A wetland is a land area that is saturated with water, either permanently or seasonally, such that it takes on the characteristics of a distinct ecosystem. The primary factor that distinguishes wetlands from other forms or water bodies is the characteristic vegetation of aquatic plants. Wetlands play a number of roles in the environment, principally water purification, flood control, carbon sink, Wetlands are considered the most biologically diverse of all ecosystems, serving as home to a wide range of plant and animal life. Wetlands occur naturally on every continent except Antarctica, the largest including the Amazon River basin, the West Siberian Plain, the water found in wetlands can be freshwater, brackish, or saltwater. The main wetland types include swamps, marshes and fens, and sub-types include mangrove, pocosin, the UN Millennium Ecosystem Assessment determined that environmental degradation is more prominent within wetland systems than any other ecosystem on Earth. International conservation efforts are being used in conjunction with the development of rapid assessment tools to people about wetland issues.
Constructed wetlands can be used to treat municipal and industrial wastewater as well as stormwater runoff and they may play a role in water-sensitive urban design. A patch of land that develops pools of water after a storm would not be considered a wetland. Wetlands have unique characteristics, they are distinguished from other water bodies or landforms based on their water level. Specifically, wetlands are characterized as having a table that stands at or near the land surface for a long enough period each year to support aquatic plants. A more concise definition is a community composed of hydric soil, Wetlands have been described as ecotones, providing a transition between dry land and water bodies. In environmental decision-making, there are subsets of definitions that are agreed upon to make regulatory and policy decisions. A wetland is an ecosystem that arises when inundation by water produces soils dominated by anaerobic processes, There are four main kinds of wetlands – marsh, swamp and fen.
Some experts recognize wet meadows and aquatic ecosystems as additional wetland types, the largest wetlands in the world include the swamp forests of the Amazon and the peatlands of Siberia. Under the Ramsar international wetland conservation treaty, wetlands are defined as follows, Article 2.1, may incorporate riparian and coastal zones adjacent to the wetlands, and islands or bodies of marine water deeper than six metres at low tide lying within the wetlands. Although the general definition given above applies around the world, each county, Wetlands generally include swamps, marshes and similar areas. This definition has been used in the enforcement of the Clean Water Act, some US states, such as Massachusetts and New York, have separate definitions that may differ from the federal governments. It is not uncommon for a wetland to be dry for long portions of the growing season, the most important factor producing wetlands is flooding
A truck is a motor vehicle designed to transport cargo. Trucks vary greatly in size and configuration, smaller varieties may be similar to some automobiles. Commercial trucks can be large and powerful, and may be configured to mount specialized equipment, such as in the case of fire trucks and concrete mixers. Modern trucks are powered by diesel engines, although small to medium size trucks with gasoline engines exist in the US. In the European Union, vehicles with a gross mass of up to 3.5 t are known as light commercial vehicles. Trucks and cars have an ancestor, the steam-powered fardier Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot built in 1769. However, steam wagons were not common until the mid-1800s, the roads of the time, built for horse and carriages, limited these vehicles to very short hauls, usually from a factory to the nearest railway station. The first semi-trailer appeared in 1881, towed by a tractor manufactured by De Dion-Bouton. In 1895 Karl Benz designed and built the first truck in history using the internal combustion engine, that year some of Benzs trucks were modified to become the first bus by the Netphener, the first motorbus company in history.
A year later, in 1896, another internal combustion engine truck was built by Gottlieb Daimler, other companies, such as Peugeot, Renault and Büssing, built their own versions. The first truck in the United States was built by Autocar in 1899 and was available with optional 5 or 8 horsepower motors, trucks of the era mostly used two-cylinder engines and had a carrying capacity of 3,300 to 4,400 lb. In 1904,700 heavy trucks were built in the United States,1000 in 1907,6000 in 1910, after World War I, several advances were made, pneumatic tires replaced the previously common full rubber versions. Electric starters, power brakes,4,6, and 8 cylinder engines, closed cabs, the first modern semi-trailer trucks appeared. Touring car builders such as Ford and Renault entered the heavy truck market, although it had been invented in 1890, the diesel engine was not common in trucks in Europe until the 1930s. In the United States, it took longer for diesel engines to be accepted. The word truck might come from a back-formation of truckle, meaning small wheel or pulley, from Middle English trokell, another possible source is the Latin trochus, meaning iron hoop.
