Frederic Sackrider Remington was an American painter, illustrator and writer who specialized in depictions of the American Old West concentrating on scenes from the last quarter of the 19th century in the Western United States and featuring images of cowboys, American Indians, the U. S. Cavalry, among other figures from Western culture. Remington was born in Canton, New York in 1861 to Seth Pierrepont Remington] and Clarissa "Clara" Bascom Sackrider, his paternal family owned hardware stores and emigrated from Alsace-Lorraine in the early 18th century. His maternal family of the Bascom line was of French Basque ancestry, coming to America in the early 1600s and founding Windsor, Connecticut. Remington's father was a Union army officer, a colonel, in the American Civil War whose family had arrived in America from England in 1637, he was a newspaper editor and postmaster, the family was active in local politics and staunchly Republican. One of Remington's great-grandfathers, Samuel Bascom, was a saddle maker by trade, the Remingtons were fine horsemen.
Frederic Remington was related by family bloodlines to Indian portrait artist George Catlin and cowboy sculptor Earl W. Bascom. Another noted western artist related to Remington through the Bascom family is Frank Tenney Johnson, the "father of western moonlight painting."Frederic Remington was a cousin to Eliphalet Remington, founder of the Remington Arms Company, considered America's oldest gunmaker. He was related to three famous mountain men—Jedediah Smith, Jonathan T. Warner and Robert "Doc" Newell. Through the Warner side of his family, Remington was related to General George Washington, America's first president. Remington's ancestors fought in the French and Indian War, the American Revolution, the War of 1812 and the American Civil War. Colonel Remington was away at war during most of the first four years of his son's life. After the war, he moved his family to Bloomington, Illinois for a brief time and was appointed editor of the Bloomington Republican, but the family returned to Canton in 1867.
Remington was the only child of the marriage, received constant attention and approval. He was an active child and strong for his age, who loved to hunt, ride, go camping, he was a poor student though in math, which did not bode well for his father's ambitions for his son to attend West Point. He began to make sketches of soldiers and cowboys at an early age; the family moved to Ogdensburg, New York when Remington was eleven and he attended Vermont Episcopal Institute, a church-run military school, where his father hoped discipline would rein in his son's lack of focus and lead to a military career. Remington took his first drawing lessons at the Institute, he transferred to another military school where his classmates found the young Remington to be a pleasant fellow, a bit careless and lazy, good-humored, generous of spirit, but not soldier material. He enjoyed making silhouettes of his classmates. At sixteen, he wrote to his uncle of his modest ambitions, "I never intend to do any great amount of labor.
I have but one short life and do not aspire to wealth or fame in a degree which could only be obtained by an extraordinary effort on my part". He imagined a career for himself with art as a sideline. Remington attended the art school at Yale University. Remington was the only male student in his freshman year, he found that football and boxing were more interesting than the formal art training drawing from casts and still life objects. He preferred action drawing and his first published illustration was a cartoon of a "bandaged football player" for the student newspaper Yale Courant. Though he was not a star player, his participation on the strong Yale football team was a great source of pride for Remington and his family, he left Yale in 1879 to tend to his ailing father. His father died a year at age fifty, receiving respectful recognition from the citizens of Ogdensburg. Remington's Uncle Mart secured a good paying clerical job for his nephew in Albany, New York and Remington would return home on weekends to see his girlfriend Eva Caten.
After the rejection of his engagement proposal to Eva by her father, Remington became a reporter for his Uncle Mart's newspaper went on to other short-lived jobs. Living off his inheritance and modest work income, Remington refused to go back to art school and instead spent time camping and enjoying himself. At nineteen, he made his first trip west, going to Montana, at first to buy a cattle operation a mining interest but realized he did not have sufficient capital for either. In the American West of 1881, he saw the vast prairies, the shrinking buffalo herds, the still unfenced cattle, the last major confrontations of U. S. Cavalry and Native American tribes, scenes he had imagined since his childhood, he hunted grizzly bears with Montague Stevens in New Mexico in 1895. Though the trip was undertaken as a lark, it gave Remington a more authentic view of the West than some of the artists and writers who followed in his footsteps, such as N. C. Wyeth and Zane Grey, who arrived twenty-five years when much of the mythic West had slipped into history.
