Culture of Chicago
The culture of Chicago, Illinois is known for the invention or significant advancement of several performing arts, including improvisational comedy, house music, hip hop, gospel and soul. The city is known for its Chicago Prairie School architecture, it continues to cultivate a strong tradition of classical music, popular music and performing arts, rooted in Western civilization, as well as other traditions carried forward by its African-American, Asian-American, European American, Hispanic American, Native American citizens. The city is additionally known for various popular culinary dishes, including deep-dish pizza, the Chicago-style hot dog and the Italian beef sandwich. Chicago lays claim to a large number of regional specialties that reflect the city's ethnic and working-class roots. Included among these are its nationally renowned deep-dish pizza; the Chicago-style thin crust is popular in the city. A number of well-known chefs have had restaurants in Chicago, including Charlie Trotter, Rick Tramonto, Grant Achatz, Rick Bayless.
In 2003, Robb Report named Chicago the country's "most exceptional dining destination" and in 2008, Maxim awarded Chicago the title of "Tastiest City." The most popular Chicago-style foods are: The Chicago-style hot dog, traditionally a steamed or boiled, natural-casing all-beef wiener on a poppy-seed bun, topped with yellow mustard, chopped onion, sliced tomato, neon-green sweet-pickle relish, sport peppers, a dill pickle spear, a sprinkling of celery salt—but never ketchup. Chicago-style pizza is deep-dish pizza with a tall outer crust and large amounts of cheese, with chunky tomato sauce on top of the cheese instead of underneath it. Similar to this is stuffed pizza, with more cheese, topped with a second, thinner crust. Thin-crust pizza is very popular in Chicago with it cut in squares; the Italian beef, a sandwich featuring thinly sliced roast beef simmered in a broth containing Italian-style seasonings and served on an Italian roll soaked in the meat juices. Most beef stands offer a "cheesy beef" option, the addition of a slice of provolone or mozzarella.
A "combo" is a beef sandwich with the addition of grilled Italian sausage. Italian beef sandwiches are traditionally topped with spicy giardiniera. Other Chicago-style dishes include: Chicken Vesuvio, an Italian-American dish made from chicken on the bone and wedges of potato and carrots. Shrimp DeJonghe, a casserole of whole peeled shrimp blanketed in soft, sherry-laced bread crumbs. Maxwell Street Polish, named after Maxwell Street where it was first sold. It's a Polish sausage made with beef and pork, with garlic and other spices, served on a bun with grilled onions. A francheezie is a variation of the Chicago-style hot dog; the hot dog is wrapped in bacon and deep-fried, either stuffed or topped with cheese. The jibarito is a specialty sandwich that originated in the heart of Chicago's Puerto Rican community. Invented by Borinquen Restaurant in the Humboldt Park neighborhood, a jibarito is made with meat or chicken, condiments, placed between two pieces of fried and flattened plantain instead of bread.
The mother-in-law is a tamale on a hot dog bun, topped with chili. Chicago has its own unique style of tamale, machine-extruded from cornmeal and wrapped in paper, sold at hot dog stands. Gyros is popular in Chicago. While some restaurants still make their own gyros cones, Chicago is the hometown of mass-produced gyros. Flaming saganaki was popularized by restaurants in the Greektown neighborhood. A square piece of kasseri, kefalotyri, or a similar cheese is fried in a small, two-handled pan, topped with a splash of brandy, served flambé-style, traditionally with a cry of "Opa!" from the waiter. A pizza puff is a deep-fried dough pocket filled with cheese, tomato sauce, other pizza ingredients such as sausage. Indigenous to Chicago, pizza puffs can be found at some hot dog restaurants. A pepper and egg sandwich combines scrambled grilled bell peppers, served on French bread. Eaten during Lent by Italian immigrants in Chicago, it now can be found in some casual dining restaurants. Less well known are: The more provincial South Side specialties such as the big baby, a style of double cheeseburger with the cheese in between the hamburger patties, ketchup and pickle slices underneath them, grilled onions on top.
