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Porta Nigra

The Porta Nigra is a large Roman city gate in Trier, Germany. It is today the largest Roman city gate north of the Alps, it is designated as part of the Roman Monuments, Cathedral of St Peter and Church of Our Lady in Trier UNESCO World Heritage Site. The name Porta Nigra originated in the Middle Ages due to the darkened colour of its stone. Locals refer to the Porta Nigra as Porta; the Porta Nigra was built in grey sandstone after 170 AD. The original gate consisted of two four-storeyed towers, projecting as near semicircles on the outer side. A narrow courtyard separated the two gate openings on either side. For unknown reasons, the construction of the gate remained unfinished. For example, the stones at the northern side of the gate were never abraded, the protruding stones would have made it impossible to install movable gates. Nonetheless, the gate was used as a town entrance for centuries until the end of the Roman era in Trier. In Roman times, the Porta Nigra was part of a system of four city gates, one of which stood at each side of the rectangular Roman city.

It guarded the northern entry to the Roman city, while the Porta Alba was built in the east, the Porta Media in the south, the Porta Inclyta in the west, next to the Roman bridge across the Moselle. The gates stood at the ends of the two main streets of the Roman Trier, one of which led north-south and the other east-west. Of these gates, only the Porta Nigra still exists today. In the early Middle Ages the Roman city gates were no longer used for their original function and their stones were taken and reused for other buildings. Moreover and lead braces were broken out of the walls of the Porta Nigra for reuse. Traces of this destruction are still visible on the north side of the gate. After 1028, the Greek monk Simeon lived as a hermit in the ruins of the Porta Nigra. After his death and sanctification, the Simeonstift monastery was built next to the Porta Nigra to honor him. To save it from further destruction, the Porta Nigra was transformed into two superimposed churches with identical floor plans.

The upper church was accessible to the monks and the lower church was open to the general public. The church naves were created by extending the second floors over the inner courtyard. An apse was constructed onto the east tower. Additional levels and a spire were added to the western tower; the top floor of the eastern tower was removed, a new clerestory level was built over the nave, east tower and apse. Windows of the western tower were enlarged to become entrance doors; the ground floor with the large gates was buried inside a terrace, a large staircase was constructed alongside the south side up to the lower church. A small staircase led further up to the upper church. An additional gate was built adjacent to the East side of the Porta Nigra and served as a city gate in medieval times. In 1802, Napoleon Bonaparte dissolved the church in the Porta Nigra and the monastery beside it, along with the vast majority of Trier's numerous churches and monasteries. On his visit to Trier in 1804, Napoleon ordered that the Porta Nigra be converted back to its Roman form.

The clerestory level and church tower were deconstructed, the inner courtyard was reinstated. However, the apse was preserved in a truncated form, the eastern tower was not rebuilt to its original height; the terrace surrounding the ground floor level was removed. Local legend has it that Napoleon wanted to tear down the church, but locals convinced him that the church had been a Gaulish festival hall before being turned into a church. Another version of the story is that they told him about its Roman origins, persuading him to convert the gate back to its original form. In 1986 the Porta Nigra was designated a World Heritage Site, along with other Roman monuments in Trier and its surroundings; the modern appearance of the Porta Nigra goes back unchanged to the reconstruction ordered by Napoleon. At the south side of the Porta Nigra, remains of Roman columns line the last 100 m of the street leading to the gate. Positioned where they had stood in Roman times, they give a slight impression of the aspect of the original Roman street, lined with colonnades.

It has crowning cornice and parapet on its top. The gate stands right next to one of the main streets of Trier. In addition to the general pollution, the exhaust fumes of the passing cars have been damaging the stones for decades. However, the Porta Nigra is still in remarkable condition; the Porta Nigra, including the upper floors, is open to visitors. In summer, guided tours are offered by an actor dressed up as and portraying a centurion in full armour. New Trier High School in Winnetka, Illinois, USA, is named after the city of Trier and New Trier's logo depicts the Porta Nigra. Fiske Kimball, George Harold Edgell et al.: History of Architecture. Research & Education Assoc. 2001 ISBN 0-87891-383-1 Jas Elsner: Imperial Rome and Christian Triumph: The Art of the Roman Empire AD 100-450. Oxford University Press 1998, ISBN 0-19-284201-3 Site of the Porta Nigra in Google Maps Porta Nigra Photos sekulada.com. "Photos and history of Porta Nigra"

Glamo─Ź

Glamoč is a town and municipality located in Canton 10 of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is situated in southwestern Bosnia and Herzegovina, at the foot of the hills of Staretina and Velika Golija on the edge of the central part of the Glamoč Field; the municipality encompasses town of Glamoč as a seat of the municipality and more than 50 villages and hamlets situated along the Field. It covers an area of the historical and geographical region of Tropolje; the settlement was first named Delmoč Dlamoč and Glamoč. The old names derives from the Illyrian word delma meaning sheep. Accordingly, the name of town indicates the area of shepherds, or a place suitable for sheep farming. Another theory holds that Glamoč comes from the word glama, meaning "rocky hill". During the Ottoman era the town was recorded as Belgradčik and Biogradaz; the climate of Glamoč is classified as an oceanic climate, near the boundary of the humid continental climate. Glamoč has four separate seasons.