From that first trip, Harper's Weekly printed Remington's first published commercial effort, a re-drawing of a quick sketch on wrapping paper that he had mailed back East. In 1883, Remington went to rural Kansas, south of the city of Peabody near the tiny community of Plum Grove, to try his hand at the booming sheep ranching and wool trade, as one of the "holiday stockmen", rich young Easterners out to make a quick
Seminole Heights is a historic neighborhood and district located in central Tampa. It includes historic buildings, it was an early residential area of Tampa connected by streetcar. The area had an economic downturn in the late 20th century marked by increased crime, but has since seen a resurgence with new restaurants, brew pubs and independent businesses opening up; the neighborhood's historic homes, eclectic shops and gourmet restaurants are an increasing draw. As of the 2000 census, the district had a population of 24,567. Seminole Heights is known for its historic craftsman style bungalows from the early 20th century. Many buildings in the neighborhood existed in the early 1900s, including the Seminole Heights Methodist Church, Seminole Heights Elementary School, Broward Elementary, Hillsborough High School, St. Paul's Lutheran Church; the Seminole Heights Garden Center, a neighborhood park, is used for community events such as art festivals and picnics. Seminole Heights has the longest stretch of Riverfront parkland in the city of Tampa.
Rivercrest and several pocket parks provide access to the Hillsborough River. In recent years Seminole Heights has experienced a decrease in crime; the area is popular among young professionals and their families who are seeking an alternative to master planned communities. The area contains two designated historical districts including Hampton Terrace. In 2003, Southeast Seminole Heights was named Best Neighborhood in America by NUSA. In July 2009, This Old House magazine ranked Seminole Heights among the best places to buy an old house for: families, green thumbs and bungalows, single women homebuyers, porch sitters and the south. Overall, Seminole Heights was in the top eight of editors picks; the district has become known as a dining destination. Notable restaurant/ bars include the two-time James Beard Award nominee The Refinery, the Independent Bar & Cafe', Ella's Americana Folk Art Cafe. In 2014, Seminole Heights made international headlines when a "local naturalist" sent a picture of a two headed alligator to a local newspaper, who ran the image as its cover story.
It was captured by local trappers and taxidermied for display at Ella's Folkart Cafe. The authenticity of the creature has come under question. Since the story in 2014, it has been the subject of art murals, tee-shirts and other ephemera related to the neighborhood. In 2016, the creature made news again when the community art project, Urban Art Attack, funded the building of a two headed alligator statue on Nebraska Ave. Seminole Heights was born in 1911. T. Roy Young had 40 acres to develop Tampa's first suburb three miles north of downtown, he called it Seminole Heights. Ten years earlier Tampa's population had reached 26,000. A trolley line connected Sulphur Springs to downtown making travel to the suburbs possible and inviting; the streetcar made it possible to live in one area of work in another. Young recognized this potential, his Seminole Development Corporation property encompassed a rectangle bordered by Hillsborough Avenue, Central Avenue, Wilder Avenue and Florida Avenue. The houses built here were bungalow, oriented east-to-west and started at $5,000.
Other developments followed. By 1912, the Mutual Development Company owned by Milton and Giddings Mabry and the Dekle Investment Company owned by Lee and James Dekle surveyed and platted land adjacent to Seminole Heights forming the Suwanee Heights subdivision. Bounded by Henry Avenue, Hillsborough Avenue, Central Avenue and Florida Avenue, Suwanee Heights was a restricted subdivision. Like the original Seminole Heights, houses required the same east/west orientation but started at $1,400. During the "Florida Bloom" years more development came to areas north and east of the original subdivisions. Of course, with this development came the merchants seeing an opportunity to provide welcome goods and services to the residents; some of those early businesses have faded away. However, many current Seminole Heights businesses have been open for more than 50 years. In October and November 2017, four people were shot dead in separate incidents while walking in the Seminole Heights neighborhood. Police believed.
