A closet is an enclosed space used for storage that of clothes. "Fitted closet" are built into the walls of the house so that they take up no apparent space in the room. Closets are built under stairs, thereby using awkward space that would otherwise go unused. A "walk-in closet" is a a small windowless room attached to a bedroom, used for clothes storage. A piece of furniture such as a cabinet or chest of drawers serves the same function of storage, but is not a closet. A closet always has space for hanging, whereas a cupboard may consist only of shelves for folded garments; the word "wardrobe" can refer to a free-standing piece of furniture, but according to the Oxford English Dictionary, a wardrobe can be a "large cupboard or cabinet for storing clothes or other linen", including "built-in wardrobe, fitted wardrobe, walk-in wardrobe, etc." In Elizabethan and Middle English, closet referred to a small private room, an inner sanctum within a much larger house, used for prayer, reading, or study.
The use of "closet" for "toilet" dates back to 1662. In Indian English, this use continues. Related forms include water closet. "Privy" meaning an outhouse derives from "private", making the connection with the Middle English use of "closet", above. Airing cupboard: A closet containing a water heater, with slatted shelves to allow air to circulate around the clothes or linen stored there. Broom closet: A closet with top-to-bottom space used for storing cleaning items, like brooms, vacuum cleaners, cleaning supplies, etc. Coat closet: A closet located near the front door. Used to store coats, hoodies, gloves, hats and boots/shoes; this kind of closet sometimes has shelving. It only has some bottom space used for clothes stored in boxes or drawers; some may have a top shelf for storage above the rod. Custom closet: A closet, made to meet the needs of the user. Linen-press or linen closet: A tall, narrow closet. Located in or near bathrooms and/or bedrooms, such a closet contains shelves used to hold items such as toiletries and linens, including towels, washcloths, or sheets.
Pantry: A closet or cabinet in a kitchen used for storing food, dishes and provisions. The closet may have shelves for putting food on. Utility closet: A closet most used to house appliances and cleaning supplies Walk-in closet: A storage room with enough space for someone to stand in it while accessing stored items. Larger ones used for clothes shade into dressing room. Wall closet: A closet in a bedroom, built into the wall, it may be closed by curtains or folding doors. Wardrobe: A small closet used for storing clothes. Though some sources claim that colonial American houses lacked closets because of a "closet tax" imposed by the British crown, others argue that closets were absent in most houses because their residents had few possessions. Closet organizers are integrated shelving systems. Different materials have advantages and disadvantages: Wire shelving: Moderately difficult to install, wire shelves cannot hold much weight without giving in but are cheap. Wood shelving: Difficult to install, wood shelving is more expensive than wire.
Tube shelving: Easy to install, tube shelving involves few pieces and requires no cutting or measuring. Cubby-hole, one name for the cupboard under the stairs
A balcony is a platform projecting from the wall of a building, supported by columns or console brackets, enclosed with a balustrade above the ground floor. The traditional Maltese balcony is a wooden closed balcony projecting from a wall. By contrast, a'Juliet balcony' does not protrude out of the building, it is part of an upper floor, with a balustrade only at the front, like a small Loggia. Modern Juliet balconies involve a metal barrier placed in front of a high window which can be opened. Juliet balconies are named after Shakespeare's Juliet, who, in traditional stagings of the play Romeo and Juliet, is courted by Romeo while she is on her balcony—though the play itself, as written, makes no mention of a balcony, but only of a window at which Juliet appears. Various types of balcony have been used in depicting this famous scene; the Julian Balcony is a larger version of the well-known Juliet Balcony, protruding from the wall, unlike the smaller Juliet balcony, spanning at least two windows rather than one.
