Danish royal family
The Danish royal family consists of the dynastic family of the monarch. All members of the Danish royal family, except Queen Margrethe II, dynastic children of the monarch and of the heir apparent are accorded the style of His/Her Royal Highness, while other members of the dynasty are addressed as His/Her Highness. The Queen is styled Her Majesty, the Queen and her siblings belong to the House of Glücksburg, which is a branch of the Royal House of Oldenburg. The Queens children and male-line descendants belong agnatically to the family de Laborde de Monpezat, the Danish royal family enjoys remarkably high approval ratings in Denmark, possibly ranging from somewhere between 82% and 92%. During this time she was still a Princess of Denmark and thus a member of the Danish royal family, in 2005, her former mother-in-law granted her the additional title of grevinde af Frederiksborg, a personal title which would not be forfeited if Alexandra remarried. When she remarried on 3 March 2007, she lost the style of Highness and titular dignity of Princess of Denmark, until 1953 his dynastic male-line descendants remained in Denmarks order succession.
However, no Danish act has revoked usage of the title for these descendants, neither for those living in 1953. There are three members of the Greek royal family who are not known to bear the title of Prince/ss of Denmark with the qualification of His/Her Highness, the Ducal Family of Schleswig-Holstein descends in the legitimate male line from Christian III of Denmark. Danish princes who marry without consent of the Danish monarch lose their dynastic rights, the ex-dynasts are usually accorded the hereditary title Count of Rosenborg. Female descendants were eligible to inherit the throne in the event there were no surviving male dynasts born in the male line. As for the duchies and Lauenburg where the King ruled as duke, these lands adhered to Salic law, the duchies of Schleswig and Lauenburg were joined in personal union with the Crown of Denmark. That meant that the new King of Denmark would not be the new Duke of Schleswig or Duke of Holstein, in 2009, the mode of inheritance of the throne was once more changed, this time into an absolute primogeniture.
This imposed no immediate change on the line of succession as it was then, of the articles of this law, all except Article 21 and Article 25 have since been repealed. However, those who do reside in Denmark or its territories continue to require the prior permission to travel abroad. The wording excludes those whose blood cannot be traced to a Danish monarch, although all other articles of the Kongelov have been repealed by amendments to the Constitution in 1849,1853 and 1953, these two articles have thus far been left intact. 1Princess Benediktes children have no succession rights, since the children continued to be educated in Germany well past the mandatory schooling age, they are deemed to no longer have succession rights. Line of succession to the British throne Line of succession to the Greek throne Line of succession to the Norwegian throne Kongehuset. dk Official site of the Danish Monarchy
Hvidovre is the main town in Hvidovre Municipality, Denmark. The town, a suburb of Copenhagen, is about 10 km southwest of the capitals center, Hvidovre has been inhabited since prehistoric times. In 1929, a 3, 500-year-old sword from the Bronze Age was excavated in Hvidovre, a farm, was located in the area in about 1160 when Esbern Snare gave it to Sorø Abbey that passed it on to Bishop Absalon. A church was built during the Romanesque period, the name Hvidovre, meaning White Ovre, refers to the colour of the church, which was built in white chalk, as opposed to the one in Rødovre, Red Ovre, which was built in red brick. At the turn of the 20th century, Hvidovre was still a rural community. In 1901, the still only had a population of 500. Some of the land closest to the border with Copenhagen was converted into allotments in the 1920s, at the end of World War One, Copenhagen suffered from severe housing shortage. Many of the farmers in Hvidovre saw it as an opportunity to make a profit by selling their land off in small lots.