Tampa Police arrested a suspect, Howell Emanuel "Trai" Donaldson III, a McDonald's employee on Nov 28, 2017 in connection with the multiple murders. The greater Seminole Heights area has a resident population 23,141 living in 9,433 households as of 2009; the median household income is $47,817. The median age is 37; the area is projected to grow 5.89% during 2009-2014. 47 % of the population has higher. Seventy percent 70% of the homes are owner occupied. Seminole Heights consists of three distinct neighborhoods: Old Seminole Heights South Seminole Heights Southeast Seminole Heights source for population figures: The Planning Commission Schools within Seminole Heights include: Cleveland Elementary Hillsborough High School - Website Broward Elementary Edison Elementary Seminole Elementary Memorial Middle School Pepin Academies Two Headed Alligator Hampton Terrace Historic District Seminole Heights Residential District Riverside Heights Tampa Heights West Tampa South Seminole Heights Southeast Seminole Heights Old Seminole Heights Neighborhood Association Business Guild of Seminole Heights North East Seminole Heights Historic Seminole Heights information Hampton Terrace Historic District Seminole Heights Blog Tommy in Seminole Heights Blog My Seminole Heights Blog Information and Activities in Seminole Heights
National Football League
The National Football League is a professional American football league consisting of 32 teams, divided between the National Football Conference and the American Football Conference. The NFL is one of the four major professional sports leagues in North America, the highest professional level of American football in the world; the NFL's 17-week regular season runs from early September to late December, with each team playing 16 games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, six teams from each conference advance to the playoffs, a single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, held in the first Sunday in February, is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC; the NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. The NFL agreed to merge with the American Football League in 1966, the first Super Bowl was held at the end of that season. Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance of any professional sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is among the biggest club sporting events in the world and individual Super Bowl games account for many of the most watched television programs in American history, all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most watched U. S. television broadcasts by 2015. The NFL's executive officer is the commissioner; the players in the league belong to the National Football League Players Association. The team with the most NFL championships is the Green Bay Packers with thirteen; the current NFL champions are the New England Patriots, who defeated the Los Angeles Rams in Super Bowl LIII for their sixth Super Bowl championship. On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by representatives of the Akron Pros, Canton Bulldogs, Cleveland Indians, Dayton Triangles at the Jordan and Hupmobile auto showroom in Canton, Ohio; this meeting resulted in the formation of the American Professional Football Conference, a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, intended to "raise the standard of professional football in every way possible, to eliminate bidding for players between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules".
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from four states-Akron, Canton and Dayton from Ohio. The league was renamed to the American Professional Football Association; the league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, consisted of 14 teams. The Massillon Tigers from Massillon, Ohio was at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a team in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys and the Chicago Cardinals, remain. Although the league did not maintain official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their 8–0–3 record; the first event occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–0 at Douglas Park. On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play occurred; the following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League. In 1932, the season ended with the Chicago Bears and the Portsmouth Spartans tied for first in the league standings. At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest winning percentage at the end of the season was declared the champion; this method had been used since the league's creation in 1920, but no situation had been encountered where two teams were tied for first. The league determined that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champion; the teams were scheduled to play the playoff game a regular season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold forced the game to be moved indoors to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with altered rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–0 and thus won the championship.
Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in 1933, to split into two divisions with a championship game to be played between the division champions. The 1934 season marked the first of 12 seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league; the de facto ban was rescinded in 1946, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a similar ban in Major League Baseball. The NFL was always the foremost pro
Ezzard Mack Charles, known as the Cincinnati Cobra was an American professional boxer and World Heavyweight Champion. Known for his slick defense and precision, he is considered one of the greatest fighters of all time by boxing critics. Charles defeated numerous Hall of Fame fighters in three different weight classes, he retired with a record of 15 losses and 1 draw. Charles was born in Lawrenceville, but is thought of as a Cincinnatian. Charles graduated from Woodward High School in Cincinnati, Ohio where he was becoming a well-known fighter. Known as "The Cincinnati Cobra", Charles fought many notable opponents in both the light heavyweight and heavyweight divisions winning the World Championship in the latter. Although he never won the Light Heavyweight title, The Ring has rated him as the greatest light heavyweight of all time. Charles started his career as a featherweight in the amateurs, where he had a record of 42–0. In 1938, he won the Diamond Belt Middleweight Championship, he followed this up in 1939 by winning the Chicago Golden Gloves tournament of champions.
He won the national AAU Middleweight Championship in 1939. He turned pro in 1940. Charles won all of his first 15 fights before being defeated by veteran Ken Overlin. Victories over future Hall of Famers Teddy Yarosz and the much avoided Charley Burley had started to solidify Charles as a top contender in the middleweight division. However, he served in the U. S. military during World War II and was unable to fight professionally in 1945. He returned to boxing after the war as a light heavyweight, picking up many notable wins over leading light heavyweights, as well as heavyweight contenders Archie Moore, Jimmy Bivins, Lloyd Marshall and Elmer Ray. Shortly after his knock-out of Moore in their third and final meeting, tragedy struck. Charles fought a young contender named Sam Baroudi, knocking him out in Round 10. Baroudi died. Charles was so devastated he gave up fighting. Charles moved up to heavyweight. After knocking out Joe Baksi and Johnny Haynes, Charles won the vacant National Boxing Association Heavyweight title when he outpointed Jersey Joe Walcott over 15 rounds on June 22, 1949.
The following year, he outpointed his idol and former World Heavyweight Champion Joe Louis to become the recognized Lineal Champion. Successful defenses against Walcott, Lee Oma and Joey Maxim followed. In 1951, Charles lost the title by knockout in the seventh round. Charles lost a controversial decision in their final bout. If Charles had won this fight, he would have become the first man in history to regain the heavyweight championship. Remaining a top contender with wins over Rex Layne, Tommy Harrison and Coley Wallace, Charles knocked out Bob Satterfield in an eliminator bout for the right to challenge Heavyweight Champion Rocky Marciano, his two stirring battles with Marciano are regarded as ring classics. In the first bout, held in June 1954, he valiantly took Marciano the distance, going down on points in a vintage heavyweight bout. Charles is the only man to last the full 15-round distance against Marciano. A number of fans and boxing writers felt. In their September rematch, Charles landed a severe blow that split Marciano's nose in half.
Marciano's cornermen were unable to stop the bleeding and the referee halted the contest until Marciano rallied with an eighth-round knockout. Financial problems forced Charles to continue losing 13 of his final 23 fights, he retired with a record of 93-25-1. He avenged 7 losses in his career. Charles was a respected double bass player who played with some of the jazz greats in the 1940s and 1950s at such notable places as Birdland, he was close with Rocky Marciano and a neighbor and friend of Muhammad Ali when they both lived on 85th Street in Chicago. Charles starred in one motion picture: Mau Mau Drums, an independent jungle-adventure film shot in and around Cincinnati in 1960 by filmmaker Earl Schwieterman. In 1968, Charles was diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis known as Lou Gehrig's disease; the disease affected Charles' legs and left him disabled. A fund raiser was held to assist Charles and many of his former opponents spoke on his behalf. Rocky Marciano in particular called Charles the bravest man he fought.
The former boxer spent his last days in a nursing home. A chilling 1973 commercial showed Charles in his wheelchair horribly disabled by ALS. Charles died on May 1975, in Chicago. In 1976, Cincinnati honored Charles by changing the name of Lincoln Park Drive to Ezzard Charles Drive; this was the street of his residence during the height of his career. He was elected to the International Boxing Hall of Fame in 1990. In 2002, Charles was ranked #13 on The Ring magazine's list of the 80 Best Fighters of the Last 80 Years. In 2006, Ezzard Charles was named the 11th greatest fighter of all time by the IBRO; the "Cincinnati Cobra" was a master boxer of extraordinary ability. He had speed, fast hands and excellent footwork. Charles was a superb combination puncher, he was at his peak as a light-heavyweight. His record is quite impressive. Against top rate opposition like Archie Moore, Charley Burley, Lloyd Marshall, Jimmy Bivins, Joey Maxim he was an impressive 16-2 combined. Despit
Stephen Crane was an American poet and short story writer. Prolific throughout his short life, he wrote notable works in the Realist tradition as well as early examples of American Naturalism and Impressionism, he is recognized by modern critics as one of the most innovative writers of his generation. The ninth surviving child of Methodist parents, Crane began writing at the age of four and had published several articles by the age of 16. Having little interest in university studies though he was active in a fraternity, he left Syracuse University in 1891 to work as a reporter and writer. Crane's first novel was the 1893 Bowery tale Maggie: A Girl of the Streets considered by critics to be the first work of American literary Naturalism, he won international acclaim in 1895 for his Civil War novel The Red Badge of Courage, which he wrote without having any battle experience. In 1896, Crane endured a publicized scandal after appearing as a witness in the trial of a suspected prostitute, an acquaintance named Dora Clark.
Late that year he accepted an offer to travel to Cuba as a war correspondent. As he waited in Jacksonville, Florida for passage, he met Cora Taylor, with whom he began a lasting relationship. En route to Cuba, Crane's vessel the SS Commodore sank off the coast of Florida, leaving him and others adrift for 30 hours in a dinghy. Crane described the ordeal in "The Open Boat". During the final years of his life, he covered conflicts in Greece and lived in England with her, he was befriended by writers such as H. G. Wells. Plagued by financial difficulties and ill health, Crane died of tuberculosis in a Black Forest sanatorium in Germany at the age of 28. At the time of his death, Crane was considered an important figure in American literature. After he was nearly forgotten for two decades, critics revived interest in his work. Crane's writing is characterized by vivid intensity, distinctive dialects, irony. Common themes involve spiritual crises and social isolation. Although recognized for The Red Badge of Courage, which has become an American classic, Crane is known for his poetry and short stories such as "The Open Boat", "The Blue Hotel", "The Bride Comes to Yellow Sky", The Monster.
His writing made a deep impression on 20th-century writers, most prominent among them Ernest Hemingway, is thought to have inspired the Modernists and the Imagists. Stephen Crane was born on November 1, 1871, in Newark, New Jersey, to Jonathan Townley Crane, a minister in the Methodist Episcopal church, Mary Helen Peck Crane, daughter of a clergyman, George Peck, he was the last child born to the couple. At 45, Helen Crane had suffered the early deaths of her previous four children, each of whom died within one year of birth. Nicknamed "Stevie" by the family, he joined eight surviving brothers and sisters—Mary Helen, George Peck, Jonathan Townley, William Howe, Agnes Elizabeth, Edmund Byran, Wilbur Fiske, Luther; the Cranes were descended from Jaspar Crane, a founder of New Haven Colony, who had migrated there from England in 1639. Stephen was named for a putative founder of Elizabethtown, New Jersey, who had, according to family tradition, come from England or Wales in 1665, as well as his great-great-grandfather Stephen Crane, a Revolutionary War patriot who served as New Jersey delegate to the First Continental Congress in Philadelphia.
Crane wrote that his father, Dr. Crane, "was a great, simple mind," who had written numerous tracts on theology. Although his mother was a popular spokeswoman for the Woman's Christian Temperance Union and a religious woman, Crane wrote that he did not believe "she was as narrow as most of her friends or family." The young Stephen was raised by his sister Agnes, 15 years his senior. The family moved to Port Jervis, New York, in 1876, where Dr. Crane became the pastor of Drew Methodist Church, a position that he retained until his death; as a child, Stephen was sickly and afflicted by constant colds. When the boy was two, his father wrote in his diary that his youngest son became "so sick that we are anxious about him." Despite his fragile nature, Crane was an intelligent child who taught himself to read before the age of four. His first known inquiry, recorded by his father, dealt with writing. In December 1879, Crane wrote a poem about wanting a dog for Christmas. Entitled "I'd Rather Have –", it is his first surviving poem.
Stephen was not enrolled in school until January 1880, but he had no difficulty in completing two grades in six weeks. Recalling this feat, he wrote that it "sounds like the lie of a fond mother at a teaparty, but I do remember that I got ahead fast and that father was pleased with me."Dr. Crane died on February 16, 1880, at the age of 60; some 1,400 people mourned Dr. Crane at more than double the size of his congregation. After her husband's death, Mrs. Crane moved to Roseville, near Newark, leaving Stephen in the care of his older brother Edmund, with whom the young boy lived with cousins in Sussex County, he next lived with a lawyer, in Port Jervis for several years. His older sister Helen took him to Asbury Park to be with their brother Townley and his wife, Fannie. Townley was a professional journalist. Agnes, another Crane sister, joined the siblings in New Jersey, she took a positio
Florida is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States. The state is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Straits of Florida. Florida is the 22nd-most extensive, the 3rd-most populous, the 8th-most densely populated of the U. S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States; the Miami metropolitan area is Florida's most populous urban area. Tallahassee is the state's capital. Florida's $1.0 trillion economy is the fourth largest in the United States. If it were a country, Florida would be the 16th largest economy in the world, the 58th most populous as of 2018. In 2017, Florida's per capita personal income was ranking 26th in the nation; the unemployment rate in September 2018 was 3.5% and ranked as the 18th in the United States. Florida exports nearly $55 billion in goods made in the 8th highest among all states.