In turn, both sources emanate from the Greek trokhos, meaning wheel, from trekhein, the first known usage of truck was in 1611, when it referred to the small strong wheels on ships cannon carriages. In its extended usage it came to refer to carts for carrying heavy loads and its expanded application to motor-powered load carrier has been in usage since 1930, shortened from motor truck, which dates back to 1901
Western Pacific Railroad
The Western Pacific Railroad was a Class I railroad in the United States. It was formed in 1903 as an attempt to break the near-monopoly the Southern Pacific Railroad had on rail service into northern California. WPs Feather River Route directly competed with SPs portion of the Overland Route for rail traffic between Salt Lake City/Ogden and Oakland, California for nearly 80 years, in 1983 the Western Pacific was acquired by the Union Pacific Railroad. The Western Pacific was one of the operators of the California Zephyr. The original Western Pacific Railroad was established in 1865 to build the westernmost portion of the Transcontinental Railroad between San Jose and Sacramento, California and this company was absorbed into the Central Pacific Railroad in 1870. The second company to use the name Western Pacific Railroad was founded in 1903, under the direction of George Jay Gould I, the Western Pacific was founded to provide a standard gauge track connection to the Pacific Coast for his aspiring Gould transcontinental system.
The Western Pacific Railroad acquired the Alameda and San Joaquin Railroad, in 1909 it became the last major railroad completed into California. In 1931 Western Pacific opened a line north from the Feather River Canyon to the Great Northern Railway in northern California. This route, the Highline, joined the Oakland – Salt Lake City main line at the Keddie Wye, in 1935, the railroad went bankrupt because of decreased freight and passenger traffic caused by the Depression and had to be reorganized. WP attracted rail enthusiasts from around the world and it operated the California Zephyr passenger train with the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad and the Chicago and Quincy Railroad. The WP handled the Silver Lady from Oakland, California, to Salt Lake City, the Western Pacific owned several connecting short-line railroads. The largest was the Sacramento Northern Railway, which reached from San Francisco to Chico. Others included the Tidewater Southern Railway, the Central California Traction, the Indian Valley Railroad, at the end of 1970 WP operated 1,187 miles of road and 1,980 miles of track, not including its Sacramento Northern and Tidewater Southern subsidiaries.
The Western Pacific was acquired in 1983 by Union Pacific Corporation, which in 1996 would purchase its long-time rival, in July 2005 Union Pacific unveiled a brand new EMD SD70ACe locomotive, Union Pacific 1983, painted as an homage to the Western Pacific. There were twelve presidents of this railroad, Walter J. Bartnett Edward T. Jeffery Benjamin F. Bush Charles M. Levey Harry M. Adams Charles Elsey Harry A. Mitchell Frederic B. Whitman Myron M. Christy Alfred E. Perlman Robert G. Mike Flannery Robert C
Port of Seattle
The Port of Seattle is a port district that runs Seattles seaport and airport. Its creation was approved by the voters of King County, Washington, on September 5,1911 and it is run by an elected five-member commission. The commissioners terms run four years, in 2015, Sea-Tac Airport handled a record 42.3 million passengers and the seaport division handled over 3.5 million containers, making them combined the 3rd largest container gateway in North America. In 2015, over 898,000 cruise passengers passed through the ports facilities, the Port of Seattle employs just under 1,800 employees. The port has three operating divisions, as well as development and corporate divisions. The Port of Seattle controls recreational and commercial moorage facilities, the Port of Seattle celebrated its centennial in 2011. To mark the anniversary, the created a historical filled with photos and information about the ports. The work of the commission for the first six months was confined almost entirely to the preparation of projects which were approved by the people at a special election held on March 5,1912.
A Porsche 959 was stored for 13 years by the Customs Service at the Port of Seattle and Allen both helped pass the Show and Display law. In 1949 the U. S. Department of Commerce designated a zone in the port. Recent years have brought significant changes to the Port of Seattle, in 2007, Tay Yoshitani joined the organization as CEO. Just after his tenure began, two significant scandals occurred, the port police department uncovered a significant problem with racist and pornographic emails. The organization refused to pay and the claim was dropped, though the situation led to a recall of one commissioner. Finally, in December of that year, the State Auditors Office issued a report on the ports contracting practices. The audit report sparked an investigation by the Department of Justice, Yoshitani brought a heightened commitment to environmental practices. The port has many programs, including shore power for cruise ships. But increased container and cruise traffic have increased community concerns, just as the new runway did, in 2012, port commissioners began outreach on the Century Agenda, a strategic plan for the ports next 25 years.