3,226 out of the 3,899 lots that existed in Hvidovre in 1924 had been sold off since 1918. The buyers were typically workers from Copenhagen and the houses built out of Chevrolet or Ford boxes. The boxes were cheap and delivered on the site, others lived in already existing summer houses. The settlement was not legal but by 1923 accounted for 34% of the population in the municipality. In May 1945, a few days before the end of World War II, the city is well known for its football team, Hvidovre IF, where famous Danish football players such as Peter Schmeichel, Kenneth Brylle, Carsten Hallum and Michael Manniche have played. Stephan Andersen, with a past in Charlton, has played for the club and it is the birthplace of the Brøndby defender Daniel Agger and of Thomas Kahlenberg. A film-production camp Filmbyen is located in Hvidovre, which has described as a peculiar post-industrial filmmaking hub. European Film Industries, Face to Face with Hollywood
A car is a wheeled, self-powered motor vehicle used for transportation and a product of the automotive industry. The year 1886 is regarded as the year of the modern car. In that year, German inventor Karl Benz built the Benz Patent-Motorwagen, cars did not become widely available until the early 20th century. One of the first cars that was accessible to the masses was the 1908 Model T, an American car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company. Cars were rapidly adopted in the United States of America, where they replaced animal-drawn carriages and carts, cars are equipped with controls used for driving, passenger comfort and safety, and controlling a variety of lights. Over the decades, additional features and controls have been added to vehicles, examples include rear reversing cameras, air conditioning, navigation systems, and in car entertainment. Most cars in use in the 2010s are propelled by a combustion engine. Both fuels cause air pollution and are blamed for contributing to climate change.
Vehicles using alternative fuels such as ethanol flexible-fuel vehicles and natural gas vehicles are gaining popularity in some countries, electric cars, which were invented early in the history of the car, began to become commercially available in 2008. There are costs and benefits to car use, the costs of car usage include the cost of, acquiring the vehicle, interest payments and auto maintenance, depreciation, driving time, parking fees and insurance. The costs to society of car use include, maintaining roads, land use, road congestion, air pollution, public health, health care, road traffic accidents are the largest cause of injury-related deaths worldwide. The benefits may include transportation, independence. The ability for humans to move flexibly from place to place has far-reaching implications for the nature of societies and it was estimated in 2010 that the number of cars had risen to over 1 billion vehicles, up from the 500 million of 1986. The numbers are increasing rapidly, especially in China, the word car is believed to originate from the Latin word carrus or carrum, or the Middle English word carre.
In turn, these originated from the Gaulish word karros, the Gaulish language was a branch of the Brythoic language which used the word Karr, the Brythonig language evolved into Welsh where Car llusg and car rhyfel still survive. It originally referred to any wheeled vehicle, such as a cart, carriage. Motor car is attested from 1895, and is the formal name for cars in British English. Autocar is a variant that is attested from 1895
Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture. Granites can be white, pink, or gray in color. The word granite comes from the Latin granum, a grain, in reference to the structure of such a holocrystalline rock. By definition, granite is a rock with at least 20% quartz. The term granitic means granite-like and is applied to granite and a group of igneous rocks with similar textures and slight variations in composition. Occasionally some individual crystals are larger than the groundmass, in case the texture is known as porphyritic. A granitic rock with a texture is known as a granite porphyry. Granitoid is a general, descriptive field term for lighter-colored, coarse-grained igneous rocks, petrographic examination is required for identification of specific types of granitoids. The extrusive igneous rock equivalent of granite is rhyolite, Granite is nearly always massive and tough, and therefore it has gained widespread use throughout human history, and more recently as a construction stone.
The average density of granite is between 2.65 and 2.75 g/cm3, its compressive strength usually lies above 200 MPa, and its viscosity near STP is 3–6 •1019 Pa·s. The melting temperature of dry granite at ambient pressure is 1215–1260 °C, it is reduced in the presence of water. Granite has poor primary permeability, but strong secondary permeability, true granite according to modern petrologic convention contains both plagioclase and alkali feldspars. When a granitoid is devoid or nearly devoid of plagioclase, the rock is referred to as alkali feldspar granite, when a granitoid contains less than 10% orthoclase, it is called tonalite and amphibole are common in tonalite. A granite containing both muscovite and biotite micas is called a binary or two-mica granite, two-mica granites are typically high in potassium and low in plagioclase, and are usually S-type granites or A-type granites. A worldwide average of the composition of granite, by weight percent, based on 2485 analyses. Much of it was intruded during the Precambrian age, it is the most abundant basement rock that underlies the relatively thin veneer of the continents.