Sometimes balconies are adapted for ceremonial purposes, e.g. that of St. Peter's Basilica at Rome, when the newly elected pope gives his blessing urbi et orbi after the conclave. Inside churches, balconies are sometimes provided for the singers, in banqueting halls and the like for the musicians. A unit with a regular balcony will have doors that open up onto a small patio with railings, a small Patio garden or Skyrise greenery. A French balcony is a false balcony, with doors that open to a railing with a view of the courtyard or the surrounding scenery below. In theatres, the balcony was a stage-box, but the name is now confined to the part of the auditorium above the dress circle and below the gallery. Balconies are part of the sculptural shape of the building allowing for irregular facades without the cost of irregular internal structures. One of the most famous uses of a balcony is in traditional stagings of the scene that has come to be known as the "balcony scene" in William Shakespeare's tragedy and Juliet.
Manufacturers' names for their balcony designs refer to the origin of the design, e.g. Italian balcony, Spanish balcony, Mexican balcony, Ecuadorian balcony, they refer to the shape and form of the pickets used for the balcony railings, e.g. knuckle balcony. Deck Jharokha Loggia Mashrabiya Mezzanine Minstrel's gallery Patio Porch Verandah Balconing Media related to Balconies at Wikimedia Commons "Balcony". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911
A portico is a porch leading to the entrance of a building, or extended as a colonnade, with a roof structure over a walkway, supported by columns or enclosed by walls. This idea was used in ancient Greece and has influenced many cultures, including most Western cultures; some noteworthy examples of porticos are the East Portico of the United States Capitol, the portico adorning the Pantheon in Rome and the portico of University College London. Porticos are sometimes topped with pediments. Palladio was a pioneer of using temple-fronts for secular buildings. In the UK, the temple-front applied to The Vyne, was the first portico applied to an English country house. A pronaos is the inner area of the portico of a Greek or Roman temple, situated between the portico's colonnade or walls and the entrance to the cella, or shrine. Roman temples had an open pronaos with only columns and no walls, the pronaos could be as long as the cella; the word pronaos is Greek for "before a temple". In Latin, a pronaos is referred to as an anticum or prodomus.
The different variants of porticos are named by the number of columns. The "style" suffix comes from the Greek στῦλος, "column"; the tetrastyle has four columns. The Romans favoured the four columned portico for their pseudoperipteral temples like the Temple of Portunus, for amphiprostyle temples such as the Temple of Venus and Roma, for the prostyle entrance porticos of large public buildings like the Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine. Roman provincial capitals manifested tetrastyle construction, such as the Capitoline Temple in Volubilis; the North Portico of the White House is the most notable four-columned portico in the United States. Hexastyle buildings had six columns and were the standard façade in canonical Greek Doric architecture between the archaic period 600–550 BCE up to the Age of Pericles 450–430 BCE; some well-known examples of classical Doric hexastyle Greek temples: The group at Paestum comprising the Temple of Hera, the Temple of Apollo, the first Temple of Athena and the second Temple of Hera The Temple of Athena Aphaia at Aegina c. 495 BCE Temple E at Selinus dedicated to Hera The Temple of Zeus at Olympia, now a ruin Temple F or the so-called "Temple of Concord" at Agrigentum, one of the best-preserved classical Greek temples, retaining all of its peristyle and entablature.
The "unfinished temple" at Segesta The Hephaesteum below the Acropolis at Athens, long known as the "Theseum" one of the most intact Greek temples surviving from antiquity The Temple of Poseidon on Cape Sunium Hexastyle was applied to Ionic temples, such as the prostyle porch of the sanctuary of Athena on the Erechtheum, at the Acropolis of Athens. With the colonization by the Greeks of Southern Italy, hexastyle was adopted by the Etruscans and subsequently acquired by the ancient Romans. Roman taste favoured narrow pseudoperipteral and amphiprostyle buildings with tall columns, raised on podiums for the added pomp and grandeur conferred by considerable height; the Maison Carrée at Nîmes, France, is the best-preserved Roman hexastyle temple surviving from antiquity. Octastyle buildings had eight columns; the best-known octastyle buildings surviving from antiquity are the Parthenon in Athens, built during the Age of Pericles, the Pantheon in Rome. The destroyed Temple of Divus Augustus in Rome, the centre of the Augustan cult, is shown on Roman coins of the 2nd century CE as having been built in octastyle.
