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Port of Spain

Port of Spain the City of Port of Spain, is the capital city of Trinidad and Tobago and the country's second-largest city after San Fernando and the third largest municipality after Chaguanas and San Fernando. The city has a municipal population of 37,074, an urban population of 81,142 and a transient daily population of 250,000, it is located on the Gulf of Paria, on the northwest coast of the island of Trinidad and is part of a larger conurbation stretching from Chaguaramas in the west to Arima in the east with an estimated population of 600,000. The city serves as a retail and administrative centre and it has been the capital of the island since 1757, it is an important financial services centre for the Caribbean and is home to two of the largest banks in the region. Port of Spain was the de facto capital of the short-lived West Indies Federation, which united the Caribbean; the city is home to the largest container port on the island and is one of several shipping hubs of the Caribbean, exporting both agricultural products and manufactured goods.

Bauxite from Guyana is trans-shipped via facilities at Chaguaramas, about 8 kilometres west of the city. The pre-lenten Carnival is tourist attraction. Today, Port of Spain is a leading city in the Caribbean region. Trinidad and Tobago hosted the Fifth Summit of the Americas in 2009 whose guests included US President Barack Obama and US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton. Port of Spain is home to the biggest and most successful stock exchange in the Caribbean, the Trinidad and Tobago Stock Exchange; the iconic Nicholas Tower, as well as other skyscrapers, are well known throughout the region. These buildings dominate the city's skyline; some of the tallest skyscrapers in the Caribbean are located in Port of Spain. The Port of Spain was founded near the site of the Amerindian fishing village of Cumucurapo, located in the area today known as Mucurapo, west of the city centre; the name Conquerabia is recorded for an Amerindian settlement in this area. In 1560, a Spanish garrison was posted near the foot of the Laventille Hills, which today form the city's eastern boundary.

The part of today's downtown Port of Spain closest to the sea was once an area of tidal mudflats covered by mangroves. The first Spanish buildings here, in the 16th and 17th centuries, were open mud-plastered ajoupas, interspersed between large silk cotton trees and other trees; the fort was a mud-walled enclosure with a shack inside, a flagpole, two or three cannon, few Spanish soldiers. This was captured during Walter Raleigh's expedition in April 1595; the Caribs were transient, travelling up the Orinoco River. The French naval commander Comte D'Estrées visited in 1680, reported that there was no Port of Spain, but in 1690, Spanish governor Don Sebastien de Roteta reported in writing to the King of Spain: In 1699, the alcalde of Trinidad reported to the king that the natives "were in the habit of showering scorn and abuse upon the Holy Faith and ridiculed with jests the efforts of the Holy Fathers". By 1757, the old capital, San José de Oruña, about 11 kilometres inland, had fallen into disrepair, Governor Don Pedro de la Moneda transferred his seat to Port of Spain, which thus became Trinidad's de facto capital.

The last Spanish Governor of Trinidad, Don José Maria Chacón, devoted much of his time to developing the new capital. He compelled the island's Cabildo to move to Port of Spain, he limited its powers to the municipality; the 1783 Cedula of Population, which encouraged the settlement of French Catholics in the island, led to a rapid increase in the town's population and its geographical extension westwards. From the small cluster of buildings at the foot of the Laventille Hills, eleven streets were laid out west to the area bounded by the St. Ann's River, thus establishing the grid pattern which has survived in downtown Port of Spain to the present day. Along the sea shore was the Plaza de la Marina, a parade ground. By 1786, the town had a population of about 3,000. Realising that the St. Ann's River, prone to flooding, was impeding the expansion of the town, Chacón had its course diverted in 1787 so that it ran to the east of the city, along the foot of the Laventille Hills. Port of Spain was now able to continue spreading northwards and westwards, encroaching on the surrounding sugar-cane plantations.

In 1797, Trinidad was invaded by a British force under General Sir Ralph Abercromby. The British landed west of Port of Spain, at what is still called Invaders Bay, marched towards the town. Realising his military resources were inadequate to defend the colony and wishing to avoid unnecessary destruction, Governor Chacón capitulated and was able to negotiate generous terms with Abercromby. Port of Spain remained the capital. In 1803, Port of Spain began growing southwards, with the reclamation of the foreshore mudflats, us

Self Reliance (political party)

Union "Self Reliance" or "Self Help" is a Christian democratic, pro-European political party in Ukraine. The party’s leadership is vacant as of 21 July 2019, it was founded on 29 December 2012, identifies with the ideology of "Christian morality and common sense." The name of the party is similar to the name of the NGO, founded by former leader, Andriy Sadovyi in 2004. The party won 33 seats in the 2014 Ukrainian parliamentary election. In the 2019 Ukrainian parliamentary election the party won a single seat; the name and ideology of the party is referring to the history of Ukrainian cooperative movement, which started in Western Ukraine in the beginning of 20th century. The financial societies that appeared prior to World War I in Galicia were formed as a part of Ukrainian national movement; the idea to start Ukrainian national financial cooperation societies belonged to Dr. Yevhen Olesnytskyi, the head of Stryi's Prosvita movement and member of the Austro-Hungarian Parliament, he started to organise seminars for like-minded people, who supported the idea of solving economic problems before resolving political issues.

The fight against poverty and backwardness was the main goal of the organisation, which acquired popularity. The local Prosvita activists supported the call for action, in 1904 Ostap Nyzhankivskyi and priest from the village Zavadiv near Stryi, founded first cooperative of milk producers; the idea proved to be popular among Ukrainian peasants, in 1914 the Union of Milk Cooperatives united more than 100 unions under the leadership of Ostap Nyzhankivskyi. Soon the Union started to issue its own newspaper, which received the name'Samopomich'; the WWI and the following Polish-Ukrainian war interrupted the movement, as its activists devoted themselves to the work for the West Ukrainian People's Republic. The leader of the movement, Ostap Nyzhankivskyi, became the district commissar of Stryi and died in the battle for the city on 13 May 1919; the cooperative activism reemerged after the WWI. The officers of the Ukrainian Galician Army who had emigrated to Czechoslovakia and Denmark, returned to Ukraine and brought there the experience of European cooperative movement.

Until late 1930s, the new cooperative'Ukrainian Milk Society'Maslosoyiuz' united up to 500,000 farms, became an important player in the European agriculture market. The practice of cooperation spread to other spheres of life: Galician Ukrainians founded their own bank, trade network, supervision bodies, insurance companies, educational system, etc; such organisations, as Sokil, Sport Society'Ukraine' popularised healthy lifestyle, the Taras Shevchenko Academic Society united scientists and intellectuals. The World War II and Soviet repressions brought an end to the civic activity on the territory of Ukraine; the contemporary history of the political party Self Reliance started in 2004, with the creation of an NGO called "Self Reliance". Andriy Sadovyi, the director of the Institute of the City Development, initiated the foundation of an organisation, which would derive from the history and traditions of the Ukrainian cooperation movement. Thus, the charity "Self Reliance" was established on 4 November 2004.

The main activities of the organisation were: promoting legal literacy among the citizens, promoting healthy lifestyle, organisation of the volunteer movement and establishing local cooperation entities. In 2006, Andriy Sadovyi was elected the mayor of Lviv, he relied on the Self Reliance team in creating the development strategy for the city of Lviv. In 2010, Sadovyi was reelected for the office of mayor. On 14 October 2012 Sadovyi began the formation of the Self Reliance political party; the party united the legacy of Christian-democratic ideology. Self Reliance was registered as a political party on 29 December 2012. In 2013, Self Reliance had its first constituent assembly in the Building of Pedagogical Museum in Kyiv; the party started to develop ideological approach. Self Reliance activists participated in Euromaidan. Self Reliance participated in the 25 May 2014 elections to the Kiev City Council; the party asked the citizens to propose candidates for the election, assigned the position in the party list according to the preferences of the public.

In that election, the party won five seats in the Council. On 28 February 2014, the party's leader Andriy Sadovyi, said that Self Reliance would take part in the snap parliamentary elections scheduled for October 2014. However, in the Ukrainian parliamentary election Hanna Hopko headed the party list, followed by Donbas Battalion commander Semen Semenchenko, while Sadovyi obtained the 50th place; the party campaigned for local decentralisation. The party finished third in the election, it was the only party which did not have any former parliamentarians on its election list but rather people from community NGOs and medium-sized businesses. Candidates of Volia were included in the election list of Self Reliance, its parliamentary faction received 33 mandates including one won at constituency elections. The faction includes experts-activists out of the Reanimation Package of Reforms, military personnel and business representatives. By party affiliation, the faction consists out of unaffiliated deputies, while there is one deputy of the Ukrainian People's Party and only three members of the Self Reliance party.

The top 10 members of parliament included 1. Hanna Hopko, 2. Semen Semenchenko, 3. Oleksiy Skrypnyk, 4. Oksana Syroyid, 5. Viktor Kryvenko, 6

Von Vladimiroff

The von Vladimiroff family are a cadet branch of the von Biron family, the last rulers of the Duchy of Courland and Semigalia. The family was founded by Neo-Aleksandr I von Valdimiroff, the issue of Yevdokiya Yusupova and Peter von Biron, although the pair had no children; as Peter von Biron's first child, many view Neo-Aleksandr I von Vladimiroff and the family as the rightful inheritors of his estate. The faction are the last known pretenders to the Duchy of Semigalia; the founder of the house, Neo-Aleksandr I von Valdimiroff, was the child of Yevdokiya Yusupova and Peter von Biron and is only mentioned by the Dukes third wife Dorothea von Medem in her private letters. The Duchess wrote about the child on few occasions and expressed her loathing for him; the Duke and third Duchess had the boy baptized as a Lutheran, but it infuriated his father and stepmother that he never renounced the Orthodox Church. Neo-Aleksandr went on to found the House of Vladimiroff by marrying into the House of Mecklenburg.

The House of Vladimiroff has faded into relative obscurity as no nation has been governed by family, however due to their unique lineage they have married into every great dynasty of Europe. Despite the family possessing the last legitimate claim to both the Kingdom of Livonia, being the last remaining Baltic German ruling dynasty, they were neither given the crown of Courland or the United Baltic Duchy due to their loyalty to the Russian Empire and Romanovs. In 1942 the Schutzstaffel accepted Kyrill XIII von Vladimroff, the last surviving member of the Vladimiroff Dynasty, into the 2nd SS Infantry Brigade, he served throughout the war during the Siege of Leningrad, the Tannenburg Line and in the Kurland Pocket. On the 17th of May 1945 Swedish Nazis recorded his entry onto Gotland with 30 other SS soldiers, after which the group went to Sweden. Kyrill XIII went on to America and married a Bavarian Junker, Isabella von Köntopf, fleeing Germany as a result of the war. Kyrill XIII changed his last name to von Köntopf, Americanized it to Kentopp, in order to avoid war crime charges in the Soviet Union.

The marriage produced one child named Kyrill Kentopp. The von Vladimiroffs are a purely Orthodox Christian family, those who do not adhere to the Russian Orthodox Church or speak Baltic German are expelled from the House of Vladimiroff in order to retain Russo-Teutonic heritage; this strict policy has resulted in problems and near extinctions for the house, for example Kyrill XIII von Vladimroff was the only living member of the family for a number of years. This has resulted in compromises with other houses, as children produced from the family are baptized as Catholic or Lutheran, however this negates their ability to inherit certain titles. A notable family tradition is that despite differing Christian names, all of the inheriting men in the family are named to as Kyrill while inheriting women are named Kyra, it is not known. Despite only happening twice, it is acceptable for members of the family to possess a double-barreled first name which includes Kyrill, such as Ludwig-Kyrill I von Vladimiroff the current prince of Livonia.

In the case of a female of the House of Vladimiroff inheriting any title, it is passed on to the son of her choice upon his sixteenth birthday, however the choice is relinquished to the current head of the family. The family motto is "Kings of the Land, Fathers of the People"; as of 2017, living members of the house only include the children of Kyrill XIV von Vladimiroff, his two children Kyrill XV and Kyra II. Kyrill XV, pretender to the Kingdom of Livonia, has one child, Ludwig-Kyrill I von Vladimiroff, second in line to the throne of Livonia. Kyra II von Vladimiroff married a descendant of the Rurikid dynasty and had three children, the oldest being Timur von Vladimiroff, the youngest being Kyra-Trinity von Vladimiroff. In 2016, upon his 16th birthday, the middle child Leopold I von Rurik was granted all the titles possessed by his mother the Vladimiroff title of Duke of Courland and Semigalia. Moreover, through his father Leopold I von Rurik holds the title of Bejewelled Prinz, leaving the crown of Ukraine in the House of Vladimiroff

Dan Balan

Dan Bălan is a Moldovan musician, singer and record producer. He is the first and only Moldovan musician to be nominated for a Grammy as co-writer of Rihanna and T. I.'s "Live Your Life". He is the founder of Moldovan eurodance band O-Zone, wrote and produced their international hit single "Dragostea Din Tei", which topped the charts in over 30 countries and sold over 12 million copies worldwide, he is the songwriter and performer of European hit-singles "Chica Bomb", "Justify Sex" and "Freedom". Balan was born on February 6, 1979 in Chișinău, to Mihai Balan, a diplomat who now works as the Head of Information and Security Service of the Republic of Moldova, Ludmila Balan, a popular TV presenter, he has TV presenter Sanda Bălan. His grandfather on maternal line, Boris Vasiliev, in childhood was deported to Siberia, he was gifted his first instrument, a second-hand accordion, at age 11 and began pursuing music at a young age. Balan attended music school. After following their wishes for a short time, he left law school to play with his first band Inferialis, a gothic doom metal band.