The breaded-steak sandwich, a specialty found in the Bridgeport neighborhood, which consists of a flattened inexpensive cut of beef, breaded, fried Milanesa-style and served on an Italian bread roll with marinara sauce, topped with optional mozzarella cheese and/or green peppers. The gym shoe, a submarine sandwich made with a combination of corned beef and either roast beef or Italian beef. Aquarium-smoked barbecue rib tips and hot links; this is barbecue, cooked in a rectangular indoor smoker with glass sides and a large compartment for a wood fire under the grill. Barbecued ribs are very popular in Chicago. Atomic cake, featuring banana and chocolate cake layers alternating with banana and fudge fillings. Chicago mix popcorn, which consists of caramel corn and cheese-flavored popcorn mixed together. Chicago Brick ice cream, a Neapolitan-style three-flavor ice-cream with orange sherbet and caramel flavors. Chicago features many restaurants that highlight the city's various ethnic neighborhoods, in
The Illinois Senate is the upper chamber of the Illinois General Assembly, the legislative branch of the government of the State of Illinois in the United States. The body was created by the first state constitution adopted in 1818; the Illinois Senate is made up of 59 senators elected from individual legislative districts determined by population. S. census each senator represents 217,468 people. Under the Illinois Constitution of 1970, senators are divided into three groups, each group having a two-year term at a different part of the decade between censuses, with the rest of the decade being taken up by two four-year terms; this ensures that the Senate reflects changes made when the General Assembly redistricts itself after each census. Depending on the election year one-third, two-thirds, or all Senate seats may be contested. In contrast, the Illinois House of Representatives is made up of 118 members with its entire membership elected to two-year terms. House districts are formed by dividing each Senate district in half, with each senator having two "associated" representatives.
The Illinois Senate convenes at the Illinois State Capitol in Illinois. Its first official working day is the second Wednesday of January each year, its primary duties are to pass bills into law, approve the state budget, confirm appointments to state departments and agencies, act on federal constitutional amendments and propose constitutional amendments for Illinois. It has the power to override gubernatorial vetoes through a three-fifths majority vote; the Illinois Senate tries impeachments made by the House of Representatives, can convict impeached officers by a two-thirds vote. Voting in the Illinois Senate is done by members pushing one of three buttons. Unlike most states, the Illinois Senate allows members to present, it takes 30 affirmative votes to pass legislation during final action. The number of negative votes does not matter. Therefore, voting present has the same effect on the tally as voting no. President of the Senate: John Cullerton Majority Leader: Kimberly A. Lightford Assistant Majority Leaders: David Koehler Terry Link Iris Martinez Don Harmon Antonio Munoz Majority Caucus Chair: Mattie Hunter Majority Caucus Whips: Jacqueline Collins Linda Holmes Martin Sandoval Minority Leader: Bill Brady Deputy Minority Leader: Dave Syverson Assistant Minority Leaders: Jason Barickman Michael Connelly Sue Rezin Chapin Rose Minority Caucus Chair: Dale Righter Minority Caucus Whips: Jim Oberweis Jill Tracy Secretary of the Senate: Tim Anderson Assistant Secretary of the Senate: Scott Kaiser Sergeant-at-Arms: Joe Dominguez Assistant Sergeant-at-Arms: Dirk R. Eilers In 1924, Florence Fifer Bohrer became the body's first female member and Adelbert H. Roberts became its first African American member.
In 1977, Earlean Collins became the first African American woman to serve in the Illinois Senate. Barack Obama the President of the United States, served in the Illinois Senate from 1997 to 2004. Ɨ Legislator was appointed to the Illinois Senate during session. ƗƗ Legislator was appointed to the Illinois Senate after being elected, but prior to inauguration day of the General Assembly to which they were elected. Illinois General Assembly – Senate official government website Illinois Senate Republicans official party website Illinois Senate Democrats official party website Legislature of Illinois at Project Vote Smart Illinois campaign financing at FollowTheMoney.org Illinois Senate at Ballotpedia
Grand Calumet River
The Grand Calumet River is a 13.0-mile-long river that flows into Lake Michigan. Originating in Miller Beach in Gary, it flows through the cities of Gary, East Chicago and Hammond, as well as Calumet City and Burnham on the Illinois side; the majority of the river's flow drains into Lake Michigan via the Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal, sending about 1,500 cubic feet per second of water into the lake. A smaller part of the flow, at the river's western end, enters the Calumet River and drains into the Illinois and the Mississippi River. Today, a large portion of the river's flow originates as municipal and industrial effluent and process water and storm water overflows. Although discharges have been reduced, a number of contaminants continue to impair the area; the river is among the country's most polluted, as of 2015 was in the late stages of a major dredging project to remove thousands of tons of contaminated sediment and rehabilitate the river ecosystem. The Grand Calumet is divided into an East and West branch, on the respective sides of the Indiana Harbor Canal.