Outcrops of granite tend to form tors and rounded massifs, granites sometimes occur in circular depressions surrounded by a range of hills, formed by the metamorphic aureole or hornfels. Granite often occurs as small, less than 100 km² stock masses
Kongens Enghave, known as Sydhavnen, is a district in southern Copenhagen. Since the turn of the millennium, this picture is starting to change, a significant cluster of IT and telecommunications companies have emerged in the area. Kongens Enghave covers an area of 4.46 km², has a population of 15,414 and it used to be one of 15 administrative districts of Copenhagen, but since an administrative reform in 2006-08, it has been part of the official district of Vesterbro/Kongens Enghave. Kongens Enghave is bounded by the Carlsberg area to the north, Vesterbro to the north-east and Valby to the west, while Copenhagen Harbour to the east, Kongens Enghave is first mentioned in 1632. The area was used for harvesting of hay for the stables at Copenhagen Castle. In 1776, a plague hospital was built on Kalvebod Beach. The name Frederiksholm is first seen in 1667–68 when large areas on the coast were reclaimed and drained, the land was divided into 22 estates at the same event. Frederiksholm, the only of houses that still exist today, was built by king Frederick VI.
The estate covered about 50 hectares, about half of which was gardens, in 1834, it kept about 40 cows and 10 horses. From the 1870s, it served as residence for the manager of Frederiksholm Brickyard, copenhagens city walls were decommissioned in 1857, leading to new development in the area. Vestre Cemetery was established in 1870, in 1871, two brothers, Køhler, purchased the Frederiksholm estate and established a brickyard in the grounds. The storm surge in November 1872 led to widespread floodings in the area, the brick yard produced many of the bricks used in the construction of Vesterbro prior to its closure in 1918. Karens Minde, an institution, was opened by Johan Keller in 1876. In the beginning of the 20th century, Port of Copenhagen was expanded with extensive docklands with many enterprises in the area. Otto Mønsted opened a factory in 1911. It was joined by Lemvig Møller & Munch amd Sømderværftet, a subsidiary of Københavns Flydeværft & Skibsdok, burmeister & Wain established in the a foundry in the area in 1920 and took over Sønderværftet in 1926.
In 1924 Ford Motor Company moved its assembly plant from Nørrebro to the Southern Docklands, the factory was designed by Albert Kahn and opened on 15 November 1924. The Kongens Enghave district developed around the industry of the Southern Docklands
Freeport of Copenhagen
The Free Port of Copenhagen is a bonded area in the northern part of Harbour of Copenhagen, Denmark. The original grounds, now known as Søndre Frihavn, has since been released for other uses, the free port is now located in Nordhavnen and is part of Copenhagen Malmö Port. In a plan from 1862 it was decided to dig out the area to access for the largest ocean-going wessels. A suggestion to make all of Amager into a zone was abolished. Construction began in 1891, prompted by Germanys construction of the Kiel Canal that was begun in 1887, the new free port was inaugurated on 9 November 1894. A private limited company, Københavns Frihavns-Aktieselskab, was given a concession on operating the port by the Ministry of Interior Affairs. All shares in the Free Port Company was taken over by Port Authority in 1951, in 1915–15, the free port was expanded with a new basin, Jronløn Basin, located to the north. It made it blocked the access to the Kalkbrænderihavnen dock, making it necessary to dig out a new canal to it.
The next expansion of the port took place between 1919 and 1931, creating the harbour basin now known as Orient Basin. The free port left its original grounds in 1885, an architectural competition was launched for the future use of the area. Among the entries were a proposal from Jørn Utzon which included a highrise and several buildings on Langelinie Pier. The Amerika Plads area was redeveloped in the 2000s, the free port is now located in Nordhavnen and is part of Copenhagen Malmö Port. It consists of a West Quay (now America Quay, a South Quay (now India Quay, a shorter pier, extended north from South Quay, separating the harbour into an east and a west basin. Only the west side of East Pier was part of the free port, the east side of the pier was used for recreational purposes as a replacement of the promenade which had previously followed the coastline. The two sides were separated from each other by the Langelinie Promenade, a raised promenade constructed on top of a row of low warehouses.
The dock is to the north closed by the Marble Pier, in 1931, after the second expansion had been completed, the free port covered a total area of 82.5 hectares of which 49.1 hectares were land and 33.4 hectares were water. The total length of the quays was approximately 4,770 metre with water depth between 7.5 m to 9.5 m, the Custom Guard Building was built in 1894 to designs by Erik Schiødt. It was expanded in 1918 by J. C. M, agerskov and again in 1932 with a three storey extension designed by John Dich
Gravel /ˈɡrævəl/ is composed of unconsolidated rock fragments that have a general particle size range and include size classes from granule- to boulder-sized fragments. Gravel is categorized by the Udden-Wentworth scale into granular gravel and pebble gravel, one cubic metre of gravel typically weighs about 1,800 kg. Gravel is an important commercial product, with a number of applications, many roadways are surfaced with gravel, especially in rural areas where there is little traffic. Globally, far more roads are surfaced with gravel than with concrete or tarmac, both sand and small gravel are important for the manufacture of concrete. Large gravel deposits are a geological feature, being formed as a result of the weathering. The action of rivers and waves tends to pile up gravel in large accumulations and this can sometimes result in gravel becoming compacted and concreted into the sedimentary rock called conglomerate. Where natural gravel deposits are insufficient for human purposes, gravel is often produced by quarrying and crushing hard-wearing rocks, such as sandstone, quarries where gravel is extracted are known as gravel pits.