After Balan formed the band, Inferialis held its first concert in 1995 in a concert hall in one of Chișinău's factories. His entire family was present at the concert, his parents having been impressed by the performance bought him an expensive synthesizer, he spent the next two years performing with the band, taking several small gigs, decided to move to commercial-sounding music. In an interview, he explained that he had never considered himself a heavy metal musician and instead identified as a producer with an interest in working with varying musical styles, he started experimenting and exploring a new, commercial pop sound, recorded and released his first solo song, "De la Mine", in 1998. In 1998, Balan formed O-Zone, a new musical project, with Petru Jelihovschi, former vocalist in Inferialis; the duo released their first album entitled Dar unde esti? Later that year and it became a commercial hit with seven of the album's ten songs reaching number one on the charts of the main radio stations in Moldova.

At the same time, he became a producer of a new children's TV show called Tanti Ludmila Show, hosted by his mother. When the show needed a title song, the singer offered up a track. Shortly afterwards, Jelihovschi left the band to take up his own career in television. In order to continue the band, Balan announced auditions to select new band members, he was unable to find somebody who fit his concept for the music. Arsenie Todiraş, who he met through his vocal coach, was selected. After the auditions were closed, Radu Sirbu heard about the selection and requested Balan to audition him. Subsequently, Sirbu became the third member of the band. Throughout 2001, Balan wrote and recorded O-Zone's second album, Number 1. Four Romanian record labels offered the band a deal. O-Zone elected their album was released in 2002 by the label. Much to Balan's disappointment, the album did not become an instant commercial success. However, O-Zone won Best Music Video Award at the MTV Romania Music Awards in 2002 for their single "Numai tu".

The album's second single, "Despre Tine", was more experimental, driven by the singer's goal of working in styles of music, which were different to those dictating the Romanian music industry at that time. The song became a commercial success and reached number one on Romania Airplay Top 100, where it stayed for seventeen consecutive weeks; the next year, O-Zone won two more MTV Romania Music Awards, for Best Best Dance. The band was nominated for Best Romanian Act at the MTV Europe Music Awards; the song "Dragostea Din Tei" known as the "Numa Numa Song", released in 2003, brought the group to global prominence. The single and produced by Balan, reached the number one position on the charts of more than thirty countries and was the third bestselling single in the U. K that year, it sold more than 12 million copies worldwide, receiving a gold and multi-platinum certification in most of the countries of Europe and Latin America. It became the bestselling track in Europe and Japan in 2004 and 2005.

Over the years, more than two hundred artists have sung the song in fourteen different languages. "Dragostea Din Tei" is one of the best-selling singles in the history of world music. In 2004, O-Zone won Best Dance Award again at MTV Romania Music Awards and, for the second year in a row, they were nominated for Best Romanian Act at the MTV Europe Music Awards; that year, the band unveiled their third album, DiscO-Zone, which became their best-selling release, certified gold and platinum in various countries. By the end of the year, it was the best-selling album in Japan and Latin America. In France, it was number fifteen but stayed for 36 weeks in the top 200. In Japan it reached the number one position in its 24th week on the chart. DiscO-Zone featured their hit singles "Dragostea Din Tei" and "Despre Tine"; the album was a commercial success in many European countries in Portugal where it was hit number one for eight consecutive weeks and was ranked for 26 weeks in the top 30. It reached the top ten in Wallonia, Norway and Finland.

By late 2004, O-Zone released another single "De Ce Plang Chitarele", a cover of a song by the Moldovan band Noroc. Commenting on their songs and style, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty wrote that they have "breathed fresh air into European Pop Music Scene." O-Zone announced their breakup in 2005, right at the peak of their popularity. Their last European concert wa

Jimmy McStay

James Frederick McStay was a Scottish football player and manager. He spent most of his career at Celtic, was a captain and manager for the club. A full back, he took over the club captaincy from his brother, Willie McStay, in 1929; the siblings played together 246 times for Celtic as well as one Scottish League XI match in 1926. Taking all cups into account, Jimmy played in 500 matches for the club. McStay managed Celtic between 9 February 1940 and 23 July 1945. However, this coincided with the suspension of the Scottish Cup and Scottish Football League during wartime, meaning he never had the opportunity to manage the club in competition, he managed Alloa Athletic prior to his appointment at Celtic, afterwards took charge of and Hamilton Academical. McStay's great-nephews Paul and Willie played for Celtic in the 1980s and 1990s. Celtic Scottish League: 1925–26 Scottish Cup: 1922-23, 1924–25, 1926–27, 1930–31, 1932–33 Glasgow Cup: 1927–28, 1930–31 Alloa Athletic Scottish Division Two promotion: 1938–39Hamilton Academical Lanarkshire Cup: 1951–52 Does not include wartime matches with Alloa.