In 2012, the Port became one of the most vocal opponents of the proposal to build a new arena in the Stadium District, in 2015, an agreement to berth Royal Dutch Shell semi-submersible offshore drilling rigs at the Ports Terminal 5 led to protests against Arctic drilling
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
The armed forces of a country are its government-sponsored defense, fighting forces, and organizations. They exist to further the foreign and domestic policies of their body and to defend that body. Armed force is the use of armed forces to achieve political objectives, the study of the use of armed forces is called military science. Broadly speaking, this involves considering offense and defense at three levels, operational art, and tactics, all three levels study the application of the use of force in order to achieve a desired objective. In most countries the basis of the forces is the military. However, armed forces can include other paramilitary structures, the obvious benefit to a country in maintaining armed forces is in providing protection from foreign threats and from internal conflict. In recent decades armed forces personnel have used as emergency civil support roles in post-disaster situations. On the other hand, they may harm a society by engaging in counter-productive warfare. Expenditure on science and technology to develop weapons and systems sometimes produces side benefits, although some claim that greater benefits could come from targeting the money directly
Middle Harbor Shoreline Park
Middle Harbor Shoreline Park is located on San Francisco Bay and the Port of Oakland entrance channel, west of downtown Oakland, California It is operated by the East Bay Regional Parks District. The park is primarily on land that was the site of the Oakland Naval Supply Depot. The Naval Supply Depot closed in 1998 and the property was transferred to the Port of Oakland, the interlocking tower from the railroads pier has been moved and partially restored as a small commemorative museum. The land was redeveloped for the park from 2002 to 2004, redevelopment of the land included restoration of beaches and creation of a lagoon. The mast of the USS Oakland is displayed at the entrance of the park, East Bay Regional Parks District, official Middle Harbor Shoreline Park website Map, 37°48′21″N 122°19′27″W
A wharf, staith or staithe is a structure on the shore of a harbor or on the bank of a river or canal where ships may dock to load and unload cargo or passengers. Such a structure includes one or more berths, and may include piers, warehouses, a wharf commonly comprises a fixed platform, often on pilings. Commercial ports may have warehouses that serve as storage areas. A pier, raised over the rather than within it, is commonly used for cases where the weight or volume of cargos will be low. Smaller and more modern wharves are sometimes built on devices to keep them at the same level as the ship. In some contexts wharf and quay may be used to mean pier, berth, in old ports such as London many old wharves have been converted to residential or office use. Certain early railways in England referred to goods loading points as wharves, the term was carried over from marine usage. The person who was resident in charge of the wharf was referred to as a wharfinger. The word wharf comes from the Old English hwearf, meaning bank or shore, wharfage refers to a fee charged by ports for the cargo handled there.
Originally, werf or werva in Old Dutch simply referred to inhabited ground that was not yet built on and this could explain the name Ministry Wharf located at Saunderton, just outside High Wycombe, which is nowhere near any body of water. In support of this explanation is the fact that places in England with wharf in their names are in areas with a high Dutch influence. In the northeast and east of England the term staith or staithe is used, both originally referred to staithes in the sense of jetties or wharves. However, the term staith may be used to only to loading chutes or ramps used for bulk commodities like coal in loading ships. Quay, on the hand, has its origin in the Proto-Celtic language. Before it changed to its current form under influence of the modern French quai, its Middle English spelling was key and this in turn came from the Old North French cai, both roughly meaning sand bank. The Old French term came from Gaulish caium, ultimately tracing back to the Proto-Celtic *kagio- to encompass, modern cognates include Welsh cae fence and Cornish ke hedge.
Canal basin Dock Port Safeguarded wharf The dictionary definition of wharf at Wiktionary The dictionary definition of quay at Wiktionary
An ocean is a body of saline water that composes much of a planets hydrosphere. On Earth, an ocean is one of the major divisions of the World Ocean. These are, in descending order by area, the Pacific, Indian, the word sea is often used interchangeably with ocean in American English but, strictly speaking, a sea is a body of saline water partly or fully enclosed by land. The ocean contains 97% of Earths water, and oceanographers have stated that less than 5% of the World Ocean has been explored, the total volume is approximately 1.35 billion cubic kilometers with an average depth of nearly 3,700 meters. As the world ocean is the component of Earths hydrosphere, it is integral to all known life, forms part of the carbon cycle. The world ocean is the habitat of 230,000 known species, but because much of it is unexplored, the origin of Earths oceans remains unknown, oceans are thought to have formed in the Hadean period and may have been the impetus for the emergence of life. Extraterrestrial oceans may be composed of water or other elements and compounds, the only confirmed large stable bodies of extraterrestrial surface liquids are the lakes of Titan, although there is evidence for the existence of oceans elsewhere in the Solar System.
