Bay. Estuarine and Shelf Science 60, 409-29. Peebles, E. B. J. R. Hall, S. B. Tolley. 1996. Egg production by the bay anchovy Anchoa mitchilli in relation to adult and larval prey fields. Marine Ecology Progress Series 134 61-73. Scharf, F. S. J. A. Buckel, F. Juanes. 2002. Size-dependent vulnerability of juvenile bay anchovy Anchoa mitchilli to bluefish predation: Does large body size always provide a refuge?

Marine Ecology Progress Series 233 241-52. Schultz, E. T. et al. 2000. Explaining advection: do larval bay anchovy show selective tidal-stream transport? ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal du Conseil 57, 360-71