Southern England possesses particularly large concentrations of them due to the deposition of gravel in the region during the Ice Ages. As of 2006, the United States is the leading producer and consumer of gravel. The word gravel comes from the Breton language, adding the -el suffix in Breton denotes the component parts of something larger. Thus gravel means the stones which make up such a beach on the coast. Many dictionaries ignore the Breton language, citing Old French gravele or gravelle, Gravel often has the meaning a mixture of different size pieces of stone mixed with sand and possibly some clay. American English allows small stones without sand mixed in known as crushed stone, types of gravel include, Bank gravel, naturally deposited gravel intermixed with sand or clay found in and next to rivers and streams. Also known as Bank run or River run, bench gravel, a bed of gravel located on the side of a valley above the present stream bottom, indicating the former location of the stream bed when it was at a higher level.
Creek rock, this is rounded, semi-polished stones, potentially of a wide range of types. It is used as concrete aggregate and less often as a paving surface. Crushed stone, rock crushed and graded by screens and mixed to a blend of stones and fines and it is widely used as a surfacing for roads and driveways, sometimes with tar applied over it. Crushed stone may be made from granite, dolomite, known as crusher run, DGA QP, and shoulder stone
Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids. For example, granite, a rock, is a combination of the minerals quartz, feldspar. The Earths outer solid layer, the lithosphere, is made of rock, rock has been used by mankind throughout history. The minerals and metals found in rocks have been essential to human civilization, three major groups of rocks are defined, igneous and metamorphic. The scientific study of rocks is called petrology, which is a component of geology. At a granular level, rocks are composed of grains of minerals, the aggregate minerals forming the rock are held together by chemical bonds. The types and abundance of minerals in a rock are determined by the manner in which the rock was formed, many rocks contain silica, a compound of silicon and oxygen that forms 74. 3% of the Earths crust. This material forms crystals with other compounds in the rock, the proportion of silica in rocks and minerals is a major factor in determining their name and properties.
Rocks are geologically classified according to such as mineral and chemical composition, the texture of the constituent particles. These physical properties are the end result of the processes that formed the rocks, over the course of time, rocks can transform from one type into another, as described by the geological model called the rock cycle. These events produce three general classes of rock, igneous and metamorphic, the three classes of rocks are subdivided into many groups. However, there are no hard and fast boundaries between allied rocks, hence the definitions adopted in establishing rock nomenclature merely correspond to more or less arbitrary selected points in a continuously graduated series. Igneous rock forms through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava and this magma can be derived from partial melts of pre-existing rocks in either a planets mantle or crust. Typically, the melting of rocks is caused by one or more of three processes, an increase in temperature, a decrease in pressure, or a change in composition, igneous rocks are divided into two main categories, plutonic rock and volcanic.
Plutonic or intrusive rocks result when magma cools and crystallizes slowly within the Earths crust, a common example of this type is granite. Volcanic or extrusive rocks result from magma reaching the surface either as lava or fragmental ejecta, the chemical abundance and the rate of cooling of magma typically forms a sequence known as Bowens reaction series. Most major igneous rocks are found along this scale, about 64. 7% of the Earths crust by volume consists of igneous rocks, making it the most plentiful category. Of these, 66% are basalts and gabbros, 16% are granite, only 0. 6% are syenites and 0. 3% peridotites and dunites
Gammelholm is a predominantly residential neighbourhood in the city centre of Copenhagen, Denmark. It is bounded by the Nyhavn canal, Kongens Nytorv, Holmens Kanal, Niels Juels Gade, the new neighbourhood was planned by Ferdinand Meldahl and has been referred to as Meldahls Nine Streets. In the beginning of the 16th century land reclamations annexed the island to Zealand and in 1510, under the reign of Hans of Denmark, a ropewalk at the site is first mentioned in 1555 and an anchor forge was built in 1563. When King Christian IV commenced his modernization of the fortifications of Copenhagen, he extended the citys East Rampart, taking it straight through Bremerholm to the beach. The moat in front of the rampart was expanded to form the Holmen Canal, in the first decades of the 17th century, Christian IV built a considerable amount of housing for higher-ranked naval personnel at Bremerholm. This prompted a demand for a church, leading to the conversion of the anchor forge, now located on the far side of the Holmen Canal.