Production packer

A production packer is a standard component of the completion hardware of oil or gas wells used to provide a seal between the outside of the production tubing and the inside of the casing, liner, or wellbore wall. Based on their primary use, packers can be divided into two main categories: production packers and service packers. Production packers are those. Service packers are used temporarily during well service activities such as cement squeezing, acidizing and well testing, it is run in close to the bottom end of the production tubing and set at a point above the top perforations or sand screens. In wells with multiple reservoir zones, packers are used to isolate the perforations for each zone. In these situations, a sliding sleeve would be used to select. Packers may be used to protect the casing from pressure and produced fluids, isolate sections of corroded casing, casing leaks or squeezed perforations, isolate or temporarily abandon producing zones. In water-flooding developments in which water is injected into the reservoir, packers are used in injection wells to isolate the zones into which the water must be injected.

There are occasions. For example, high volume wells that are produced both up the tubing and annulus will not include a packer. Rod pumped wells are not run with packers because the associated gas is produced up the annulus. In general, well completions may not incorporate a packer when the annular space is used as a production conduit. A production packer is designed to grip and seal against the casing ID. Gripping is accomplished with metal wedges called "slips." These components have sharpened, carburized teeth. Sealing is accomplished with cylindrical rubber elements. In situations where the sealed pressure is high, metal rings are used on either side of the elements to prevent the rubber from extruding. A packer is run in the casing on production wireline. Once the desired depth is reached, the slips and element must be expanded out to contact the casing. Axial loads are applied to push the slips up a ramp and to compress the element, causing it to expand outward; the axial loads are applied either hydraulically, mechanically, or with a slow burning chemical charge.

Most packers require milling in order to remove them from the casing. The main advantages of permanent packers are lower cost and greater sealing and gripping capabilities. In situations where a packer must be removed from the well, such as secondary recoveries, re-completions, or to change out the production tubing, a retrievable packer must be used. To unset the tool, either a metal ring is sheared or a sleeve is shifted to disengage connecting components. Retrievable packers have a more complicated design and lower sealing and gripping capabilities, but after removal and subsequent servicing, they can be reused. Casing protection Separation of multiple zones Isolation packers Elimination of surging and heading Sub-surface safety control Artificial/gas liftThere are three types of packers: mechanical and hydraulic set and permanent. All packers fall into a combination of these. Mechanical set packers are set by some form of tubing movement a rotation or upward /downward motion. Others can be weight set—the tubing weight can be used to compress and expand the sealing element.

By a simple up string pull the packer is released. It is used best in shallow low pressure wells, it is not designed to withstand pressure differences. Tension-set packers are set by pulling a tension on the tubing, slacking off releases the packer. Good for shallow wells with moderate pressure differences; the lower pressure helps to increase the setting force on the packer. Used in a stimulation well. Rotation-set packer – Tubing rotation is used to set the packer to mechanically lock it in. Hydraulic-set packers use fluid pressure to drive the cone behind the slips. Once set they remain set by the use of either entrapped pressure or a mechanical lock, they are released by picking up the tubing. They are good for used in deviated or crooked holes where tubing movement is unwanted; the tubing can be hung in neutral tension. Inflatable packers - use fluid pressure to inflate a long cylindrical tube of reinforced rubber to set the packer. Used for open hole testing in exploration wells and for cement assurance in production wells.

Used in wells where the packer must pass through a restriction and set at a much larger diameter in casing or open holes. Many variations for specific applications are available including those capable of withstanding high pressure differentials. Permanent packers are set on an electric wireline, drill pipe or tubing. Opposed slips are positioned to lock it in compression. Once set this packer is resistant to motion for either direction. Wireline uses an electric current to detonate an explosive charge to set the packer. A release stud frees the assembly form the packer. Tubing can be used by applying a combination of both, they are good in wells that have high pressure differentials or large tubing load variations and can be set precisely. They can be set the deepest. Cement packers – In this case the tubing is cemented in place inside the casing or open hole; this type of packer is cheap. Temperature and pressure can affect how the tubing and the packer behave as this could cause changes in the packer and tubing expansion rates.

If the packer allows free motion the tubing can elongate or shorten. If not the tensile and c