The East Branch, which drains into Lake Michigan, rises in Marquette Park in Gary's Miller Beach neighborhood, passing through a series of three lagoons before flowing into the Miller Woods unit of Indiana Dunes National Park and on to the industrial zone of Gary. It leaves Gary by passing under Cline Avenue, defines the boundary between East Chicago and Hammond until reaching the Indiana Harbor Canal near Kennedy Avenue; the West Branch drains into the Indiana Harbor Canal and into the Calumet River, which drains into the Chicago Area Waterway System and into the Illinois River. The divide between the part of the West Branch flowing into the Illinois River and the part flowing to Lake Michigan is in Hammond, near the Illinois-Indiana state line; the West Branch joins the Little Calumet at Illinois. In addition, the Indiana Harbor Canal itself is sometimes treated as a part of the Grand Calumet, which brings the river's total length to 16.0 miles. The Grand Calumet flows through the Calumet Lacustrine Plain, a region of low, undulating sandy terrain adjoining Lake Michigan.
Groundwater contributions to the river, which account for less than 10% of total flow, come from the Calumet Aquifer, an unconfined water-table aquifer. The Calumet Aquifer is less than 10 feet below the surface in most areas, has an average thickness of 40 feet. Prior to the industrialization of the Chicago area and the creation of the Chicago Area Waterway System, the Grand Calumet flowed into Lake Michigan at Marquette Park in Miller Beach, near where its headwaters now lie. In this original configuration, the Grand Calumet included much of what is now the Little Calumet River, while the original "Little Calumet" was just a minor stream draining out into Lake Calumet; this original river is sometimes called by the older name Konomick or Kennomick to distinguishing it from the Grand Calumet of today. This arrangement began to shift in the early 19th century, either in 1805 or between 1809 and 1820, when some combination of flooding and human excavation opened up a channel allowing the upper Grand Calumet to drain directly into Lake Calumet via the original Little Calumet channel.
This created the basic definitions of the rivers as they exist today, as what had been the upper reaches of the Grand Calumet now became part of the Little Calumet. The Grand Calumet at this point still flowed from west to east, emptying into the lake at Miller Beach. In 1848, the Calumet Feeder Canal was constructed to carry water from the Calumet system at Blue Island to the Illinois and Michigan Canal, suffering from low water levels; this reversed the flow of the Grand Calumet, so that it now flowed from east to west, draining out of Lake Michigan at Miller Beach. By 1872, the river's original mouth at Miller had been blocked by sandbars. Industrial development on the banks of the Grand Calumet began in the late 19th century, starting with the George Hammond packing company in Hammond; the accumulation of industrial sediment in the river had become problematic by 1885. The construction of the Gary Works in 1905 involved diverting and channelizing a considerable part of the East Branch to make way for the new steel mill.
The Grand Calumet had flowed across a large part of the present-day mill site, spread to 1,000 feet wide during floods. In 1906, the Indiana Harbor Canal was completed, again reversing the flow in the eastern portion of the West Branch and creating the approximate flows that exist today, with the East Branch and eastern part of the West Branch emptying into Lake Michigan at Indiana Harbor, while the remainder of the West Branch flows west. Continuing industrialization along the Grand Calumet led to increasing levels of pollution. By the mid-20th century, the river "had become an industrial sewer, incapable of supporting any life except for blue-green algae and sludgeworms." 90% of the flow of the Grand Calumet consists of industrial and municipal effluent. The portion of the Grand Calumet within Indiana has been designated a Great Lakes Areas of Concern under the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement, one of 43 sites favored with such a designation; the Grand Calumet has been listed as one of the 43 AoCs since 1986.
AoCs are designated by having an impairment in at least one of fourteen beneficial uses. The Grand Calumet is the only AoC to be impaired on all fourteen; these impairments include total fish consumption restrictions, beach closings, fish tumors or deformities, animal deformities or reproductive problems, loss or degradation of fish and wi
Crime in Chicago
Crime in Chicago has been tracked by the Chicago Police Department's Bureau of Records since the beginning of the 20th century. The city's overall crime rate the violent crime rate, is higher than the US average. Chicago was responsible for nearly half of 2016's increase in homicides in the US, though the nation's crime rates remain near historic lows; the reasons for the higher numbers in Chicago remain unclear. An article in The Atlantic detailed how researchers and analysts had come to no real consensus on the cause for the violence. Chicago saw a major rise in violent crime starting in the late 1960s. Murders in the city peaked in 1974, with 970 murders when the city's population was over three million, resulting in a murder rate of around 29 per 100,000, again in 1992, with 943 murders when the city had fewer than three million people, resulting in a murder rate of 34 murders per 100,000 citizens. After 1992, the murder count decreased to 415 murders by the mid 2000s, a reduction of over 50 percent.
In 2018, there were 561 murders. Chicago experienced a major rise in violent crime starting in the late 1960s, a decline in overall crime in the 2000s, a rise in murders in 2016. Murder and robbery are common violent crimes in the city, the occurrences of such incidents are documented by the Chicago Police Department and indexed in annual crime reports. After adopting crime-fighting techniques in 2004 that were recommended by the Los Angeles Police Department and the New York City Police Department, Chicago recorded 448 homicides, the lowest total since 1965; this murder rate of 15.65 per 100,000 population is still above the U. S. average, an average which takes in many small towns and suburbs. Chicago's homicide rate had surpassed that of Los Angeles by 2010, was more than twice that of New York City in the same year. By the end of 2015, Chicago's homicide rate would rise to 18.6 per 100,000. By 2016, Chicago had recorded more homicides and shooting victims than New York City and Los Angeles combined.
Chicago's biggest criminal justice challenges have changed little over the last 50 years, statistically reside with homicide, armed robbery, gang violence, aggravated battery. According to the 2011 Homicide Report released by the Chicago Police Department, the murder clearance rate has dropped from over 70% for 1991 to under 34% for 2011. Former Chicago Police Supt. Garry McCarthy said a pervasive "no-snitch code" on the street remains the biggest reason more murders aren't being solved in Chicago, adding, "We're not doing well because we're not getting cooperation". By 2016, Chicago's murder clearance rate had dropped to only 21%, its detective force had dwindled from 1,151 in 2009 to 863 as of July 2016. Warmer months have higher murder rates, over 70% of murders take place between 7PM and 5AM. In 2011, 83% of murders involved a firearm, 6.4% were the result of a stabbing. 10% of murders in 2011 were the result of an armed robbery and at least 60% were gang or gang narcotics altercations. Over 40% of victims and 60% of offenders were between the ages of 17 and 25.
90.1% of victims were male. 75.3% of victims and 70.5% of offenders were African American, 18.9% were Hispanic, whites were 5.6% of victims. Murder rates in Chicago vary depending on the neighborhood in question. Many neighborhoods on the South Side are impoverished, lack educational resources, predominantly African American, infested with street gangs; the neighborhoods of Englewood on the South Side, Austin on the West side, for example, have homicide rates that are ten times higher than other parts of the city. Violence in these neighborhoods has had a detrimental impact on the academic performance of children in schools, as well as a higher financial burden for school districts in need of counselors, social workers, psychiatrists to help children cope with the violence. In 2014, Chicago Public Schools adopted the "Safe Passage Route" program to place unarmed volunteers, police officers and firefighters along designated walking routes to provide security for children en route to school. From 2010-2014, 114 school children were murdered in Chicago.
Chicago Police Superintendent Garry McCarthy was terminated by Emanuel following the fall out from the shooting of Laquan McDonald. A gunshot wound to center mass can prove fatal without immediate medical attention due to blood loss and internal injuries. In September 2015, University of Chicago Medicine and Sinai Health Systems announced a joint 40-million-dollar venture to convert Holy Cross Hospital into a Level 1 trauma center on the South side, making some of Chicago's most violent neighborhoods less than five miles from high-quality care. Non-fatal gunshot victims in Chicago had an overall rate of occurrence of 46.5 per 100,000 from 2006-2012, with a demographic breakdown of 1.62 per 100,000 for whites. It is estimated that the medical expenses associated with gun violence costs the city of Chicago 2.5 billion dollars a year. Chicago has been criticized for comparatively light sentencing guidelines for those found illegally in possession of a firearm. Most people convicted of illegal gun possession receive the minimum sentence, one year, a Chicago Sun-Times analysis found, serve less than half of the sentence because of time for good behavior and pre-trial confinement.
The minimum sentence for felons found in possession of a firearm is two years. Those charged with simple gun possession had an average of four prior arrests; those charged with gun possession by a felon had an average of ten prior arrests. In October 2015, Chicago was named "America's mass shooting capital", citing 18 occasions in 2015 in which at least four people were shot in a
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern and Great Lakes region of the United States. It has the fifth largest gross domestic product, the sixth largest population, the 25th largest land area of all U. S. states. Illinois is noted as a microcosm of the entire United States. With Chicago in northeastern Illinois, small industrial cities and immense agricultural productivity in the north and center of the state, natural resources such as coal and petroleum in the south, Illinois has a diverse economic base, is a major transportation hub. Chicagoland, Chicago's metropolitan area, encompasses over 65% of the state's population; the Port of Chicago connects the state to international ports via two main routes: from the Great Lakes, via the Saint Lawrence Seaway, to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River, via the Illinois Waterway to the Illinois River. The Mississippi River, the Ohio River, the Wabash River form parts of the boundaries of Illinois. For decades, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport has been ranked as one of the world's busiest airports.
Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and, through the 1980s, in politics. The capital of Illinois is Springfield, located in the central part of the state. Although today's Illinois' largest population center is in its northeast, the state's European population grew first in the west as the French settled the vast Mississippi of the Illinois Country of New France. Following the American Revolutionary War, American settlers began arriving from Kentucky in the 1780s via the Ohio River, the population grew from south to north. In 1818, Illinois achieved statehood. Following increased commercial activity in the Great Lakes after the construction of the Erie Canal, Chicago was founded in the 1830s on the banks of the Chicago River at one of the few natural harbors on the southern section of Lake Michigan. John Deere's invention of the self-scouring steel plow turned Illinois's rich prairie into some of the world's most productive and valuable farmland, attracting immigrant farmers from Germany and Sweden.
The Illinois and Michigan Canal made transportation between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River valley faster and cheaper, new railroads carried immigrants to new homes in the country's west and shipped commodity crops to the nation's east. The state became a transportation hub for the nation. By 1900, the growth of industrial jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe. Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars; the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in the state, including Chicago, who founded the city's famous jazz and blues cultures. Chicago, the center of the Chicago Metropolitan Area, is now recognized as a global alpha-level city. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois: Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Barack Obama. Additionally, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was born and raised in the state.
Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official state slogan Land of Lincoln, displayed on its license plates since 1954. The state is the site of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum in Springfield and the future home of the Barack Obama Presidential Center in Chicago. "Illinois" is the modern spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers' name for the Illinois Native Americans, a name, spelled in many different ways in the early records. American scholars thought the name "Illinois" meant "man" or "men" in the Miami-Illinois language, with the original iliniwek transformed via French into Illinois; this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for "man" is ireniwa, plural of "man" is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has been said to mean "tribe of superior men", a false etymology; the name "Illinois" derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa - "he speaks the regular way". This was taken into the Ojibwe language in the Ottawa dialect, modified into ilinwe·.
The French borrowed these forms, changing the /we/ ending to spell it as -ois, a transliteration for its pronunciation in French of that time. The current spelling form, began to appear in the early 1670s, when French colonists had settled in the western area; the Illinois's name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans; the Koster Site demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitation. Cahokia, the largest regional chiefdom and urban center of the Pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois, they built an urban complex of more than 100 platform and burial mounds, a 50-acre plaza larger than 35 football fields, a woodhenge of sacred cedar, all in a planned design expressing the culture's cosmology.
Monks Mound, the center of the site, is the largest Pre-Columbian structure north of the Valley of Mexico. It is 100 feet high, 951 feet long, 836 feet wide, covers 13.8 acres. It contains about 814,000 cubic yards of earth, it was topped by a structure thought to have measured about 105 feet in length and 48 feet in width, covered an area 5,000 square feet, been as much as 50 feet high, making its peak 150 feet above the level of the pl
Roads and expressways in Chicago
Roads and expressways in Chicago summarizes the main thoroughfares and the numbering system used in Chicago and its surrounding suburbs. Chicago's streets were laid out in a grid. Streets following the Public Land Survey System section lines became arterial streets in outlying sections; as new additions to the city were platted, city ordinance required them to be laid out with eight streets to the mile in one direction and 16 in the other direction. A scattering of diagonal streets, many of them Native American trails cross the city. Many additional diagonal streets were recommended in the Plan of Chicago, but only the extension of Ogden Avenue was constructed. In the 1950s and 1960s, a network of superhighways was built radiating from the city center; as the city grew and annexed adjacent towns, problems arose with duplicate street names and a confusing numbering system based on the Chicago River. On June 22, 1908, the city council adopted; the changes were effective September 1909 for most of the city.
Addresses in Chicago and some suburbs are numbered outward from baselines at State Street, which runs north and south, Madison Street, which runs east and west. A book was published in 1909 by The Chicago Directory Company indexing the old and new street numbers for most of Chicago; this volume is available online in PDF format indexed by initial letter, Plan of Re-Numbering, City of Chicago, August 1909. The opening text of the book says: "EXPLANATORY The new house numbering plan passed by the City Council June 22, 1908, to be in force and effect September 1, 1909, makes Madison Street from Lake Michigan to the city limits on the west the base line for numbering all north and south streets and streets running in northerly or southerly direction. For east and west streets and streets running in a east and west direction the base line is State Street from the southern city boundary line to North Avenue, thence extended by an imaginary line through Lincoln Park and Lake Michigan."The downtown area did not conform to this system until April 1, 1911, per an amendment to the law on June 20, 1910.
Downtown was defined as Lake Michigan on the east, Roosevelt Road on the south, the Chicago River on the north and west. The addition to cover downtown was published, is on line as a pdf indexed by downtown street name; this additional paragraph explained the downtown changes: "The 1909 address change did not affect downtown Chicago, between the river and Roosevelt Road, the river and Lake Michigan. The ordinance was amended June 1910 to include the downtown area; the new addresses for the “loop” went into use on April 1, 1911."Chicago house numbers are assigned at the rate of 800 to a mile. The only exceptions are from Madison to 31st Street, just south of downtown. Roosevelt Road is one mile south of Madison with 1200 addresses to the mile, Cermak Road is two miles south of Madison with 1000 addresses to the mile, 31st Street is three miles south of Madison with 900 addresses to the mile. South of 31st Street, the pattern of 800 to the mile resumes, with 39th Street the next major street, 47th after that, so on.
Individual house numbers are assigned at the rate of one per 20 feet of frontage. Thus the last two digits of house numbers go only as high as 67 before the next block number is reached. Higher house numbers have sometimes been assigned by request; the blocks are counted out by "hundreds," so that Chicagoans give directions by saying things such as "about twelve hundred north on Western" or "around twenty-four hundred west on Division". South of Madison Street most of the east-west streets are numbered; the street numbering is aligned with the house numbering, so that 95th Street is 9500 South. "Half-block" east-west thoroughfares in this area are called places. Every four blocks is a major secondary street. For example, Division Street is less important than either Chicago Avenue or North Avenue, but is still a major thoroughfare. However, this is not always the case. U. S. Route 14 is routed along Peterson between Clark Street at 1600 W and Cicero Avenue at 4800 W, whereas Bryn Mawr is discontinuous, split into two segments in this part of the city by Rosehill Cemetery between Damen and Western Avenues.
Even-numbered addresses are found on the north and west sides of a street, odd numbers are found on the south and east sides, irrespective of the streets' position relative to the corner of State and Madison. Diagonals if they were to run 45 degrees off of the cardinal directions, are numbered as if they were north-south or east-west streets. Examples are North Lincoln Avenue and Ogden Avenue, which bends at Madison and changes from North Ogden to West Ogden; the northernmost street in Chicago is Juneway Terrace, just north of Howard Street. The southern boundary is 138th Street; the eastern boundary of Chicago is Avenue A/State Line Road along and south of 106th Street, the furthest west the city extends is in the portion of O'Hare International Airport that lies in DuPage County, just east of Elmhurst/York Road. While all north-south streets within city limits are named, rather than numb
Springfield is the capital of the U. S. state of Illinois and the county seat of Sangamon County. The city's population of 116,250 as of the 2010 U. S. Census makes it the state's sixth most populous city, it is the largest city in central Illinois. As of 2013, the city's population was estimated to have increased to 117,006, with just over 211,700 residents living in the Springfield Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes Sangamon County and the adjacent Menard County. Present-day Springfield was settled by European Americans in the late 1810s, around the time Illinois became a state; the most famous historic resident was Abraham Lincoln, who lived in Springfield from 1837 until 1861, when he went to the White House as President. Major tourist attractions include multiple sites connected with Lincoln including his presidential library and museum, his home, his tomb at Oak Ridge Cemetery; the capital is centrally located within the state. The city lies in a plain near the Sangamon River. Lake Springfield, a large artificial lake owned by the City Water, Light & Power company, supplies the city with recreation and drinking water.