Summers are warm, winters are cold, without a discernible dry season. The Glamoč area has been inhabited since at least Neolithic times. In the late Bronze Age, the Neolithic population was replaced by more warlike Indo-European tribes known as the Illyrians the Dalmatae, their capital was Delminium, located in today's Tomislavgrad. The Dalmatae left many artifacts; the most important remains are the gradine, remains of Illyrian settlements which were distributed along the Glamoč field. 34 gradinas were found on the territory of Glamoč. The settlements were strategically placed for defence; the Romans took over 200 years to occupy this region. After the Roman conquest, municipia were established in this area, located in the Roman province of Dalmatia; the most important of them was Salvium, an Illyrian settlement. Salvium is located 6 km away from town of Glamoč. An early Christian basilica was discovered on the territory of Salvium, it was built in the 6th century on the remains of a Roman temple.

North of Glamoč, a second basilica was built at the same time as the aforementioend basilica in Salvium was built. These basilicas belonged to the diocese of Salona. In 533, they became part of the newly established diocese in Ludrum; the basilicas were destroyed during the invasion of the Avars in 597. With the collapse of Roman rule in the 5th century, first barbarian tribes and the Byzantine Empire occupied this region. In the seventh century, South Slavs migrated to the Balkan region, they brought Slavic culture and customs which merged with the Illyrian culture. The community was granted the status of parish in the County of Hlivno after Tomislav established the Kingdom of Croatia in 925. Therefore, the town, by the end of the 10th century, had developed all the infrastructure necessary for acquiring the status of the parish. In 1078 it was mentioned as a boundary parish of Archdiocese of Split. A church, dedicated to the Virgin Mary was built. Near the town, the church of St. Catherine and the Franciscan Monastery of St. Elias were built.

Within the monastery, the Church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary was located. The church was mentioned in 1446; the remains of the were found in several surrounding villages which indicates the dense population of the area. Bosnian ban Stjepan II Kotromanić conquered Glamoč and neighboring towns and Dlmno in 1326. Since this area has been called Tropolje, meaning three fields, or Završje; until 1357, Glamoč was a possession of the Hrvatinić noble family. In 1357, Bosnian ban Tvrtko I succumbed to Hungarian demands and ceded Tropolje to the Hungarian king Louis I the Great; that same year, Grgur Stjepanić was mentioned as Lord of Glamoč. He, along with other nobles of Tropolje, rebelled against Tvrtko, so Glamoč remained under Hungarian rule until 1387. In the meantime, Tvrtko was crowned as the King of Bosnia and with the help of Hrvoje Vukčić Hrvatinić he regained the area. At the end of the 14th century, Pavao Maštrović Klešić became Lord of Glamoč. Bosnian King Stjepan Ostoja took his lordship, but when he needed Pavao as ally he returned it to him in 1404.

Glamoč fell under Ottoman rule in the year 1515. In 1516, it was mentioned as Belgrad in the kadiluk of Neretva, it remained a part of the Bosnia Sanjak until 1537. In 1550 and 1574 it was recorded as a nahiye in the Skradin kadiluk in the Sanjak of Klis. After Klis was liberated in 1648, Glamoč became part of the Livno kadiluk. During the Ottoman period the town was called Belgradčik, it is recorded under this name until 1833. A Venetian-Dalmatian source from the first half of the 17th century recorded that Biogradaz was a fortress with several towers. In the second half of the 18th century, it was noted that town lies along the Dalmatian border, that the it is well fortified, but that it has little artillery; the fortress was abandoned in 1851 and demolished in 1882. In 1878, with the Congress of Berlin and Herzegovina, including Glamoč, came under Austro-Hungarian rule. Complete annexation followed in 1908. Administratively, the town was located in the Travnik District. At that time, a significant number of Catholics from Dalmatia, immigrated, so the Catholic church of Saint Elias was built in 1903.

After the end of World War I and the dissolution of Austria-Hungary, the province of Bosnia and Herzegovina, along with Glamoč, became a part of the State of Slovenes and Serbs and soon thereafter Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. After the Vidov

Chen Yung-chi

Chen Yung-chi is a Taiwanese professional baseball player. An infielder, he plays for the Uni-President Lions. In 2006, he competed in the World Baseball Classic for Chinese Taipei, ranked 3rd in most doubles hit, hit the first grand slam of WBC, he played in the All-Star Futures Game during the All-Star break in 2006, with another Taiwanese player Chin-Lung Hu. After the season ended, he competed in the 2006 Intercontinental Cup and Baseball games of 2006 Asian Games, he won the best second baseman award of 2006 Intercontinental Cup, gold medal of Asian Games. On November 12, 2008, Chen was claimed off waivers from the Seattle Mariners by the Oakland Athletics. On November 23, 2010, after entering the Chinese Professional Baseball League draft and being drafted by the Uni-President Lions, Chen signed with the Lions. Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference