The Port of Haifa is the largest of Israel's three major international seaports, which include the Port of Ashdod, the Port of Eilat. It has a natural deep water harbor which operates all year long, serves both passenger and merchant ships, it is one of the largest ports in the eastern Mediterranean in terms of freight volume and handles over 29 million tons of cargo per year. The port employs with the number rising to 5,000 when cruise ships dock in Haifa; the Port of Haifa lies to the north of Haifa's downtown quarter on the Mediterranean, stretches to some 3 kilometers along the city's central shore with activities ranging from military and commercial next to a nowadays-smaller passenger cruising facility. Haifa Bay has been a refuge for mariners since prehistoric times; when the Crusaders conquered Haifa in the year 1100, it became an important town and the main port for Tiberias, the capital of the Galilee. The port fell into disrepair during the Mamluk reign, acquired the reputation of a pirate lair in the 18th century.
Until the beginning of the 20th century, Acre served as the main port for the region. However, the port became clogged with silt, was unable to accommodate large ships; the first person to comprehend the tremendous possibilities of a port in Haifa was Theodor Herzl, the father of Political Zionism, who in 1902 wrote a prophetic description of the town in his book AltNeuland. Construction of the port began in 1922, it was opened on October 31, 1933 by Lieut. Gen. Sir Arthur Wauchope, the British High Commissioner for Palestine; the port allowed Haifa to blossom, in 1936, the city had over 100,000 inhabitants. The port was a gateway for thousands of immigrants to Israel after the Second World War. With Israel’s western borders the Mediterranean and the eastern borders sealed by its Arab neighbors, Haifa served as a crucial gateway to the rest of the world, helped Israel develop into an economic power. Today the port brings both passenger and cargo traffic to a bustling metropolis, much as Theodor Herzl predicted over a century ago.
The port has been the scene of two fatal sinkings. The Patria disaster in 1940 killed 267 people; the Port of Haifa contains many cargo terminals, is capable of servicing many ships at once. A railroad freight terminal is inside the port and is used for transporting goods across the country; the port features a passenger terminal, fishing wharf, yacht club, sports marina, chemical terminal. In 2017, the port processed about 29 million tons of cargo including 1.34 million TEUs, as well as 140,054 passengers. The port opened the first phase in the "Carmel Port" expansion program in 2010 that involved the construction of a new cargo terminal which includes a 700m long wharf capable of handling 14,000 TEU container ships, as well as the opening of a secondary 250 metres wharf plus adjacent support and storage areas; the new facilities will expand the port's annual container handling capacity by 500,000 TEU. Construction of this new terminal took five years to complete; the Port maintains facilities for the United States Sixth Fleet.
Israel Shipyards provides heavy ship repair facilities. The company operates a private port on its premises which in 2017 handled 3 million tons of cargo; the port contains a modern passenger terminal serving ferry passengers. The terminal offers a waiting area, duty-free shop, souvenir shop, cafeteria, VAT reimbursement counter, currency exchange, free wireless internet, parking, as well as other services to travelers; the area near the terminal offers excellent public transit connections for passengers. The Haifa Center Railway Station is adjacent to the terminal and is served by nearly 200 passenger trains 24 hours a day on weekdays to the Haifa region and beyond. Additional public transit connections are available by bus or taxi at the railway station or on Ha'Azmaut Road, the main thoroughfare in downtown Haifa, located in front of the station; the Carmelit's Kikar Paris subway station is within walking distance and allows convenient access to the top of Mount Carmel. As of 2018, the Israel Port Authority is managing the construction of the first phase of a major expansion of the port at a cost of NIS 4 billion.
The plan involves the following: Extensive reclamation of an area northeast of the mouth of Kishon River which will enable the construction of a large new terminal to be named the "Bay Terminal" that will be capable of handling giant container ships carrying more than 15,000 TEUs each. Extension of the main breakwater by 880m and construction of a new secondary breakwater. A new fuels terminal. Expansion of the existing chemicals terminal. A dedicated freight railway terminal on the grounds of the Bay Terminal; the new container terminal is being built by the Israeli construction firms Ashtrom and Shapir Marine & Civil Engineering and is expected to open in 2021. Shanghai International Port Group won an international tender to operate the new terminal for a period of 25 years once it is completed. In its initial phase the Bay Terminal will be capable of handling 800,000 TEU container movements annually and planned future expansions to the terminal could handle up to an additional 700,000 TEU.
Sir David Milne, GCB was a Scottish civil servant, who served as Permanent Under-Secretary of State for Scotland from 1946 to 1959. David Milne was born in Edinburgh on 11 March 1896 to the Rev. David Munro Milne, an Aberdeen-educated minister and the incumbent at St Luke's, Edinburgh from 1896 to 1927, his wife Jane, daughter of James Mackay, of Banffshire, he had Mary Catherine and Agnes Jane. Milne was educated at Daniel Stewart's College and the University of Edinburgh, although his studies at the latter were interrupted by the First World War. After the war, he won several scholarships. Milne joined the Scottish Office as an Assistant Principal in 1921. After seven years he was promoted to be Private Secretary to the Permanent Under-Secretary of State at the Scottish Office. Two years he became Private Secretary to the Secretary of State and in 1935 he was promoted to Assistant Secretary to head up the Scottish Office's new Local Government Branch in Edinburgh, meant to enable Scottish people and institutions to meet with government officials without having to travel to the Scottish Office in London.
Four years Milne was promoted to Deputy Secretary at the new Scottish Home Department, he was promoted to become its Secretary in 1942. Milne's final promotion in the civil service was to be Permanent Under-Secretary to the Scottish Office, in which office he served from 1946 until his retirement in 1959. Milne wrote The Scottish Office in a guide to its organisation and operation. In retirement, he was a Governor of the BBC in Scotland and Chairman of the Scottish National Orchestra Society, he had been appointed Companion of the Order of the Bath in 1942, was promoted to Knight Commander five years followed by Knight Grand Cross in 1958. He died on 4 February 1972. Milne had what Ian Levitt called in the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography a "brand of comfortable unionism... his administrative style and ability to select deputies of similar mind did much to ensure that Scottish opinion felt able to work and prosper with the United Kingdom government." His obituary in The Times remarked that "Only those who were at Dover House in those days can appreciate how much his sympathy, his tact, his capacity for getting into the mind of Ministers and acting as an interpreter between them and their civil servants contributed to the smooth running of the administration".
While Milne was its Permanent Under-Secretary, the Scottish Office grew and came to argue for the peculiarity of Scotland and the need for its consideration during policy-making. This, Levitt argues, reflected Milne's desire to stem the growth of Scottish nationalism. Sir David Milne, by Elliott & Fry. National Portrait Gallery, London
Pork and beans is a culinary dish that uses beans and pork as its main ingredients. Numerous variations exist with a more specific name, such as Fabada Asturiana, Olla podrida, or American canned pork and beans. Although the time and place of the first appearance of American canned pork and beans is unclear, the dish was well established in the American diet by the mid-19th century; the 1832 cookbook The American Frugal Housewife lists only three ingredients for pork and beans: a quart of beans, a pound of salt pork, pepper. Commercially canned pork and beans were introduced in the United States sometime around 1880. According to the 1975 Better Homes and Garden Heritage Cookbook, canned pork and beans was the first convenience food. Today, the dish is "an American canned classic, is recognized by American consumers as an article of commerce that contains little pork."The recipe for American commercially canned pork and beans varies from company to company, but consists of rehydrated navy beans packed in tomato sauce, with small chunks of Salt pork or rendered pork fat.
The ingredients are cooked, packed into hermetically sealed containers, processed by heat to assure preservation