Lockheed C-130 Hercules
The Lockheed C-130 Hercules is an American four-engine turboprop military transport aircraft designed and built by Lockheed. Capable of using unprepared runways for takeoffs and landings, the C-130 was designed as a troop and cargo transport aircraft; the versatile airframe has found uses in a variety of other roles, including as a gunship, for airborne assault and rescue, scientific research support, weather reconnaissance, aerial refueling, maritime patrol, aerial firefighting. It is now the main tactical airlifter for many military forces worldwide. More than 40 variants of the Hercules, including civilian versions marketed as the Lockheed L-100, operate in more than 60 nations; the C-130 entered service with the U. S. in 1956, followed by many other nations. During its years of service, the Hercules family has participated in numerous military and humanitarian aid operations. In 2007, the C-130 became the fifth aircraft to mark 50 years of continuous service with its original primary customer, which for the C-130 is the United States Air Force.
The C-130 Hercules is the longest continuously produced military aircraft at over 60 years, with the updated Lockheed Martin C-130J Super Hercules being produced. The Korean War showed that World War II-era piston-engine transports—Fairchild C-119 Flying Boxcars, Douglas C-47 Skytrains and Curtiss C-46 Commandos—were no longer adequate. Thus, on 2 February 1951, the United States Air Force issued a General Operating Requirement for a new transport to Boeing, Fairchild, Martin, Chase Aircraft, North American and Airlifts Inc; the new transport would have a capacity of 92 passengers, 72 combat troops or 64 paratroopers in a cargo compartment, 41 feet long, 9 feet high, 10 feet wide. Unlike transports derived from passenger airliners, it was to be designed as a combat transport with loading from a hinged loading ramp at the rear of the fuselage. A key feature was the introduction of the Allison T56 turboprop powerplant, developed for the C-130. At the time, the turboprop was a new application of gas turbines, which offered greater range at propeller-driven speeds compared to pure turbojets, which were faster but consumed more fuel.
They produced much more power for their weight than piston engines. The Hercules resembled a larger four-engine brother to the C-123 Provider with a similar wing and cargo ramp layout that evolved from the Chase XCG-20 Avitruc, which in turn, was first designed and flown as a cargo glider in 1947; the Boeing C-97 Stratofreighter had a rear ramp, which made it possible to drive vehicles onto the plane. The ramp on the Hercules was used to airdrop cargo, which included low-altitude extraction for Sheridan tanks and dropping large improvised "daisy cutter" bombs; the new Lockheed cargo plane design possessed a range of 1,100 nmi, takeoff capability from short and unprepared strips, the ability to fly with one engine shut down. Fairchild, North American and Northrop declined to participate; the remaining five companies tendered a total of ten designs: Lockheed two, Boeing one, Chase three, Douglas three, Airlifts Inc. one. The contest was a close affair between the lighter of the two Lockheed proposals and a four-turboprop Douglas design.
The Lockheed design team was led by Willis Hawkins, starting with a 130-page proposal for the Lockheed L-206. Hall Hibbard, Lockheed vice president and chief engineer, saw the proposal and directed it to Kelly Johnson, who did not care for the low-speed, unarmed aircraft, remarked, "If you sign that letter, you will destroy the Lockheed Company." Both Hibbard and Johnson signed the proposal and the company won the contract for the now-designated Model 82 on 2 July 1951. The first flight of the YC-130 prototype was made on 23 August 1954 from the Lockheed plant in Burbank, California; the aircraft, serial number 53-3397, was the second prototype. The YC-130 was piloted by Stanley Beltz and Roy Wimmer on its 61-minute flight to Edwards Air Force Base. Kelly Johnson flew chase in a Lockheed P2V Neptune. After the two prototypes were completed, production began in Marietta, where over 2,300 C-130s have been built through 2009; the initial production model, the C-130A, was powered by Allison T56-A-9 turboprops with three-blade propellers and equipped with the blunt nose of the prototypes.
Deliveries began in December 1956, continuing until the introduction of the C-130B model in 1959. Some A-models were equipped with skis and re-designated C-130D; as the C-130A became operational with Tactical Air Command, the C-130's lack of range became apparent and additional fuel capacity was added with wing pylon-mounted tanks outboard of the engines. The C-130B model was developed to complement the A-models, delivered, incorporated new features increased fuel capacity in the form of auxiliary tanks built into the center wing section and an AC electrical system. Four-bladed Hamilton Standard propellers replaced the Aeroproducts three-blade propellers that distinguished the earlier A-models; the C-130B had ailerons with boost increased from 2,050 psi to 3,000 psi, as well as uprated engines and four-blade propellers that were standard until the J-model's introduction. An electronic reconnaissance variant of the C-130B was designated C-130B-II. A total of 13 aircraft were converted. T
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere in the Southern Hemisphere, with a small portion in the Northern Hemisphere. It may be considered a subcontinent of the Americas, how it is viewed in the Spanish and Portuguese-speaking regions of the Americas; the reference to South America instead of other regions has increased in the last decades due to changing geopolitical dynamics. It is bordered on the west on the north and east by the Atlantic Ocean, it includes twelve sovereign states, a part of France, a non-sovereign area. In addition to this, the ABC islands of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and Tobago, Panama may be considered part of South America. South America has an area of 17,840,000 square kilometers, its population as of 2016 has been estimated at more than 420 million. South America ranks fourth in fifth in population. Brazil is by far the most populous South American country, with more than half of the continent's population, followed by Colombia, Argentina and Peru. In recent decades Brazil has concentrated half of the region's GDP and has become a first regional power.
Most of the population lives near the continent's western or eastern coasts while the interior and the far south are sparsely populated. The geography of western South America is dominated by the Andes mountains. Most of the continent lies in the tropics; the continent's cultural and ethnic outlook has its origin with the interaction of indigenous peoples with European conquerors and immigrants and, more locally, with African slaves. Given a long history of colonialism, the overwhelming majority of South Americans speak Portuguese or Spanish, societies and states reflect Western traditions. South America occupies the southern portion of the Americas; the continent is delimited on the northwest by the Darién watershed along the Colombia–Panama border, although some may consider the border instead to be the Panama Canal. Geopolitically and geographically all of Panama – including the segment east of the Panama Canal in the isthmus – is included in North America alone and among the countries of Central America.
All of mainland South America sits on the South American Plate. South America is home to Angel Falls in Venezuela. South America's major mineral resources are gold, copper, iron ore and petroleum; these resources found in South America have brought high income to its countries in times of war or of rapid economic growth by industrialized countries elsewhere. However, the concentration in producing one major export commodity has hindered the development of diversified economies; the fluctuation in the price of commodities in the international markets has led to major highs and lows in the economies of South American states causing extreme political instability. This is leading to efforts to diversify production to drive away from staying as economies dedicated to one major export. South America is one of the most biodiverse continents on earth. South America is home to many interesting and unique species of animals including the llama, piranha, vicuña, tapir; the Amazon rainforests possess high biodiversity, containing a major proportion of the Earth's species.
Brazil is the largest country in South America, encompassing around half of the continent's land area and population. The remaining countries and territories are divided among three regions: The Andean States, the Guianas and the Southern Cone. Traditionally, South America includes some of the nearby islands. Aruba, Curaçao, Trinidad and the federal dependencies of Venezuela sit on the northerly South American continental shelf and are considered part of the continent. Geo-politically, the island states and overseas territories of the Caribbean are grouped as a part or subregion of North America, since they are more distant on the Caribbean Plate though San Andres and Providencia are politically part of Colombia and Aves Island is controlled by Venezuela. Other islands that are included with South America are the Galápagos Islands that belong to Ecuador and Easter Island, Robinson Crusoe Island, Chiloé and Tierra del Fuego. In the Atlantic, Brazil owns Fernando de Noronha and Martim Vaz, the Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago, while the Falkland Islands are governed by the United Kingdom, whose sovereignty over the islands is disputed by Argentina.
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands may be associate
The Royal Navy is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by the English kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were fought in the Hundred Years War against the Kingdom of France; the modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the early 16th century. From the middle decades of the 17th century, through the 18th century, the Royal Navy vied with the Dutch Navy and with the French Navy for maritime supremacy. From the mid 18th century, it was the world's most powerful navy until surpassed by the United States Navy during the Second World War; the Royal Navy played a key part in establishing the British Empire as the unmatched world power during the 19th and first part of the 20th centuries. Due to this historical prominence, it is common among non-Britons, to refer to it as "the Royal Navy" without qualification. Following World War I, the Royal Navy was reduced in size, although at the onset of World War II it was still the world's largest.
By the end of the war, the United States Navy had emerged as the world's largest. During the Cold War, the Royal Navy transformed into a anti-submarine force, hunting for Soviet submarines and active in the GIUK gap. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, its focus has returned to expeditionary operations around the world and remains one of the world's foremost blue-water navies. However, 21st century reductions in naval spending have led to a personnel shortage and a reduction in the number of warships; the Royal Navy maintains a fleet of technologically sophisticated ships and submarines including two aircraft carriers, two amphibious transport docks, four ballistic missile submarines, six nuclear fleet submarines, six guided missile destroyers, 13 frigates, 13 mine-countermeasure vessels and 22 patrol vessels. As of November 2018, there are 74 commissioned ships in the Royal Navy, plus 12 ships of the Royal Fleet Auxiliary; the RFA replenishes Royal Navy warships at sea, augments the Royal Navy's amphibious warfare capabilities through its three Bay-class landing ship vessels.
It works as a force multiplier for the Royal Navy doing patrols that frigates used to do. The total displacement of the Royal Navy is 408,750 tonnes; the Royal Navy is part of Her Majesty's Naval Service, which includes the Royal Marines. The professional head of the Naval Service is the First Sea Lord, an admiral and member of the Defence Council of the United Kingdom; the Defence Council delegates management of the Naval Service to the Admiralty Board, chaired by the Secretary of State for Defence. The Royal Navy operates three bases in the United Kingdom; as the seaborne branch of HM Armed Forces, the RN has various roles. As it stands today, the RN has stated its 6 major roles as detailed below in umbrella terms. Preventing Conflict – On a global and regional level Providing Security At Sea – To ensure the stability of international trade at sea International Partnerships – To help cement the relationship with the United Kingdom's allies Maintaining a Readiness To Fight – To protect the United Kingdom's interests across the globe Protecting the Economy – To safe guard vital trade routes to guarantee the United Kingdom's and its allies' economic prosperity at sea Providing Humanitarian Aid – To deliver a fast and effective response to global catastrophes The strength of the fleet of the Kingdom of England was an important element in the kingdom's power in the 10th century.
At one point Aethelred II had an large fleet built by a national levy of one ship for every 310 hides of land, but it is uncertain whether this was a standard or exceptional model for raising fleets. During the period of Danish rule in the 11th century, the authorities maintained a standing fleet by taxation, this continued for a time under the restored English regime of Edward the Confessor, who commanded fleets in person. English naval power declined as a result of the Norman conquest. Following the Battle of Hastings, the Norman navy that brought over William the Conqueror disappeared from records due to William receiving all of those ships from feudal obligations or because of some sort of leasing agreement which lasted only for the duration of the enterprise. More troubling, is the fact that there is no evidence that William adopted or kept the Anglo-Saxon ship mustering system, known as the scipfryd. Hardly noted after 1066, it appears that the Normans let the scipfryd languish so that by 1086, when the Doomsday Book was completed, it had ceased to exist.
According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, in 1068, Harold Godwinson's sons Godwine and Edmund conducted a ‘raiding-ship army’ which came from Ireland, raiding across the region and to the townships of Bristol and Somerset. In the following year of 1069, they returned with a bigger fleet which they sailed up the River Taw before being beaten back by a local earl near Devon. However, this made explicitly clear that the newly conquered England under Norman rule, in effect, ceded the Irish Sea to the Irish, the Vikings of Dublin, other Norwegians. Besides ceding away the Irish Sea, the Normans ceded the North Sea, a major area where Nordic peoples traveled. In 1069, this lack of naval presence in the North Sea allowed for the invasion an
The Falklands War known as the Falklands Conflict, Falklands Crisis, Malvinas War, South Atlantic Conflict, the Guerra del Atlántico Sur, was a ten-week war between Argentina and the United Kingdom over two British dependent territories in the South Atlantic: the Falkland Islands, its territorial dependency, the South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. It began on Friday, 2 April 1982, when Argentina invaded and occupied the Falkland Islands in an attempt to establish the sovereignty it had claimed over them. On 5 April, the British government dispatched a naval task force to engage the Argentine Navy and Air Force before making an amphibious assault on the islands; the conflict lasted 74 days and ended with the Argentine surrender on 14 June 1982, returning the islands to British control. In total, 649 Argentine military personnel, 255 British military personnel, three Falkland Islanders died during the hostilities; the conflict was a major episode in the protracted confrontation over the territories' sovereignty.