The decastyle has ten columns. The only known Roman decastyle portico is on the Temple of Venus and Roma, built by Hadrian in about 130 CE. Classical architecture List of classical architecture terms Hypostyle Loggia Stoa Porte-cochere "Greek architecture". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1968. Stierlin, Henri. Editor-in-chief Angelika Taschen, ed. Greece: From Mycenae to the Parthenon. Cologne: TASCHEN. ISBN 3-8228-1225-0. CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list Stierlin, Henri. Silvia Kinkle, ed; the Roman Empire: From the Etruscans to the Decline of the Roman Empire. Cologne: TASCHEN. ISBN 3-8228-1778-3
A bollard is a sturdy, vertical post. The term referred to a post on a ship or quay used principally for mooring boats, but is now used to refer to posts installed to control road traffic and posts designed to prevent ram raiding and car ramming attacks; the term is related to bole, meaning a tree trunk. The earliest citation given by the Oxford English Dictionary dates from 1844, although a reference in the Caledonian Mercury in 1817 describes bollards as huge posts. Simpler terms such as "post" appear to have been used; the Norman-French name boulard and Dutch bolder may be related. From the 17th and 18th centuries, old cannon were used as bollards on quaysides to help moor ships alongside; the cannon would be buried in the ground muzzle-first to half or two-thirds of their length, leaving the breech projecting above ground for attaching ropes. Such cannon can still be found. Bollards from the 19th century were purpose-made, but inherited a similar "cannon" shape. Wooden posts were used for basic traffic management from at least the beginning of the 18th century.
An early well-documented case is that of the "two oak-posts" set up next to the medieval Eleanor cross at Waltham Cross, Hertfordshire, in 1721, at the expense of the Society of Antiquaries of London, "to secure Waltham Cross from injury by Carriages". Similar posts can be seen in engravings. In the Netherlands, the Amsterdammertjes of Amsterdam were first erected in the 19th century, they became popular symbols of the city, but they are now being removed and replaced with elevated sidewalks. In the maritime contexts in which the term originates, a bollard is either a wooden or iron post found as a deck-fitting on a ship or boat, used to secure ropes for towing and other purposes; the Sailor's Word-Book of 1867 defines a bollard in a more specific context as "a thick piece of wood on the head of a whale-boat, round which the harpooner gives the line a turn, in order to veer it and check the animal's velocity". Mooring bollards are exactly cylindrical, but have a larger diameter near the top to discourage mooring warps from coming loose.
Single bollards sometimes include a cross rod to allow the mooring lines to be bent into a figure eight. Small mushroom-bollards are found on lock approaches for advancing boats waiting for lock access. A conventional measure of the pulling or towing power of a watercraft is known as bollard pull, is defined as the force exerted by a vessel under full power on a shore-mounted bollard through a tow-line. Bollards can be used either to control traffic intake size by limiting movements, or to control traffic speed by narrowing the available space. Israel's Transportation Research Institute found that putting bollards at highway exits to control traffic reduced accidents. Permanent bollards intended for traffic-control purposes may be mounted near enough to each other that they block ordinary cars, for instance, but spaced enough to permit special-purpose vehicles and bicycles to pass through. Bollards may be used to enclose car-free zones. Bollards and other street furniture are used to control overspill parking onto verges.
Tall slim fluorescent red or orange plastic bollards with reflective tape and removable heavy rubber bases are used in road traffic control where traffic cones would be inappropriate due to their width and ease of movement. Referred to as "delineators", the bases are made from recycled rubber, can be glued to the road surface to resist movement following minor impacts from passing traffic; the term "T-top bollards" refers to the T-bar moulded into the top for tying tape. Bollards are regarded as an economical and safe delineation system for motorways and busy arterial roads. Traffic bollards used in the US are similar to devices found throughout the UK, with the following exceptions: The traffic bollard shell displays the MUTCD "Keep Right" symbol. In addition, the traffic bollard has a yellow diamond below the "Keep Right" symbol instead of a yellow shield. Unlike many existing traffic bollards found in the UK, most new modern traffic bollards installed along roadways today are made of materials that make them collapsible.
When struck by a vehicle at low or high speed, the traffic bollard shell reverts to its original position with minimal to no damage to the unit. Internally illuminated traffic bollards have been in existence throughout the United Kingdom and Ireland since the 1930s, although the term "bollard" only seems to have been in common use since the late 1940s. An illuminated bollard has a recessed base light unit in the foundation which illuminates the traffic bollard from all angles; the main components are housed below the pedestrian surface. Therefore, if a vehicle strikes the traffic bollard, the units below the surface are not damaged, they are used at roundabout intersections within the splitter islands and at the ends of pedestrian refuge islands located at mid-block pedestrian crosswalks. Illuminated bollards are used in Hong Kong, a former British colony. Illuminated bollards are used
A carriage is a wheeled vehicle for people horse-drawn. The carriage is designed for private passenger use, though some are used to transport goods. A public passenger vehicle would not be called a carriage – terms for such include stagecoach and omnibus, it may be light and fast or heavy and comfortable or luxurious. Carriages have suspension using leaf springs, elliptical springs or leather strapping. Working vehicles such as the wagon and cart share important parts of the history of the carriage, as does too the fast chariot; the word carriage is from Old Northern French cariage. The word car meaning a kind of two-wheeled cart for goods came from Old Northern French about the beginning of the 14th century. A carriage is sometimes called a team, as in "horse and team". A carriage with its horse is a rig. An elegant horse-drawn carriage with its retinue of servants is an equipage. A carriage together with the horses and attendants is a turnout or setout. A procession of carriages is a cavalcade. X Some horsecarts found in Celtic graves show hints.
Four-wheeled wagons were used in the Bronze Age Europe, their form known from excavations suggests that the basic construction techniques of wheel and undercarriage were established then. Two-wheeled carriage models have been discovered from the Indus valley civilization including twin horse drawn covered carriages resembling ekka from various sites such as harappa, mohenjo daro and chanhu daro; the earliest recorded sort of carriage was the chariot, reaching Mesopotamia as early as 1900 BC. Used for warfare by Egyptians, the near Easterners and Europeans, it was a two-wheeled light basin carrying one or two passengers, drawn by one to two horses; the chariot was revolutionary and effective because it delivered fresh warriors to crucial areas of battle with swiftness. First century BC Romans used sprung wagons for overland journeys, it is that Roman carriages employed some form of suspension on chains or leather straps, as indicated by carriage parts found in excavations. During the Zhou dynasty of China, the Warring States were known to have used carriages as transportation.
With the decline of these city-states and kingdoms, these techniques disappeared. The medieval carriage was a four-wheeled wagon type, with a rounded top similar in appearance to the Conestoga Wagon familiar from the United States. Sharing the traditional form of wheels and undercarriage known since the Bronze Age, it likely employed the pivoting fore-axle in continuity from the ancient world. Suspension is recorded in visual images and written accounts from the 14th century, was in widespread use by the 15th century. Carriages were used by royalty and could be elaborately decorated and gilded; these carriages were on four wheels and were pulled by two to four horses depending on how they were decorated. Wood and iron were the primary requirements needed to build a carriage and carriages that were used by non-royalty were covered by plain leather. Another form of carriage was the pageant wagon of the 14th century. Historians debate the size of pageant wagons; the pageant wagon is significant because up until the 14th century most carriages were on two or 3 wheels.