Early in their histories and Venus are theorized to have had large water oceans. The Mars ocean hypothesis suggests that nearly a third of the surface of Mars was once covered by water, compounds such as salts and ammonia dissolved in water lower its freezing point so that water might exist in large quantities in extraterrestrial environments as brine or convecting ice. Unconfirmed oceans are speculated beneath the surface of many planets and natural satellites, notably. The Solar Systems giant planets are thought to have liquid atmospheric layers of yet to be confirmed compositions. Oceans may exist on exoplanets and exomoons, including surface oceans of water within a circumstellar habitable zone. Ocean planets are a type of planet with a surface completely covered with liquid. The concept of Ōkeanós has an Indo-European connection, Greek Ōkeanós has been compared to the Vedic epithet ā-śáyāna-, predicated of the dragon Vṛtra-, who captured the cows/rivers. Related to this notion, the Okeanos is represented with a dragon-tail on some early Greek vases, though generally described as several separate oceans, these waters comprise one global, interconnected body of salt water sometimes referred to as the World Ocean or global ocean.
This concept of a body of water with relatively free interchange among its parts is of fundamental importance to oceanography. The major oceanic divisions – listed below in descending order of area and volume – are defined in part by the continents, various archipelagos, Oceans are fringed by smaller, adjoining bodies of water such as seas, bays and straits. The Mid-Oceanic Ridge of the World are connected and form the Ocean Ridge, the continuous mountain range is 65,000 km long, and the total length of the oceanic ridge system is 80,000 km long
Panamax and New Panamax are terms for the size limits for ships travelling through the Panama Canal. Formally, these limits and requirements are published by the Panama Canal Authority and these requirements describe topics like exceptional dry seasonal limits, propulsion and detailed ship design. These dimensions give clear parameters for ships destined to traverse the Panama Canal and have influenced the design of ships, naval vessels. Panamax specifications have been in effect since the opening of the canal in 1914, in 2009 the ACP published the New Panamax specification which came into effect when the canals third set of locks, larger than the original two, opened on 26 June 2016. Ships that do not fall within the Panamax-sizes are called post-Panamax, because the largest ships traveling in opposite directions cannot pass safely within the Culebra Cut, the canal effectively operates an alternating one-way system for these ships. Panamax is determined principally by the dimensions of the original lock chambers, each of which is 110 ft wide,1,050 ft long.
The usable length of each chamber is 1,000 ft. The available water depth in the lock chambers varies, but the shallowest depth is at the sill of the Pedro Miguel Locks and is 41.2 ft at a Miraflores Lake level of 54 ft 6 in. The clearance under the Bridge of the Americas at Balboa is the factor on a vessels overall height for both Panamax and Neopanamax ships, the exact figure depends on the water level. New Panamax increases allowable width to 49 m.39.5 ft in Tropical Fresh Water, the name and definition of TFW is created by ACP using the freshwater Lake Gatún as a reference, since this is the determination of the maximum draft. The salinity and temperature of water affect its density, and hence how deep a ship will float in the water, Tropical Fresh Water is fresh water of Lake Gatún, with density 0.9954 g/cm3, at 29.1 °C. The physical limit is set by the entrance of the Pedro Miguel locks. When the water level in Lake Gatún is low during a dry season the maximum permitted draft may be reduced.
Such a restriction is published three weeks in advance, so ship loading plans can take appropriate measures, New Panamax increases allowable draft to 15. 190 ft measured from the waterline to the vessels highest point, limit pertains to New Panamax, exception,205 ft when passage at low water at Balboa is possible. All exceptions are allowed only after specific request and an investigation. A Panamax cargo ship would typically have a DWT of 65, 000–80,000 tonnes, New Panamax ships can carry 120,000 DWT. Panamax container ships can carry 5,000 twenty-foot equivalent units, the longest ship ever to transit the original locks was San Juan Prospector, now Marcona Prospector, an ore-bulk-oil carrier that is 973 ft long, with a beam of 106 ft
Shanghai is the most populous city proper in the world, with a population of more than 24 million as of 2014. As one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of the Peoples Republic of China, it is a financial centre and transport hub. Located in the Yangtze River Delta in East China, Shanghai sits on the edge of the mouth of the Yangtze in the middle portion of the eastern Chinese coast. The municipality borders the provinces of Jiangsu and Zhejiang to the north and west, as a major administrative and trading city, Shanghai grew in importance in the 19th century due to trade and recognition of its favourable port location and economic potential. The city was one of five treaty ports forced open to foreign trade following the British victory over China in the First Opium War, the subsequent 1842 Treaty of Nanking and 1844 Treaty of Whampoa allowed the establishment of the Shanghai International Settlement and the French Concession. The city flourished as a center of commerce between China and other parts of the world, and became the financial hub of the Asia-Pacific region in the 1930s.