Argentina asserted that the islands are Argentine territory, the Argentine government thus characterised its military action as the reclamation of its own territory. The British government regarded the action as an invasion of a territory, a Crown colony since 1841. Falkland Islanders, who have inhabited the islands since the early 19th century, are predominantly descendants of British settlers, favour British sovereignty. Neither state declared war, although both governments declared the Islands a war zone. Hostilities were exclusively limited to the territories under dispute and the area of the South Atlantic where they lie; the conflict has had a strong effect in both countries and has been the subject of various books, articles and songs. Patriotic sentiment ran high in Argentina, but the outcome prompted large protests against the ruling military government, hastening its downfall. In the United Kingdom, the Conservative government, bolstered by the successful outcome, was re-elected with an increased majority the following year.
The cultural and political effect of the conflict has been less in the UK than in Argentina, where it remains a common topic for discussion. Diplomatic relations between the United Kingdom and Argentina were restored in 1989 following a meeting in Madrid, at which the two governments issued a joint statement. No change in either country's position regarding the sovereignty of the Falkland Islands was made explicit. In 1994, Argentina's claim to the territories was added to its constitution. In the period leading up to the war—and, in particular, following the transfer of power between the military dictators General Jorge Rafael Videla and General Roberto Eduardo Viola late in March 1981—Argentina had been in the midst of a devastating economic stagnation and large-scale civil unrest against the military junta, governing the country since 1976. In December 1981 there was a further change in the Argentine military regime, bringing to office a new junta headed by General Leopoldo Galtieri, Air Brigadier Basilio Lami Dozo and Admiral Jorge Anaya.
Anaya was the main architect and supporter of a military solution for the long-standing claim over the islands, calculating that the United Kingdom would never respond militarily. By opting for military action, the Galtieri government hoped to mobilise the long-standing patriotic feelings of Argentines towards the islands, thus divert public attention from the country's chronic economic problems and the regime's ongoing human rights violations of the Dirty War; such action would bolster its dwindling legitimacy. The newspaper La Prensa speculated in a step-by-step plan beginning with cutting off supplies to the islands, ending in direct actions late in 1982, if the UN talks were fruitless; the ongoing tension between the two countries over the islands increased on 19 March when a group of Argentine scrap metal merchants raised the Argentine flag at South Georgia Island, an act that would be seen as the first offensive action in the war. The Royal Navy ice patrol vessel HMS Endurance was dispatched from Stanley to South Georgia on the 25th in response.
The Argentine military junta, suspecting that the UK would reinforce its South Atlantic Forces, ordered the invasion of the Falkland Islands to be brought forward to 2 April. The UK was taken by surprise by the Argentine attack on the South Atlantic islands, despite repeated warnings by Royal Navy captain Nicholas Barker and others. Barker believed that Defence Secretary John Nott's 1981 review had sent a signal to the Argentines that the UK was unwilling, would soon be unable, to defend its territories and subjects in the Falklands. On 2 April 1982, Argentine forces mounted amphibious landings, known as Operation Rosario, on the Falkland Islands; the invasion was met with a nominal defence organised by the Falkland Islands' Governor Sir Rex Hunt, giving command to Major Mike Norman of the Royal Marines. The events of the invasion included the landing of Lieutenant Commander Guillermo Sanchez-Sabarots' Amphibious Commandos Group, the attack on Moody Brook barracks, the engagement between the troops of Hugo Santillan and Bill Trollope at Stanley, the final engagement and surrender at Government House.
Word of the invasion first reached the UK from Argentine sources. A Ministry of Defence operative in London had a short telex conversation with Governor Hunt's telex operator, who confirmed th
The Aermacchi MB-339 is an Italian military jet trainer and light attack aircraft. It was developed as a replacement for the earlier MB-326. In September 1972, Aermacchi was awarded a contract to study a replacement for the Italian Air Force's MB-326s, comparing seven all-new designs powered by various engines with an improved version of the MB-326, designated the MB-339; the MB-339 was considered to meet the Italian Air Forces requirements while being cheaper than the all-new designs which resulted in it being selected to replace both the MB-326 and the Fiat G.91T in Italian service. The MB-339 is of conventional configuration and all-metal construction, shares much of the 326's airframe, it has a low, un-swept wing with tip tanks and jet intakes in the roots, tricycle undercarriage, accommodation for the student and instructor in tandem. The most significant revision was a redesign of the forward fuselage to raise the instructor's seat to allow visibility over and past the student pilot's head.
