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Porth is a town and a community in the county borough of Rhondda Cynon Taf, within the historic county boundaries of Glamorgan, lying in the Rhondda Valley and is regarded as the gateway to the Rhondda Fawr and Rhondda Fach valleys because both valleys meet at Porth. The Welsh word "porth" means "gate". Porth is a predominantly English-speaking community. Neighbouring villages include Trealaw, Trebanog and Ynyshir. During prehistoric times the area now known as Porth was an uninhabited wooded area. Although there is evidence of settlements in the upper reaches of the valley, only cairns used as way-markers have been discovered on the higher points in the Porth area. During the medieval period the area came under the commote of Glynrhondda within the cantref of Penychen, though the area remained uninhabited. Although there were no permanent buildings of note at this time, it is known that the area would have experienced travelers with two bridges built over the River Rhondda at Porth, the Pont Rheola and Pont y Cymmer.

Both bridges date to at least the 1530s. These bridges were wooden in construct and were rebuilt in stone; the first buildings of note in the region were built to the south of Porth in the community known today as Cymmer a chapel, Capel y Cymmer and a mill on the south bank of the River Rhondda. By the 18th century there were a handful of farm houses in the northern slopes of Llwyncelyn. During this pre-industrial era, the locale was known as Cymmer, an old Welsh word that describes the point where two rivers converge, it was only during the industrial period that the mining operations of the Porth Estate and the subsequently named railway station that saw the name Porth adopted. In 1809, Walter Coffin sunk the first coal pit in the Rhondda, further up the valley in Dinas, but a lack of a transportation network affected the profitability of coal mining as an industry in the region. Coffin tackled this problem by constructing a one-mile tramline which connected his mines in Dinas to a tramline built by Dr. Richard Griffiths at Denia, which linked to a private canal that joined onto the Glamorganshire Canal at Treforest.

Coffins tramline ran through Porth. The existence of the tramline made the development of the Porth and Cymmer region far more attractive, by the middle of the 19th century there was an impetus to expand coal mining in the area. In 1841 Richard Lewis joined Coffin in trying to exploit the region with his level built at Cymmer; this resulted in the construction of around fifty miners' cottages, several of which were located in Porth. In 1844 Lewis Edwards of Newport and George Gethin of Penygraig opened a small level at Nyth-bran on the eastern borders of Porth, the villages' first coal mine; this was followed in 1845 by the sinking of the Porth Colliery by David James of Merthyr, the success of which saw him build the Llwyncelyn Colliery in 1851 in Porth. By 1850 the Taff Vale Railway had been extended to Cymmer replacing the tramline, allowing direct access between the lower Rhondda and the ports of Cardiff. In 1850 the Troedyrhiw Colliery, sunk on the northern borders of Porth and the neighbouring village of Ynyshir by Leonard Hadley of Caerleon five years earlier, came into the ownership of a new consortium known as the Troedyrhiw Coal Company.

This company was formed by James Thomas, a former miner, Matthew Cop, a Cardiff docksman and John Lewis, a grocer from Aberdare. In 1852 the same company opened the Tynewydd Colliery at the junction of the Rhondda Fawr and Fach rivers, Porth's fourth mine; the mine struck the Rhondda No. 3 seam, coking ovens were built at the surface, providing further employment. With the increase in population, transport links began to improve in the Rhondda; this was hampered by subsidence caused the mining underground, which resulted in the roads of Porth Square sinking by eight foot. In 1860 a two horsed omnibus service was introduced between Porth and Pontypridd, but was replaced by a system of horsedrawn tramcars in 1888. Although the tramline and subsequently the railway had passed through Porth for two decades, servicing the collieries, it was not until 1861 that the village had its first railway station; as the population continued to increase and infrastructure grew around the coal industry. The Rhondda Urban Council chose Porth as one of two sites to build gas works and the area around Porth Square and Hannah Street became the commercial centre of the village.

One of the more notable businesses to open in Porth was the Thomas & Evans grocers one of the first of a chain of shops owned by William Thomas and William Evans two entrepreneurs from Pembrokeshire. Evans became an important figure in the growth of Porth, in the late 1890s he opened a jam factory and the Welsh Hills Mineral Water factory to become Corona carbonated drinks which would remain a major manufacturer within the village up until the 1980s. Coal mining in the Rhondda continued to expand throughout the early 20th century, although no further mines were sunk in Porth; the population continued to grow but conditions became hard after the Great Depression, by the mid 1920s unemployment among mine workers rocketed. Matters worsened after the disastrous general strike of 1926 which saw many miners out of work for months; as mechanisation allowed other mining areas to become more profitable, the antiquated Rhondda mines sunk nearly 75 years earlier were unable to modernise and one-by-one began to close.

Porth, like the rest of the Rhondda, was built around the coal industry, with its collapse came mass unemploym

Musicianship of Brian Wilson

The songwriting of American musician Brian Wilson, co-founder and multi-tasking leader of the Beach Boys, is considered to be among the most innovative and significant of the late 20th century. His combined arranging and songwriting skills made him a major innovator in the field of music production. In a 1966 article that asks "Do the Beach Boys rely too much on sound genius Brian?" Brother and bandmate Carl Wilson said that while every member of the group contributed ideas, Brian was most responsible for their music. Dennis Wilson said: "Brian Wilson is the Beach Boys, he is the band. We're his fucking messengers, he is all of it. Period. We're nothing. He's everything."Wilson is referred to as a "genius". He cultivated his skills from an early age, learning how to play a toy accordion before moving on to piano. On his 16th birthday, he received a Wollensak tape recorder that allowed him to experiment with recording songs and early group vocals. With the exception of some college courses, his understanding of music theory was self-taught.

Most of his education in music composition came from deconstructing the harmonies of his favorite vocal group, the Four Freshmen, whose repertoire included songs by George Gershwin, Jerome Kern, Cole Porter. Another major influence came from the Ronettes' 1963 song "Be My Baby". For the decades that followed, Wilson fixated on Phil Spector's Wall of Sound technique showcased in "Be My Baby" and similar records; some of Wilson's stylistic markers include slash chords, key modulations, "stepwise falloffs", the use of minor seventh chords drawn from Burt Bacharach, piano triads "hammered" in eighths, a tendency for his harmonic progressions to wander far from the tonal center. Only 21 years old when he received the freedom to produce his own records with total creative autonomy, Wilson ignited an explosion of like-minded California producers, supplanting New York as the center of popular records, becoming the first rock producer to use the studio as a discrete instrument. Brian Wilson was born the son of a songwriter and machine business owner.

Speaking of Brian's unusual musical abilities prior to his first birthday, Murry said that, as a baby, Brian could repeat the melody from "When the Caissons Go Rolling Along" after only a few verses had been sung. Murry said, "He was clever and quick. I just fell in love with him." A few years he was discovered to have diminished hearing in his right ear. The exact cause of this hearing loss is unclear, though theories range from him being born deaf to a blow to the head from his father, or a neighborhood bully, being to blame. Although he was dubbed a perfectionist, Wilson was an inexperienced musician, his understanding of music theory was self-taught; the first instrument he learned to play was a toy accordion before moving to piano and bass guitar. From an early age, Brian demonstrated an extraordinary skill for learning music by ear on keyboard. By age 10, Brian could play "great boogie-woogie piano", according to brother Carl Wilson. Carl taught Brian, he stroked the strings using only his thumb, but switched to using a pick about a year later.

Brian's experiments with his Wollensak tape recorder provide early examples of his flair for exotica and unusual percussive patterns and arranging ideas that he would recycle in prominent work. At some point in 1961 he wrote his first all-original melody, loosely based on a Dion and the Belmonts version of "When You Wish Upon a Star"; the song was known as "Surfer Girl". Though an early demo of the song was recorded in February 1962 at World Pacific Studios, it was not re-recorded and released until 1963, when it became a top-ten hit. Among the distinct elements of the Beach Boys' style were their voices' nasal quality and the use of falsetto in their harmonies over a run-on melody. Jim Miller observed, "On straight rockers they sang tight harmonies behind Love's lead... on ballads, Brian played his falsetto off against lush, jazz-tinged voicings using unorthodox harmonic structures." Music theorist Daniel Harrison adds, "But the least distinguished of the Beach Boys' early uptempo rock'n' roll songs show traces of structural complexity at some level.

Lyric collaborator Van Dyke Parks argued that, "Wilson made music as accessible as a cartoon and yet rewarded repeated listening as much as Bach: Just as the best comic books can turn cliché into high art, so can the best pop music. Brian does that, he can take common or hackneyed material and raise it from a low place to the highest, he can do it with an economy of imagery that speaks to the casual observer—bam! It's no coincidence that he was working at the same time that Warhol and Lichtenstein were doing pop art." Wilson wrote in 1990: I was, by, an experienced song writer and I knew what each basic key meant to me.... Harmony means notes that are and mathematically related to each other, like 1, 3, 5; this is the basic chord of music. There's 1, 3, 5, 7; this is a more complex chord. It gets much more complex than that, but I try to keep it sounding simple, no matter how complex it is. Before 1966, Brian's mastery of songwriting proved that he was capable of applying odd harmonic progressions, unexpected disruptions of hypermeter, jazz theory, tempo changes, metrical ambiguity, unusual tone colors within a pop context.

He made on-the-spot decisions about notes and timbre. Through attending Phil Spector's sessions sporadically, Brian learned how to act as a producer for

Remesh Ramachandran

Remesh Ramachandran is an Indian ethical hacker. Working on numerous cyber crimes, Ramachandran has engaged with Indian Government and International agencies. Ramesh is a part of Google Hall of Fame. Ramesh has worked with finance companies, conducting security audits. Remesh Ramachandran is the founder of OpenPenTest, he has developed an OpenPenTest platform, available for security researchers, penetration testers and ethical hackers for performing vulnerability assessment and penetration testing. Besides, he serves as a Member of Advisory Board for the EC-Council and contributes for their certification exam CHFI, he is working as a CISO at Hazida Group. Remesh has submitted numerous research papers at several information security conferences such as DEF CON, BlackHat and Hackers Halted Google Hall of Fame spotting a bug known as Cross-site Scripting'Bug Bounties' and Acknowledgements from - United Nations, Microsoft, Lenovo, McAfee, Yahoo, eBay, Check Point, MasterCard, University of Cambridge, University of Twente and Harvard University

Conrad Vogt-Svendsen

Conrad Vogt-Svendsen was a Norwegian priest. He was assistant seamen's priest in Hamburg during Second World War, helped with the White Buses operation in 1945, was main priest for the deaf in Norway. Vogt-Svendsen was born in Kristiania, the son of shipmaster Johan Fredrik Svendsen and Elisabeth Fredrikke Emilie Larsen, he was married to his cousin Randi Bonnevie-Svendsen from 1945 to 1965, to Cecilie Torgersen from 1966. Vogt-Svendsen took his examen artium in 1933, studied theology at the University of Oslo, graduating in 1940. From 1942 to 1945 he was assistant priest at the seamen's church in Hamburg. Together with seamen's priest Arne Berge he worked among Scandinavian prisoners in Nazi Germany; the priests made thousands of visits on behalf of the prisoners' families. They helped the prisoners with clothes, tons of food, fish oil and medicines, brought to Hamburg by ships and distributed to various prisons, they were not allowed to visit the incarcerated in concentration camps, but delivered food supplies such as herring and fish oil to the camps.

They compiled extensive lists of prisons and prisoners, which were used as a basis for the White Buses. Vogt-Svendsen was decorated Knight, First class of the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav in 1945 for his war contributions. After the war, Vogt-Svendsen served as seamen's priest in the port city of Mobile, Alabama from 1945 to 1947, in the Italian seaport of Genoa from 1947 to 1951. From 1951 he managed the institution Hjemmet for Døve, a home for the deaf in Nordstrand, founded by his grandfather Conrad Svendsen. In 1968 he was appointed to the position of main priest for the deaf in Norway, he participated in organizations for deaf people, both nationally and internationally in the World Federation of the Deaf. He worked as an interpreter for deaf, was engaged in the development of sign language. 1948: Med Guds ord i fiendeland 1962: Menschen der Hoffnung

Aveleda (Bragan├ža)

Aveleda is a former freguesia in the municipality of Bragança, Portugal. In 2013, the parish merged into the new parish Aveleda e Rio de Onor; the population in 2011 was 196, in an area of 62.20 km². It is situated close to the northern border with Spain; the parish of Aveleda derives its name from the village, whose toponymy has a number of significances. For one, there is the Roman interpretation, derived from the Roman Avé Leda, which means beautiful place, while others assume that the name was derived from Veleda, a venerated Visigothic or Suebic priest of the 4th century. Another interpretation suggests. What is certain, is that this name only appeared during the 1250 Inquirições of Afonso III; this is because the area around Aveleda was under the protection of Spanish monasteries of Moreirola and San Martin de Castanheda. It was there that the celebrated Abbott of Baçal was parish priest, always travelling by foot and complying a dossier of his thoughts in Memórias Arqueológico: Históricas do Distrito de Bragança, a twelve-tome work detailing the municipal history.

In this case, he referred to the village of Varge, derived from varzena or varcena, a medieval term to designate artificial or natural low wetlands. The wells in this area are referred to by the local peoples as varja or varjas fish traps; the Matriz Church, on a slight elevation, dates back to the 18th century. The bridge that crosses the Pepim River in Aveleda, constructed on stone, was completed in 1952. Aveleda is located along the Portuguese-Spanish border within the Parque Natural de Montesinho, three kilometres northeast of the municipal seat of Bragança, it is characterized by hills and river-valleys, along a plateau with an average of 500 metres altitude. It is crossed by two water courses that flow from north to south: the Ribeira das Igrejas, which crosses the village of Varge, the Ribeira de Pepim, which intersects the village of Aveleda. Both ravines spring from the Serra de Pedralba, crossing from Spain, flow as tributaries of the Sabor River. There are several vestiges of historical architecture and rural constructions in this parish, that include: the two main historical springs/wells, which were subterranean channels of potable water.

The following were classified by IGESPAR as national monuments or architecturally significant heritage: Fountain of Pinela Church of São Cipriano, built in the 17th century, the parochial church of Aveleda was directed by the abbey Meixedo, before falling under the administration of Miranda. A register of azulejo is located above the main portal. Aves, Francisco Manuel, Memórias arqueológico-históricas do distrito de Bragança: repositório amplo de notícias corográficas, hidro-orográficas, geológicas, mineralógicas, hidrológicas, biobibliográficas, heráldicas, Bragança, Portugal: Câmara Municipal de Bragança

Lovers Rock (Sade album)

Lovers Rock is the fifth studio album by English band Sade. It was released on 13 November 2000 by Epic Records; the album was titled after a style of reggae music known as lovers rock, noted for its romantic sound and content, which frontwoman Sade Adu listened to in her youth. Lovers Rock was seen as a departure from the band's previous use of jazz elements, opting instead for a wider use of musical elements from soul music, R&B, soft rock, folk music, dub and lovers rock; the album's production has been characterised as spare, with simple arrangements and reggae flourishes. A concept album, the lyrics focus on both the positive and the negative sides of love. Upon release, Lovers Rock was met with positive reviews from music critics, who praised the band's musical direction; the album earned Sade the Grammy Award for Best Pop Vocal Album in 2002. Commercially, the album reached number 18 on the UK Albums Chart and number three on the US Billboard 200, it has since been certified triple platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America, having sold 3.9 million copies in the United States by February 2010.

The album spawned two singles—"By Your Side" and "King of Sorrow"—and was further promoted by the band's Lovers Rock Tour. Following the release of Love Deluxe, the band began an eight-year hiatus, during which Adu would experience media scrutiny and give birth to her first child; the band's fourth studio album, Love Deluxe, was released on 26 October 1992. The album peaked at number three on the US Billboard 200 and has sold 3.4 million copies in the United States. It was certified four-times platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America for shipments of four million copies; the album was commercially successful elsewhere, reaching number one in France and the top 10 in the Netherlands, New Zealand, Sweden and the United Kingdom. Following the release of Love Deluxe, the band took an eight-year hiatus, during which Adu came under media scrutiny with rumours of depression and addiction, went on to give birth to her first child. During this time, the other members of the band—Stuart Matthewman, Paul S. Denman, Andrew Hale—worked on side projects, including the band Sweetback, which released a self-titled album in 1996.

Matthewman played a major role in the development of Maxwell's career, providing instrumentation and production work for the R&B singer's first two albums. Lovers Rock was recorded in only a year, was influenced by Adu's experiences during the eight-year hiatus; the album's recording took place between September 1999 and August 2000 at three locations—Sarm Hook End and Deliverance Studios, both in London, El Cortijo Studios in San Pedro de Alcántara, Spain. The band arranged the album. Mike Pela helped with the co-production of the album and its recording, Andy "Nipper" Davies served as the assistant engineer and Tom Coyne mastered Lovers Rock. Additional help came from a variety of people. Karl Van Den Bossche supplied the album's percussion, while Nick Ingman supplied the string arrangements on the song "King of Sorrow". Andy Nice provided the cello on "Every Word" and Janusz Podrazik provided keyboards on two of the album's songs "Immigrant" and "It's Only Love That Gets You Through", additional vocals for the album came from vocalist Leroy Osbourne.

The album's recording and themes were inspired by Adu's experiences during the previous decade of how she had become preoccupied with the complexity of other people's lives and unhappy. Unlike Sade's previous work, Lovers Rock did not contain saxophones or instrumentation, but instead spare, deceptively simple arrangement—sometimes no more than an acoustic guitar; the album's music borrowed reverb and echo effects from dub as well as an ease and fluidity, tougher beats and basslines, from R&B. Ed Hogan of AllMusic stated that Lovers Rock was the first album by the band that contained a more experimental sound with the infusion of mainstream rock elements and strummed guitars. According to Rob Sheffield of Rolling Stone, Lovers Rock has a "light groover", with each song lasting around five minutes, Sheffield continued to state that the drumming on the album continues through each song, with "slight reggae flourishes" throughout. Lovers Rock was described as a collection of songs with sparse arrangements, based upon acoustic guitars with applied beats.

Lovers Rock was seen as offering a more stripped-down, subtle backdrop than the band's previous work, the album's production saw the use of modern dance beats and reggae. Lovers Rock was described as a concept album by Sal Cinquemani Slant Magazine, who stated the album was lyrically a "soundtrack for lovers, lovers who are in love and making love and lovers who have been scorned." Cinquemani noted political themes of two of the album's songs, "Slave Song" and "Immigrant", which were noted as social statements. Lovers Rock contains a continuous composition, with each song leading to the next with a "united flow." The album's lyrics were described as being fixated on the themes of love and rejection. The album opens with the lead single "By Your Side", a hymnlike song that received comparisons to "A Whiter Shade of Pale" and "No Woman, No Cry". Lyrically, Adu insists. "Flow" is sonically a mixture of folky acoustic guitar, slow-paced hip hop loops, layered harmonies. "King of Sorrow" explores the complexities of a faltering relationship, in which Adu is torn between what she has invested and the opportunities she might be missing.

"The Sweetest