Historians debate whether or not pageant wagons were built with pivotal axle systems, which allowed the wheels to turn. Whether it was a four- or six-wheel pageant wagon, most historians maintain that pivotal axle systems were implemented on pageant wagons because many roads were winding with some sharp turns. Six wheel pageant wagons represent another innovation in carriages. Pivotal axles were used on the middle set of wheels; this allowed the horse to move and steer the carriage in accordance with the road or path. One of the great innovations of the carriage was the invention of the suspended carriage or the chariot branlant. The'chariot branlant' of medieval illustrations was suspended by chains rather than leather straps as had been believed. Chains provided a smoother ride in the chariot branlant because the compartment no longer rested on the turning axles. In the 15th century, carriages were needed only one horse to haul the carriage; this carriage innovated in Hungary. Both innovations appeared around the same time and historians believe that people began comparing the chariot branlant and the Hungarian light coach.
However, the earliest illustrations of the Hungarian'Kochi-wagon' do not indicate any suspension, the use of three horses in harness. Under King Mathias Corvinus, who enjoyed fast travel, the Hungarians developed fast road transport, and
A mansion is a large dwelling house. The word itself derives through Old French from the Latin word mansio "dwelling", an abstract noun derived from the verb manere "to dwell"; the English word manse defined a property large enough for the parish priest to maintain himself, but a mansion is no longer self-sustaining in this way. Manor comes from the same root—territorial holdings granted to a lord who would "remain" there—hence it is obvious how the word mansion got its meaning. Within an ancient Roman city, aristocratic or just wealthy dwellings might be extensive, luxurious; such mansions on one hill in Rome became so extensive that the term palatial was derived from the name Palatine hill and is the etymological origin of "palace". Mansions of considerable size and state significance are called palaces. Following the fall of Rome the practice of building unfortified villas ceased. Today, the oldest inhabited mansions around the world began their existence as fortified castles in the Middle Ages.
As social conditions changed and stabilised fortifications were able to be reduced, over the centuries gave way to comfort. It became fashionable and possible for homes to be beautiful rather than grim and forbidding allowing for the development of the modern mansion. In British English a mansion block refers to a block of flats or apartments designed for the appearance of grandeur. In many parts of Asia, including Hong Kong and Japan, the word mansion refers to a block of apartments. In modern Japan, a "manshon", stemming from the English word "mansion", is used to refer to a multi-unit apartment complex or condominium. In Europe, from the 15th century onwards, a combination of politics and advancements in modern weaponry negated the need for the aristocracy to live in fortified castles; as a result, many were transformed into mansions without defences or demolished and rebuilt in a more modern, undefended style. Due to intermarriage and primogeniture inheritance amongst the aristocracy, it became common for one noble to own several country houses.
These would be visited rotationally throughout the year as their owner pursued the social and sporting circuit from country home to country home. Many owners of a country house would own a town mansion in their country's capital city; these town mansions were referred to as'houses' in London, hotels in Paris and palaces in most European cities elsewhere. It might be noted that sometimes the house of a clergyman was called a "mansion house"; as the 16th century progressed, Renaissance styles of architecture spread across Europe, the last vestiges of castle architecture and life changed. All evidence and odours of cooking and staff were banished from the principal parts of the house into distant wings, while the owners began to live in airy rooms, above the ground floor, with privacy from their servants, who were now confined, unless required, to their delegated areas—often the ground and uppermost attic floors; this was a period of great social change. The uses of these edifices paralleled that of the Roman villas.
It was vital for powerful people and families to keep in social contact with each other as they were the primary moulders of society. The rounds of visits and entertainments were an essential part of the societal process, as painted in the novels of Jane Austen. State business was discussed and determined in informal settings. Times of revolution reversed this value. During July/August 1789 a significant number of French country mansions were destroyed by the rural population as part of the Great Fear—a symbolic rejection of the feudal rights and restraints in effect under the ancient régime; until World War I it was not unusual for a moderately sized mansion in England such as Cliveden to have an indoor staff of 20 and an outside staff of the same size, in ducal mansions such as Chatsworth House the numbers could be far higher. In the great houses of Italy, the number of retainers was even greater than in England, it is doubtful that a 19th-century Marchesa would know the exact number of individuals who served her.
Most European mansions were the hub of vast estates. The 19th century saw the continuation of the building of mansions in the United States and Europe. Built by self-made men, these were smaller than those built by the old European aristocracy; these new builders of mansions did not confine themselves to just the then-fashionable Gothic tastes in architecture, but experimented with 19th-century versions of older Renaissance and Tudoresque styles. During the 19th century, like the major thoroughfares of all important cities, Fifth Avenue in New York City, was lined with mansions. Many of these were designed by the leading architects of the day in European gothic styles, were built by families who were making their fortunes, thus achieving their social aspirations. However, nearly all of these have now been demolished, thus depriving New York of a boulevard to rival, in the architectural sense, those in Paris, London or Rome—where the many large mansions and palazzi built or remo
A carport is a covered structure used to offer limited protection to vehicles cars, from rain and snow. The structure can either attached to a wall. Unlike most structures, a carport does not have four walls, has one or two. Carports allow for more ventilation. In particular, a carport prevents frost on the windshield. A "mobile" and/or "enclosed" carport has the same purpose as a standard carport. However, it may be removed/relocated and is framed with tubular steel and may have canvas or vinyl type covering which encloses the complete frame, including walls, it may have an accessible front entry or open entryway not attached to any structure or fastened in place by permanent means put held in place by stakes. It motorized equipment; the term "carport" comes from the French term "porte-cochère". Renowned architect Frank Lloyd Wright coined the term when he used a carport in the first of his "Usonian" home designs: the house of Herbert Jacobs, built in Madison, Wisconsin, in 1936. Quoting from the Carport Integrity Policy for the Arizona State Historic Preservation Office: As early as 1909, carports were used by the Prairie School architect Walter Burley Griffin in his design for the Sloane House in Elmhurst, Illinois.
By 1913, carports were being employed by other Prairie School architects such as the Minneapolis firm of Purcell, Feick & Elmslie in their design for a residence at Lockwood Lake, Wisconsin. In this instance, the carport was termed an "Auto Space"; the late architectural historian David Gebhard suggested that the term "carport" originated from the feature’s use in 1930s Streamline Moderne residences. This term, which entered popular jargon in 1939, stemmed from the visual connection between these streamlined residences and nautical imagery. In the 1930s through the 1950s, carports were being used by Frank Lloyd Wright in his Usonian Houses, an idea that he may have gotten from Griffin, a former associate; the W. B. Sloane House in Elmhurst, Illinois, in 1910, is credited as being the first known home designed with a carport. In describing the carport to Mr. Jacob, architect Wright said, "A car is not a horse, it doesn't need a barn." He added, "Cars are built well enough now so that they do not require elaborate shelter."
Cars prior to this time were not water tight. The carport was therefore a effective device for protecting a car. Mr. Jacobs added: "Our cheap second-hand car had stood out all winter at the curb in weather far below zero. A carport was a downright luxury for it." Modern carports are made of metal and are modular in style in the USA, while remaining flat-roofed permanent structures in much of the rest of the world. The carport is considered to be an economical method of protecting cars from the weather and sun damage; the metal carports in USA can be divided into Regular, Boxed-Eave, Vertical roof styles. They differ in the sturdiness; the carport and shadeport industry has modernized quite a lot over time. It is no longer just a roof covering for a car or vehicle but has extended itself to leisure uses such as awnings for a patio at home or a more modern designer shade sail. Variations of carports includes: - Shadeports - Carports - Patio Covers & Awnings - Outdoor Walkway Covers - Designer Shade Sails - Under decks