The aircraft was fitted with a larger fin and powerplant for the initial versions was the same Rolls-Royce Viper 632-43, producing 4,000 lbf, as fitted to the MB-326-K. The first flight took place on 12 August 1976 and deliveries to the Italian Air Force commenced in 1979, it was still in production in 2004 in an enhanced version with a much-modernised cockpit. Over 200 MB-339s have been built, with half of them going to the Italian Air Force; the Lockheed-Aermacchi MB-339 T-Bird II was a losing contender in the USA's Joint Primary Aircraft Training System aircraft selection. Among the seven to enter, the Raytheon/Pilatus entry won, which became the T-6 Texan II. According to an article posted on the Italian website'Il Porto Franco', called'Armi e finanziamenti nel corno d'Africa', Eritrea paid about $US 50 million for six MB-339 CEs in 1997; this is the original MB-339 with more advanced avionics for the ground attack role, RWR, uprated Viper 680-43 engine, larger wingtip tanks. It is capable of carrying Sidewinder AAMs, AGM-65 Maverick AGMs, laser-guided bombs.
Unit price of the MB-339C would have to be somewhere around $US 8.3 million dollars in 1997. The Argentine Naval Aviation was the first foreign user of the forerunner MB-326GB, buying eight in 1969. In 1980, the COAN ordered ten MB-339As advanced light attack aircraft; these were operated by the III Escuadra Naval's 1 Escuadrilla de Ataque. During the Falklands War, late in April 1982, six of them were located at Port Stanley Airport, renamed Base Aérea Militar Malvinas, they were the only attack jets to operate from the Falklands, along with four Beech T-34 Turbo-Mentor light attack and trainer aircraft, twenty-four turboprop FMA IA 58 Pucará light attack aircraft of Grupo 3 de Ataque. Other Aermacchis operated from three mainland bases, at Almirante Zar, Bahía Blanca, Río Grande, Tierra del Fuego naval air stations. On 3 May 1982, Lieutenant Benitez crashed into high ground while approaching the airport at Port Stanley, was killed. On 21 May an MB-339A flown by Lieutenant Owen Crippa on a routine reconnaissance flight attacked the Royal Navy amphibious force.
The Aermacchi hit the frigate HMS Argonaut. On 27 May, an MB-339A was shot down by a Blowpipe missile during the Battle for Goose Green, while attempting to attack British ships and landed troops; the pilot, Lieutenant Miguel, was killed. Three MB-339 airframes were captured by the British. One of these airframes is preserved at the South Yorkshire Aircraft Museum, Doncaster During tensions between Eritrea and Ethiopia in the late 1990s, Eritrea started to rebuild its air force. In 1996, the Eritreans ordered six Aermacchi MB-339CEs, with which the first combat unit of the ERAF was founded in 1997, they have proved their worth as training aircraft and during the early fighting in 1998. Their initial deployment started on 5 June 1998. During the same afternoon, the Ethiopians reported two attacks of Eritrean MB.339FDs on the city of Mekelle, the capital of the Ethiopian region of Tigray. As many as 44 civilians were killed and 135 injured. However, on 6 June one of the MB-339s was shot down north of Mekelle.
The pilot ejected and was either was captured by local militia. The surviving Eritrean Aermacchis were deployed again on the next day during the fighting around Erde Mattios. On the morning of 12 June 1998, two Eritrean Mi-8 appeared in low level over Addis Pharmaceutical works, in Adigrat, attempting to bomb it, their weapons, fell a few yards from the plant and caused only minor damage. Only a couple of hours four MB.339s rocketed and cluster-bombed against several targets in the city as well. According to Ethiopian sources four people died. On 5 February 1999 the Ethiopian government claimed that two Eritrean MB.339FDs attacked a fuel depot in Adigrat, some 48 kilometres inside the Ethiopian border, important for the supply of the Ethiopian army with fuel. MB-339X Two prototypes MB-339A Original production variant for Italy. 107 were delivered in three batches 1979–1995 (including MB-339PANs and MB-339RMs. In addition, four five to Dubai. MB-339PAN Variant for Frecce Tricolori aerobatic team.