However, with the Communist Party takeover of the mainland in 1949, trade was limited to other socialist countries, and the citys global influence declined. In the 1990s, the reforms introduced by Deng Xiaoping resulted in an intense re-development of the city, aiding the return of finance. The two Chinese characters in the name are 上 and 海, together meaning Upon-the-Sea. The earliest occurrence of this dates from the 11th-century Song Dynasty, at which time there was already a river confluence. There are disputes as to exactly how the name should be understood, Shanghai is officially abbreviated 沪 in Chinese, a contraction of 沪渎, a 4th- or 5th-century Jin name for the mouth of Suzhou Creek when it was the main conduit into the ocean. This character appears on all motor vehicle license plates issued in the municipality today, another alternative name for Shanghai is Shēn or Shēnchéng, from Lord Chunshen, a third-century BC nobleman and prime minister of the state of Chu, whose fief included modern Shanghai.
Sports teams and newspapers in Shanghai often use Shen in their names, such as Shanghai Shenhua F. C. Huating was another early name for Shanghai. In AD751, during the dynasty, Huating County was established at modern-day Songjiang. Today, Huating appears as the name of a hotel in the city. The city has various nicknames in English, including Pearl of the Orient, during the Spring and Autumn period, the Shanghai area belonged to the Kingdom of Wu, which was conquered by the Kingdom of Yue, which in turn was conquered by the Kingdom of Chu. During the Warring States period, Shanghai was part of the fief of Lord Chunshen of Chu and he ordered the excavation of the Huangpu River. Its former or poetic name, the Chunshen River, gave Shanghai its nickname of Shen, two important events helped promote Shanghais development in the Ming dynasty
A crane is a type of machine, generally equipped with a hoist rope, wire ropes or chains, and sheaves, that can be used both to lift and lower materials and to move them horizontally. It is mainly used for lifting heavy things and transporting them to other places, the device uses one or more simple machines to create mechanical advantage and thus move loads beyond the normal capability of a human. The first known construction cranes were invented by the Ancient Greeks and were powered by men or beasts of burden and these cranes were used for the construction of tall buildings. Larger cranes were developed, employing the use of human treadwheels, in the High Middle Ages, harbour cranes were introduced to load and unload ships and assist with their construction – some were built into stone towers for extra strength and stability. The earliest cranes were constructed from wood, but cast iron, for many centuries, power was supplied by the physical exertion of men or animals, although hoists in watermills and windmills could be driven by the harnessed natural power.
The first mechanical power was provided by steam engines, the earliest steam crane being introduced in the 18th or 19th century, Cranes exist in an enormous variety of forms – each tailored to a specific use. Sizes range from the smallest jib cranes, used inside workshops, to the tallest tower cranes, mini-cranes are used for constructing high buildings, in order to facilitate constructions by reaching tight spaces. Finally, we can find larger floating cranes, generally used to oil rigs. Some lifting machines do not strictly fit the definition of a crane. The crane for lifting heavy loads was invented by the Ancient Greeks in the late 6th century BC, the archaeological record shows that no than c.515 BC distinctive cuttings for both lifting tongs and lewis irons begin to appear on stone blocks of Greek temples. The introduction of the winch and pulley hoist soon lead to a replacement of ramps as the main means of vertical motion. Also, the practice of erecting large monolithic columns was abandoned in favour of using several column drums.
The first unequivocal evidence for the existence of the compound pulley system appears in the Mechanical Problems attributed to Aristotle. The heyday of the crane in ancient times came during the Roman Empire, the Romans adopted the Greek crane and developed it further. We are relatively well informed about their techniques, thanks to rather lengthy accounts by the engineers Vitruvius. There are two surviving reliefs of Roman treadwheel cranes, with the Haterii tombstone from the late first century AD being particularly detailed, the simplest Roman crane, the trispastos, consisted of a single-beam jib, a winch, a rope, and a block containing three pulleys. Heavier crane types featured five pulleys or, in case of the largest one, the polyspastos, when worked by four men at both sides of the winch, could readily lift 3,000 kg. At the temple of Jupiter at Baalbek, for instance, the blocks weigh up to 60 tons each