The Miami Metropolitan Area is by far the largest urban economy in Florida and the 12th largest in the United States with a GDP of $344.9 billion as of 2017. This is more than twice the number of the next metro area, the Tampa Bay Area, which has a GDP of $145.3 billion. Florida is home to 51 of the world's billionaires with most of them residing in South Florida; the first European contact was made in 1513 by Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León, who called it la Florida upon landing there in the Easter season, known in Spanish as Pascua Florida. Florida was a challenge for the European colonial powers before it gained statehood in the United States in 1845, it was a principal location of the Seminole Wars against the Native Americans, racial segregation after the American Civil War. Today, Florida is distinctive for its large Cuban expatriate community and high population growth, as well as for its increasing environmental issues; the state's economy relies on tourism and transportation, which developed in the late 19th century.
Florida is renowned for amusement parks, orange crops, winter vegetables, the Kennedy Space Center, as a popular destination for retirees. Florida is the flattest state in the United States. Lake Okeechobee is the largest freshwater lake in the U. S. state of Florida. Florida's close proximity to the ocean influences many aspects of daily life. Florida is a reflection of multiple inheritance. Florida has attracted many writers such as Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Ernest Hemingway and Tennessee Williams, continues to attract celebrities and athletes, it is internationally known for golf, auto racing, water sports. Several beaches in Florida have emerald-colored coastal waters. About two-thirds of Florida occupies a peninsula between the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Florida has the longest coastline in the contiguous United States 1,350 miles, not including the contribution of the many barrier islands. Florida has a total of 4,510 islands; this is the second-highest number of islands of any state of the United States.
It is the only state that borders both the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Much of the state is characterized by sedimentary soil. Florida has the lowest high point of any U. S. state. The climate varies from subtropical in the north to tropical in the south; the American alligator, American crocodile, American flamingo, Roseate spoonbill, Florida panther, bottlenose dolphin, manatee can be found in Everglades National Park in the southern part of the state. Along with Hawaii, Florida is one of only two states that has a tropical climate, is the only continental state with either a tropical climate or a coral reef; the Florida Reef is the only living coral barrier reef in the continental United States, the third-largest coral barrier reef system in the world. By the 16th century, the earliest time for which there is a historical record, major Native American groups included the Apalachee of the Florida Panhandle, the Timucua of northern and central Florida, the Ais of the central Atlantic coast, the Tocobaga of the Tampa Bay area, the Calusa of southwest Florida and the Tequesta of the southeastern coast.
Florida was the first region of the continental United States to be visited and settled by Europeans. The earliest known European explorers came with the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León. Ponce de León spotted and landed on the peninsula on April 2, 1513, he named the region Florida. The story that he was searching for the Fountain of Youth is mythical and only appeared long after his death. In May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto skirted the coast of Florida, searching for a deep harbor to land, he described seeing a thick wall of red mangroves spread mile after mile, some reaching as high as 70 feet, with intertwined and elevated roots making landing difficult. The Spanish introduced Christianity, horses, the Castilian language, more to Florida. Spain established several settlements with varying degrees of success. In 1559, Don Tristán de Luna y Arellano established a settlement at present-day Pensacola, making it the first attempted settlement in Florida, but it was abandoned by 1561.
In 1565, the settlement of St. Augustine was established under the leadership of admiral and
History of Tampa, Florida
The modern history of Tampa, Florida can be traced to the founding of Fort Brooke at the mouth of the Hillsborough River in today's downtown in 1824, soon after the United States had taken possession of Florida from Spain. The outpost brought a small population of civilians to the area, the town of Tampa was first incorporated in 1855. Growth came as poor transportation links, conflicts with the Seminole tribe, repeated outbreaks of yellow fever made development difficult; the Civil War and Reconstruction caused the city government to disincorporate for over a decade. In the 1880s the construction of the first railroad links laid by Henry B. Plant brought the development of thriving phosphate industries; the founding of the cigar-centered neighborhood of Ybor City in 1885 brought an influx of Cubans, Spaniards and other immigrants. Tampa's population jumped from less than 800 residents in 1880 to over 15,000 in 1900, making it one of the largest cities in Florida. By the 20th century Tampa emerged as a modern financial and commercial hub.