Adding smoke generator but removing tip tanks 21 new build or converted from MB-339A. MB-339RM Radio and radar calibration variant for Italian Air Force. Three built in 1981 but converted to MB.339A standard. MB-339AM MB-339A version built for Malaysia. 13 built, with deliveries from 1983. MB-339AN MB-339A version built for Nigeria. Twelve built from June 1984. MB-339AP MB-339A version built
De Havilland Canada DHC-2 Beaver
The de Havilland Canada DHC-2 Beaver is a single-engined high-wing propeller-driven short takeoff and landing aircraft developed and manufactured by de Havilland Canada. It has been operated as a bush plane and has been used for a wide variety of utility roles, such as cargo and passenger hauling, aerial application, civil aviation duties. Shortly after the end of the Second World War, de Havilland Canada made the decision to orient itself towards civilian operators. Based upon feedback from pilots, the company decided that the envisioned aircraft should have excellent STOL performance, all-metal construction, accommodate many features sought by the operators of bush planes. On 16 August 1947, the maiden flight of the aircraft, which had received the designation DHC-2 Beaver, took place. In April 1948, the first production aircraft was delivered to the Ontario Department of Lands and Forests. In addition to its use in civilian operations, the Beaver has been adopted by armed forces as a utility aircraft.
The United States Army purchased several hundred aircraft. S. Air Force Auxiliary for search and rescue. By 1967, in excess of 1,600 Beavers had been constructed prior to the closure of the original assembly line. Various aircraft have been upgraded. Additionally, various proposals have been mooted to return the Beaver to production; the Beaver has become one of the more iconic aircraft to have been produced in Canada. One of the more significant events involving the type occurred in 1958, when a Royal New Zealand Air Force Beaver played a supporting role in Sir Edmund Hillary's famous Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition to the South Pole. Due to its success, the Royal Canadian Mint commemorated the aircraft on a special edition Canadian quarter in November 1999. In 1987, the Canadian Engineering Centennial Board named the DHC-2 one of the top ten Canadian engineering achievements of the 20th century. Large numbers continue to be operational into the 21st century, while the tooling and type certificate for the Beaver have been acquired by Viking Air who continue to produce replacement components and refurbish examples of the type.
Following the end of the Second World War, de Havilland Canada's management team, recognising that there were would be a corresponding downturn in military orders in the immediate post-war climate, decided to focus the company's energies upon finding work within the civilian sector. The company had hired Punch Dickins as Director of Sales, it was on the basis of this information from the prospective operators themselves, as opposed to aerodynamic research or fiscal data, that the future aircraft has its origins. In response without exception, these pilots specified their desire for tremendous extra power and STOL performance, in a design that could be fitted with wheels, skis or floats; when de Havilland engineers noted this would result in poor cruise performance, one pilot replied, "You only have to be faster than a dog sled to be a winner". Other suggestions that were mundane, but important in the bush plane world, included the installation of full-sized doors on both sides of the aircraft, which meant that it could be loaded no matter which side of a dock it tied up on.
On 17 September 1946, de Havilland put together a design team consisting of Fred Buller, Dick Hiscocks, Jim Houston and W. Jakimiuk, led by Phil Garratt; the new aircraft was designed to be all-metal, using "steel from the engine to the firewall, heavy aluminum truss frames with panels and doors throughout the front seat area, lighter trusses toward the rear and all monocoque construction aft". At the time, de Havilland Canada was still a British-owned company and there were plans to fit the evolving design with the British de Havilland Gipsy engine; as a result of its comparatively limited power, the wing area was increased in order to maintain STOL performance. When Pratt & Whitney Canada offered to supply war-surplus 450 hp Wasp Junior radial engines at a low price, the aircraft ended up with extra power as well as the original long wing; the result was unbeatable STOL performance for an aircraft of its size. In line with the convention for aircraft produced by de Havilland Canada being named after animals, it was decided that the new bush plane would be named after the beaver, known for its hard-working nature.
On 16 August 1947, the maiden flight of the DHC-2 Beaver was in Ontario. After completing its flight test programme, the prototype received several adjustments and improvements in order for it to serve as a flying demonstration model ready for the sales circuit; the prototype was sold to Central British Columbia Airways, as a routine day-to-day working air-taxi airplane and continued to fly as such with various until 1980, after which it was retired and preserved. In April 1948, the first production aircraft was delivered to the Ontario Department of Lands and Forests, a design partner. Initial sales were slow two or three a month but as the plane was demonstrated sales started to improve. A key event in the Beaver's history occurred the next year, when the US Army commenced its search for a new utility aircraft to replace their fleet of Cessnas; the competition boiled down to the Bea
Beechcraft T-34 Mentor
The Beechcraft T-34 Mentor is an American propeller-driven, single-engined, military trainer aircraft derived from the Beechcraft Model 35 Bonanza. The earlier versions of the T-34, dating from around the late 1940s to the 1950s, were piston-engined; these were succeeded by the upgraded T-34C Turbo-Mentor, powered by a turboprop engine. The T-34 remains in service; the T-34 was the brainchild of Walter Beech, who developed it as the Beechcraft Model 45 private venture at a time when there was no defense budget for a new trainer model. Beech hoped to sell it as an economical alternative to the North American T-6/SNJ Texan in use by all services of the U. S. military. Three initial design concepts were developed for the Model 45, including one with the Bonanza's signature V-tail, but the final design that emerged in 1948 incorporated conventional tail control surfaces for the benefit of the more conservative military; the Bonanza's fuselage with four-passenger cabin was replaced with a narrower fuselage incorporating a two-seater tandem cockpit and bubble canopy, which provided greater visibility for the trainee pilot and flight instructor.
Structurally, the Model 45 was much stronger than the Bonanza, being designed for +10g and −4.5g, while the Continental E-185 engine of 185 horsepower at takeoff was the same as that fitted to contemporary Bonanzas. Following the prototype were three Model A45T aircraft, the first two with the same engine as the prototype and the third with a Continental E-225, which would prove to be close to the production version. Production did not begin until 1953, when Beechcraft began delivering T-34As to the United States Air Force and similar Model B45 aircraft for export. Production of the T-34B for the United States Navy began in 1955, this version featuring a number of changes reflecting the different requirements of the two services; the T-34B had only differential braking for steering control on the ground instead of nosewheel steering, additional wing dihedral and, to cater for the different heights of pilots, adjustable rudder pedals instead of the moveable seats of the T-34A. T-34A production was completed in 1956, with T-34Bs being built until October 1957 and licensed B45 versions built in Canada and Argentina until 1958.
Beechcraft delivered the last Model B45s in 1959. Total production of the Continental-engined versions in the US and abroad was 1,904 aircraft. In 1955 Beechcraft developed a jet-engined derivative, again as a private venture, again in the hope of winning a contract from the US military; the Model 73 Jet Mentor shared many components with the piston-engined aircraft. The first flight of the Model 73, registered N134B, was on 18 December 1955; the Model 73 was evaluated by the USAF, which ordered the Cessna T-37, the USN, which decided upon the Temco TT Pinto. After initial testing at the Naval Air Test Center at NAS Patuxent River, the Navy tested the feasibility of using the TT Pinto as a jet-powered trainer for primary flight training in 1959, but discontinued use of the aircraft by December 1960 and discarded all examples, returning to the piston-powered T-34B Mentor and North American T-28 Trojan for its primary flight training requirements; the Beechcraft Model 73 was not put into production and the sole prototype is displayed at the Kansas Aviation Museum.
After a production hiatus of 15 years, the T-34C Turbo-Mentor powered by a Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-25 turboprop engine was developed in 1973. Development proceeded at the behest of the USN. After re-engining with the PT6, the two aircraft were redesignated as YT-34Cs, the first of these flying with turboprop power for the first time on 21 September 1973. Mentor production restarted in 1975 for deliveries of T-34Cs to the USN and of the T-34C-1 armed version for export customers in 1977, this version featuring four underwing hardpoints; the last Turbo-Mentor rolled off the production line in 1990. Since the late 1970s, T-34Cs have been used by the Naval Air Training Command to train numerous Naval Aviators and Naval Flight Officers for the U. S. Navy, U. S. Marine Corps, U. S. Coast Guard, numerous NATO and Allied nations. With over 35 years of service, the T-34C has been replaced by the T-6 Texan II; the first flight of the Model 45 was by Beechcraft test pilot Vern Carstens. In 1950, the USAF ordered three Model A45T test aircraft, which were given the military designation YT-34.
A long competition followed to determine a new trainer, in 1953 the Air Force put the Model 45 into service as the T-34A Mentor, while the USN followed in May 1955 with the T-34B. After extensive testing, the USAF ordered the Mentor into production as the T-34A in early 1953; the first production T-34A was delivered to Edwards Air Force Base, California, in October 1953 for evaluation, deliveries to the Air Training Command began in 1954. The T-34A commenced service as USAF's initial primary flight trainer at "contract" pilot training air bases across the southern United States, replacing extant North American AT-6 Texan trainers. Following training in the T-34A, USAF pilot trainees would advance to the North American T-28A Trojan for intermediate trai