Portage or portaging is the practice of carrying water craft or cargo over land, either around an obstacle in a river, or between two bodies of water. A path where items are carried between bodies of water is called a portage. Early French explorers in New France and French Louisiana encountered many cascades; the Native Americans carried their canoes over land to avoid river obstacles. Over time, important portages were sometimes provided with canals with locks, portage railways. Primitive portaging involves carrying the vessel and its contents across the portage in multiple trips. Small canoes can be portaged by carrying them inverted over one's shoulders and the center strut may be designed in the style of a yoke to facilitate this. Voyageurs employed tump lines on their heads to carry loads on their backs. Portages can be many kilometers in length, such as the 19-kilometre Methye Portage and the 8.5-mile Grand Portage covering hilly or difficult terrain. Some portages involve little elevation change, such as the short Mavis Grind in Shetland, which crosses an isthmus.

This section deals with the heavy freight canoes used by the Canadian Voyageurs. Portage trails began as animal tracks and were improved by tramping or blazing. In a few places iron-plated wooden rails were laid to take a handcart. Used routes sometimes evolved into roads when sledges, rollers or oxen were used, as at Methye Portage. Sometimes railways or canals were built; when going downstream through rapids an experienced voyageur called the guide would inspect the rapids and choose between the heavy work of a portage and the life-threatening risk of running the rapids. If the second course were chosen, the boat would be controlled by the avant standing in front with a long paddle and the gouvernail standing in the back with a 2.7-metre steering paddle. The avant had a better view and was in charge but the gouvernail had more control over the boat; the other canoemen provided power under the instructions of the avant. Going upstream was more difficult, as there were many places where the current was too swift to paddle.

Where the river bottom was shallow and firm, voyageurs would stand in the canoe and push it upstream with 3-metre poles. If the shoreline was reasonably clear the canoe could be'tracked' or'lined', that is, the canoemen would pull the canoe on a rope while one man stayed on board to keep it away from the shore. In worse conditions, the'demi-chargé' technique was used. Half the cargo was unloaded, the canoe forced upstream and returned downstream to pick up the remaining half of the cargo. In still worse currents, the entire cargo was unloaded and carried overland while the canoe was forced upstream. In the worst case a full portage was necessary; the canoe was carried overland by two or four men The cargo was divided into standard 41-kilogram packs or pièces with each man responsible for about six. One portage or canoe pack would be carried by one on the back. To allow regular rests the voyageur would drop his pack at a pose about every 1 kilometre and go back for the next load; the time for a portage was estimated at one hour per half mile.

The Diolkos was a paved trackway in Ancient Greece which enabled boats to be moved overland across the Isthmus of Corinth between the Gulf of Corinth and the Saronic Gulf. It was constructed to transport high ranking Despots to conduct business in the justice system; the 6 km to 8.5 km long roadway was a rudimentary form of railway, operated from around 600 BC until the middle of the 1st century AD. The scale on which the Diolkos combined the two principles of the railway and the overland transport of ships was unique in antiquity. There is scant literary evidence for two more ship trackways referred to as diolkoi in antiquity, both located in Roman Egypt: The physician Oribasius records two passages from his 1st century AD colleague Xenocrates, in which the latter casually refers to a diolkos close to the harbor of Alexandria, which may have been located at the southern tip of the island of Pharos. Another diolkos is mentioned by Ptolemy in his book on geography as connecting a false mouth of a silted up Nile branch with the Mediterranean Sea.

The land link between Adige river and Garda lake in Northern Italy, hardly used by the smallest watercraft, was at least once used by the Venetian Republic for the transport of a military fleet in 1439. The land link is now somewhat harder because of the disappearance of Loppio lake. In the 8th, 9th and 10th centuries, Viking merchant-adventurers exploited a network of waterways in Eastern Europe, with portages connecting the four most important rivers of the region: Volga, Western Dvina and Don; the portages of what is now Russia were vital for the Varangian commerce with the Orient and Byzantium. At the most important portages there were trade outposts inhabited by a mixture of Norse merchants and native population; the Khazars built the fortress of Sarkel to guard a key portage between the Don. After Varangian and Khazar power in Eastern Europe waned, Slavic merchants continued to use the portages along the Volga trade route and the Dnieper trade route; the names of the towns Volokolamsk and Vyshny Volochek may be translated as "the portage on the Lama River" and "the little up

Ken Pavés

Ken Pavés is an American hairdresser. He has worked as hair stylist for many celebrities including Carmen Electra; as an entrepreneur he has collaborated with Jessica Simpson and Karen Marie Shelton, markets his own line of hair products. He is a spokesperson for the Operation Smile charity. Ken Pavés was born in the Detroit suburb of New Baltimore, Michigan as the youngest of three children of Helen Paves, of Portuguese and Filipino descent, Gary Paves, of Romanian Jewish descent. Pavés credits his mother Helen for his entry into the world of hair and fashion, saying that when she dressed up "she turned into a superhero." He graduated in 1994 from a cosmetology school in Michigan. After school, Pavés became assistant to star stylist Oribe in Miami -- a job, he would moonlight doing strippers' hair until 4 A. M; when these clients showed up in Oribe's shop during regular business hours, Oribe learned that Pavés could do "big, beautiful hair."Pavés studied hair design at Vidal Sassoon Academy and Toni & Guy Institute.

He traveled with other celebrity hair stylists during tours of Europe where Pavés created hairstyles in conjunction with couture collections for Versace and others. However, he met his most regular client, Jessica Simpson, in 1998 when she hired him as the stylist for her imminent album cover. In 2002, Pavés met founder Karen Marie Shelton at a Seventeen magazine shoot in Dallas, Texas for Jessica Simpson. Pavés and Shelton formed an ongoing collaboration where his celebrity hair advice was featured on the Internet through the website. Beginning in 2002, Pavés appeared on The Oprah Winfrey Show creating a series of hair make-overs for Oprah Winfrey audiences. Pavés has appeared on several episodes of MTV's reality show Newlyweds: Nick and Jessica starring Jessica Simpson and Nick Lachey in addition to his appearances on MTV, VH-1 and similar entertainment shows, providing hair care tips. In 2004, Pavés launched Flawless by Pavés Professional, sold in Walgreens and on

In 2006 he launched the'Hairdo' line of clip-on hair extensions that he created in partnership with Jessica Simpson and the HairUWear company. Simpson and Paves appear in the promotional video Ken Paves: Behind the Scenes. Pavés has worked with celebrities such as Eva Longoria, Carmen Electra, Céline Dion, Kim Cattrall, Ashlee Simpson, Christina Applegate, Heather Locklear, Avril Lavigne, Brittany Murphy, Jennifer Lopez, Lindsay Lohan, Jessica Biel along with others since the mid-1990s, his hair designs have appeared in beauty and hair publications including Vogue, Elle, InStyle, Marie Claire, Seventeen, US Weekly, Celebrity Living, Life & Style Weekly and Star. Pavés is working for the HAIRuWEAR company, which markets "alternative hair" accessories and systems, wigs for cancer patients, he is associated with the ElevenSpa Vegas development in Las Vegas. He has featured in television commercials for hair products. Pavés is a spokesperson for Operation Smile Charity and has accompanied Jessica Simpson on international trips on behalf of the charity.

Jessica Simpson has served as International Youth Ambassador of Operation Smile since 2003 when Pavés introduced her to the organization. Jessica Simpson: A Public Affair - himself Monster-in-Law - hair stylist to Jennifer Lopez, additional photography Jersey Girl - hair stylist to Jennifer Lopez You Don't Know Jack... About MonsterFest - hair stylist and makeup artist to Carmen Elektra The Wedding Planner - hair stylist to Jennifer Lopez) The official site of Ken Pavés Ken Pavés on IMDb

Xuxa só Para Baixinhos 12 - É Pra Dançar

Xuxa só para Baixinhos 12 or É Para Dançar is the thirty-fifth studio album and the twenty-eighth in Portuguese of Brazilian singer and TV host Xuxa Meneghel, released by Sony Music on June 29, 2013, is the twelfth album in the collection Só Para Baixinhos. Xuxa só para Baixinhos 12 - É Para Dançar, was released on June 29, 2013, it was released in the formats DVD, DVD and CD and Blu-ray, this was the second album of the collection Só Para Baixinhos not to have the physical version in CD, DVD versions and DVD and CD were released in Digipak format. This was the fourth and last album in the collection Só Para Baixinhos, released by Sony Music, after Xuxa renewed his contract with the record company Som Livre, which released the first eight volumes, it is the XSPB with more controversies in production. The project for the album would be for 2012, but a few weeks it was announced that the album would not be released in 2012, that it would be released in April 2013 but suffered another delay and was released in late June 2013.

XSPB 12 sold in three months 50,000 copies. É Pra Dançar was nominated for the Best Latin Children's Album in 15th Annual Latin Grammy Awards in 2014. Bateria: Chocolate Baixo, Baixo Acústico e Vocal: Lelo Zaneti Guitarra, Violão e Vocal: Doca Rolim Teclados e Vocal: Henrique Portugal Percussão: Marco Lobo Acordeom: Valdir do Acordeon Scratch: Dj Negralha Teclados, Slide, Banjo e Bandolim: Marcos Lobato Banjo e Cavaco: Xandão Participações Especiais: Michel Teló em "Xuxamego" Buchecha em "É o Frevo, é o Funk" Daniel e Andréa Negreiros em "Eu Adoro Dançar" Alexandre Pires em "Como é Bom Ser Criança" Marina Lima e Christiaan Oyens em "Piniquinho" Metais: Sax: Vinicius Augustus Trompete: Paulo Marcio Trombone: Pedro Aristides Autoração do DVD: Mega Eventos Programação: Felipe Schneider Legendas: Alomara Andrade Xuxa só para Baixinhos 12 at Discogs