In 1631 the barracks at Bremerholm were supplemented by Nyboder in the far north of Copenhagen which was built to satisfy the demand for housing for lower-ranked crew members of the nacys vessels, around the same time, a large prison was inaugurated at Bremerholm. Much of the work in the shipyards was based on forced labour carried out by convicts from the facility. The rope walk came to mark the boundary between the square and rest of Bremerholm, together and Nyholm remained for a long time the largest employer in Denmark. In 1778 the University of Copenhagen Botanical Garden relocated from Amaliegade to the garden behind Charlottenborg Palace and it was at Gammelholm that the Copenhagen Fire of 1795 broke out. In 1859 the Navy decommissioned their last operations at Gammelholm, at the same time the Canal of Holmen was filled and converted into a prominent new street. Construction in the began in 1861 and was completed in 1876. Apart from the buildings, a number of new institutions. A new building for the Royal Danish Theatre, which had been located nearby since 1754, was built on the corner of Kongens Nytorv and the filled Holmens Kanal.
A new building designed by Meldahl and Ludvig Fenger for the Royal Mint was completed in 1873 on land which was previously part Botanical Garden which had left the area in 1879. Gammelholm was planned with broad streets inspired by Paris, an inspiration Meldahl relied on elsewhere, typically of the time, the residential buildings were not designed by architects but the master builders who constructed them. The area was built up with blocks with elegant, richly decorated Historicist fronts facing the street but drab. Lots were sold at high prices and developers therefore utilized space to the utmost
Holmen is a water-bound neighbourhood in Copenhagen, occupying the former grounds of the Royal Naval Base and Dockyards. In spite of its name, deceptively in singular, Holmen is a congregation of small islands, forming a north-eastern extension of Christianshavn between Zealand and the northern tip of Amager. Since the early 1990s, the area has instead been redeveloped for use as a new district of the city. The area is characterized by a mixture of residential developments, creative businesses and educational institutions. Holmen is home to the Copenhagen Opera House which was completed in 2005, though technically a part of the central Indre By district of Copenhagen, being a cul-de-sac as districts go, the area has a somewhat quiet and remote reputation and feel to it. Frederiksholm is the area which has seen most new construction since Holmen naval base was closed, many new buildings have been built while old buildings from the areas naval past have been converted for new uses. The existence of Holmen originates in a wish to relocate the Danish Fleet from its home at Bremerholm.
Since the city was growing rapidly, it was no longer practical to have the fleet stationed in the center of the city, being built out of timber, the vessels constituted a major hazard. Furthermore, the sailors disposed of their garbage by throwing it directly into the harbor, in 1680, a plan was conceived to move the fleet out of the city. Responsibility for the plan was given to Admiral Niels Juel, from 1682-92 Christianshavns Vold was extended northwards to protect the area which had been chosen for the fleet. The extension had seven bastions, named for members of the Royal Family, in Carls and Wilhems Bastion, black powder depots were constructed. Built in 1688 and 1690, they are the oldest structures at Holmen, the northernmost bastion was Charlotte Amalies Bastion, and north of this two cannon batteries were established, Batteriet Quintus and Batteriet Neptunus. The latters name came from the ship which was the foundation for the battery. This battery was renamed to Christiani Sixti Batteri, or Christian VIs Battery.
Today it is known as Batteriet Sixtus or just Sixtus, the sinking of ships continued, loaded with mud from the harbor and trash from Copenhagens streets. In certain streets, there could be more than one metre of trash and this efforts gradually formed an island, which was given the name Nyholm. It was to this island that the shipyard was relocated. The first ship which was set to sea from this shipyard was the first Dannebrog in 1692, the construction of all large ships were moved to Nyholm, and at Bremerholm, now called Gammelholm, only smaller vessels were built