It saw the start of the Gasparilla Pirate Festival and pioneering aviator Tony Jannus captaining the inaugural flight of the St. Petersburg-Tampa Airboat Line, the world's first commercial passenger airline, it saw the rise of organized crime. The number of residents exceeded 100,000 during the 1930s, 250,000 during the 1950s, 300,000 during the 1990s; the land area of Tampa grew, most notably when the city annexed the neighboring communities of West Tampa in 1925, Sulphur Springs and Palma Ceia in 1953, Port Tampa in 1961, New Tampa in 1988. Most of the land added to Tampa over the years was unincorporated. Five incorporated municipalities have been consolidated into Tampa: North Tampa, Ybor City, Fort Brooke, West Tampa, Port Tampa. There is some dispute as to the origin and meaning of the name "Tampa", it is believed to mean "sticks of fire" in the language of the Calusa, an Indian tribe that once lived south of the area. This may relate to the high concentration of lightning strikes that west central Florida receives every year during the summer months.
Other historians claim the name refers to "the place to gather sticks". Toponymist George R. Stewart writes that the name was the result of a miscommunication between the Spanish and the Indians, the Indian word being "itimpi", meaning "near it". Another source relates; the name first appears in the memoir of Hernando de Escalante Fontaneda from 1575, who had spent 17 years as a Calusa captive. He describes it as an important Calusa town. While "Tanpa" may be the basis for the modern name "Tampa", archaeologist Jerald Milanich places the Calusa village of Tanpa at the mouth of Charlotte Harbor near current day Pineland. Map maker Bernard Romans found certain difficulties in translating earlier Spanish-era maps of Florida for English use and may have accidentally transferred the name north to Tampa Bay, the next large inlet up the west coast of Florida. Archeological evidence indicates that the shores of Tampa Bay have been inhabited for thousands of years. Artifacts suggest that early inhabitants of the region relied on the sea for most of their resources, a vast majority of inhabited sites have been found on or near the shoreline.
The Manasota culture is the earliest documented group, spanning from about 500 B. C. until about 700 A. D. by which time it had evolved into the Safety Harbor culture. It loosely organized into four chiefdoms on the shores of the bay; the Tocobaga's principal town was located at the northern end of Old Tampa Bay near today's Safety Harbor in Pinellas County. Uzita controlled the south shore of Tampa Bay, from the Little Manatee River to Sarasota Bay. Mocoso was on the east side of Tampa Bay, on the Alafia River and the Hillsborough River. There may have been a fourth independent chiefdom, the Pohoy or Capaloey, centered on Hillsborough Bay near today's downtown and port extending to the Hillsborough River; these small coastal villages contained a temple mound, a central plaza, one or more shell middens, which were trash heaps from which much archeological information has been obtained. These mounds and middens survived. However, the vast majority were leveled and/or used for road fill as Tampa and surrounding communities grew in the 20th century.
Though Spain claimed all of Florida as its possession as part of New Spain, it could not establish a settlement on the west coast and did not attempt to do so until after the mid-1500s. The first Europeans came in April 1528; the ill-fated Narváez Expedition landed near present-day Tampa with the intention of starting a colony. After being told by the natives of wealthier cultures to the north, they abandoned their camp after only a week to begin a long but futile search for non-existent riches. A dozen years a surviving member of the expedition named Juan Ortiz was rescued by Hernando de Soto's expedition. De Soto conducted a peace treaty with the Tocobaga, a short-lived Spanish outpost was established. However, this was abandoned when it became clear that there was no gold in the area, that the local Indians were not interested in converting to Catholicism, that they were too skilled as warriors to conquer. Though they avoided being conquered by guns, the indigenous peoples had little defense against germs.
Diseases introduced by European contact would decimate the native population in the ensuing decades, leading to the near-total collapse of every established culture across peninsular Florida. Between this depopulation and the indifference of its colonial owners, the Tampa Bay area would be uninhabited for the next 200+ years. Great Britain acquired Florida in 1763 as