Weather is typical for middle latitude locations, with hot summers and cold winters. Spring and summer weather is like that of most midwestern cities. Tornadoes hit the Springfield area in 1957 and 2006; the city governs the Capital Township. The government of the state of Illinois is based in Springfield. State government entities include the Illinois General Assembly, the Illinois Supreme Court and the Office of the Governor of Illinois. There are three private high schools in Springfield. Public schools in Springfield are operated by District No. 186. Springfield's economy is dominated by government jobs, plus the related lobbyists and firms that deal with the state and county governments and justice system, health care and medicine. Springfield was named "Calhoun", after Senator John C. Calhoun of South Carolina; the land that Springfield now occupies was settled first by trappers and fur traders who came to the Sangamon River in 1818. The first cabin was built by John Kelly, it was located at what is now the northwest corner of Jefferson Street.
In 1821, Calhoun was designated as the county seat of Sangamon County due to fertile soil and trading opportunities. Settlers from Kentucky and North Carolina came to the developing city. By 1832, Senator Calhoun had fallen out of the favor with the public and the town renamed itself as Springfield after Springfield, Massachusetts. At that time, the New England city was known for industrial innovation, concentrated prosperity, the Springfield Armory. Kaskaskia was the first capital of the Illinois Territory from its organization in 1809, continuing through statehood in 1818, through the first year as a state in 1819. Vandalia was the second state capital of Illinois from 1819 to 1839. Springfield became the third and current capital of Illinois in 1839; the designation was due to the efforts of Abraham Lincoln and his associates. The Potawatomi Trail of Death passed through here in 1838, as the Native Americans were forced west to Indian Territory by the government's Indian Removal policy. Lincoln arrived in the Springfield area when he was a young man in 1831, though he did not live in the city until 1837.
He spent the ensuing six years in New Salem, where he began his legal studies, joined the state militia and was elected to the Illinois General Assembly. In 1837 Lincoln spent the next 24 years as a lawyer and politician. Lincoln delivered his Lyceum address in Springfield, his farewell speech when he left for Washington is a classic in American oratory. Winkle examines the historiography concerning the development of the Second Party System and applies these ideas to the study of Springfield, a strong Whig enclave in a Democratic region, he chiefly studied poll books for presidential years. The rise of the Whig Party took place in 1836 in opposition to the presidential candidacy of Martin Van Buren and was consolidated in 1840. Springfield Whigs tend to validate several expectations of party characteristics as they were native-born, either in New England or Kentucky, professional or agricultural in occupation, devoted to partisan organization. Abraham Lincoln's career reflects the Whigs' political rise, but by the 1840s, Springfield began to be dominated by Democratic politicians.
Waves of new European immigrants changed the city's demographics and became aligned with the Democrats. By the 1860 presidential election, Lincoln was able to win his home city. Winkle examines the impact of migration on political participation in Springfield during the 1850s. Widespread migration in the 19th-century United States produced frequent population turnover within Midwestern communities, which influenced patterns of voter turnout and office-holding. Examination of the manuscript census, poll books, office-holding records reveals the effects of migration on the behavior and voting patterns of 8,000 participants in 10 elections in Springfield. Most voters were short-term residents who participated in only one or two elections during the 1850s. Fewer than 1% of all voters participated in all 10 elections. Instead of producing political instability, rapid turnover enhanced the influence of the more stable residents. Migration was selective by age, occupation and birthplace. Longer-term or persistent voters, as he terms them, tended to be wealthier, more skilled, more native-born, more stable than non-persisters.
Officeholders were particularly