Boston Lodge Halt railway station
Boston Lodge Halt in North Wales is an unstaffed halt on the narrow gauge Ffestiniog Railway, built in 1836 to carry dressed slate from Blaenau Ffestiniog to Porthmadog for export by sea. This halt opened in July 1928 and is situated behind the picture in the side panel, accessed from a steep road off from the A487 road at the start of a footpath leading to Portmeirion, it is at a distance of just over 1 mile from Porthmadog. The halt closed on 15 September 1939 and reopened on 23 July 1955. For that short 1955 season of the re-opening of the Festiniog Railway, Boston Lodge Halt was the temporary terminus, its main use is chiefly by visitors and staff to the adjacent Boston Lodge Works of the Festiniog Railway Company and by a few walkers. Trains call at this halt only on request and intending passengers are advised to check with train guard before embarking on their journey. Boyd, James I. C.. The Festiniog Railway 1800 - 1974; the British Narrow Gauge Railway. Blandford: The Oakwood Press. ISBN 978-0-85361-167-7.
OCLC 2074549. B1A. Boyd, James I. C.. The Festiniog Railway 1800 - 1974; the British Narrow Gauge Railway. Blandford: The Oakwood Press. ISBN 978-0-85361-168-4. OCLC 874117875. B1B. Mitchell, Vic. Porthmadog to Blaenau. West Sussex: Middleton Press. Figs. 39-40. ISBN 9781873793503. OCLC 877269886; the Ffestiniog Railway Company's website Ffestiniog Railway Timetables Multimap Map of Boston Lodge
Caernarfon is a royal town and port in Gwynedd, with a population of 9,615. It lies along the A487 road, on the eastern shore of the Menai Strait, opposite the Isle of Anglesey; the city of Bangor is 8.6 miles to the north-east, while Snowdonia fringes Caernarfon to the east and south-east. Carnarvon and Caernarvon are Anglicised spellings that were superseded in 1926 and 1974, respectively; the villages of Bontnewydd and Caeathro are close by. The town is noted for its high percentage of native Welsh speakers. Due to this, Welsh is the predominant language of the town. Abundant natural resources in and around the Menai Strait enabled human habitation in prehistoric Britain; the Ordovices, a Celtic tribe, lived in the region during the period known as Roman Britain. The Roman fort Segontium was established around AD 80 to subjugate the Ordovices during the Roman conquest of Britain; the Romans occupied the region until the end of Roman rule in Britain in 382, after which Caernarfon became part of the Kingdom of Gwynedd.
In the late 11th century, William the Conqueror ordered the construction of a motte-and-bailey castle at Caernarfon as part of the Norman invasion of Wales. He was unsuccessful, Wales remained independent until around 1283. In the 13th century, Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, ruler of Gwynedd, refused to pay homage to Edward I of England, prompting the English conquest of Gwynedd; this was followed by the construction of Caernarfon Castle, one of the largest and most imposing fortifications built by the English in Wales. In 1284, the English-style county of Caernarfonshire was established by the Statute of Rhuddlan; the ascent of the House of Tudor to the throne of England eased hostilities between the English and resulted in Caernarfon Castle falling into a state of disrepair. The city has flourished, leading to its status as a major tourist centre and seat of Gwynedd Council, with a thriving harbour and marina. Caernarfon experienced heavy suburbanisation, its population includes the largest percentage of Welsh-speaking citizens anywhere in Wales.
The status of Royal Borough was granted by Queen Elizabeth II in 1963 and amended to Royal Town in 1974. The castle and town walls are part of a World Heritage Site described as the Castles and Town Walls of King Edward in Gwynedd; the present city of Caernarfon grew up around and owes its name to its Norman and late Medieval fortifications. The earlier British and Romano-British settlement at Segontium was named for the nearby Afon Seiont. After the end of Roman rule in Britain around 410, the settlement continued to be known as Cair Segeint and as Cair Custoient, of the History of the Britons, cited by James Ussher in Newman's life of Germanus of Auxerre, both of whose names appear among the 28 civitates of sub-Roman Britain in the Historia Brittonum traditionally ascribed to Nennius; the work states that the inscribed tomb of "Constantius the Emperor" was still present in the 9th century. The medieval romance about Maximus and Elen, Macsen's Dream, calls her home Caer Aber Sein and other pre-conquest poets such as Hywel ab Owain Gwynedd used the name Caer Gystennin.
The Norman motte was erected apart from the existing settlement and came to be known as y gaer yn Arfon, "the fortress in Arfon". A 1221 charter by Llywelyn the Great to the canons of Penmon priory on Anglesey mentions Kaerinarfon. In 1283, King Edward I completed his conquest of Wales which he secured by a chain of castles and walled towns; the construction of a new stone Caernarfon Castle seems to have started as soon as the campaign had finished. Edward's architect, James of St. George, may well have modelled the castle on the walls of Constantinople being aware of the town's legendary associations. Edward's fourth son, Edward of Caernarfon Edward II of England, was born at the castle in April 1284 and made Prince of Wales in 1301. A story recorded in the 16th century suggests that the new prince was offered to the native Welsh on the premise "that was borne in Wales and could speake never a word of English", however there is no contemporary evidence to support this. Caernarfon was constituted a borough in 1284 by charter of Edward I.
The charter, confirmed on a number of occasions, appointed the mayor of the borough Constable of the Castle ex officio. The former municipal borough was designated a royal borough in 1963; the borough was abolished by the Local Government Act 1972 in 1974, the status of "royal town" was granted to the community which succeeded it. Caernarfon was the county town of the historic county of Caernarfonshire. In 1911, David Lloyd George Member of Parliament for Caernarfon boroughs, which included various towns from Llŷn to Conwy, agreed to the British Royal Family's idea of holding the investiture of the Prince of Wales at Caernarfon Castle; the ceremony took place on 13 July, with the royal family paying a rare visit to Wales, the future Edward VIII was duly invested. In 1955 Caernarfon was in the running for the title of Capital of Wales on historical grounds but the town's campaign was defeated in a ballot o
North Wales is a region of Wales. Retail and educational infrastructure are centred on Wrexham, Colwyn Bay and Bangor, it is bordered to the rest of Wales with the counties of Ceredigion and Powys, to the east by the English counties of Shropshire and Cheshire. North Wales was traditionally divided into three regions: Upper Gwynedd, defined as the area north of the River Dyfi and west of the River Conwy); the division with the rest of Wales depends on the particular use being made. For example, the boundary of North Wales Police differs from the boundary of the North Wales area of the Natural Resources Wales and the North Wales Regional Transport Consortium; the historic boundary follows the pre-1996 county boundaries of Merionethshire and Denbighshire which in turn follows the geographic features of the river Dovey to Aran Fawddwy crossing the high moorlands following the watershed until reaching Cadair Berwyn and following the river Rhaeadr and river Tanat to the Shropshire border. Montgomeryshire, one of the historic counties of Wales, is sometimes referred to as being in North Wales.
The region is steeped in history and was for a millennium known as the Kingdom of Gwynedd. The mountainous stronghold of Snowdonia formed the nucleus of that realm and would become the last redoubt of independent Wales — only overcome in 1283. To this day it remains a stronghold of the Welsh language and a centre for Welsh national and cultural identity; the area is home to two of the three UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Wales. These are Pontcysyllte Aqueduct and canal and, the Edwardian castles and town walls of the region which comprise those at Caernarfon, Beaumaris and Harlech, it shares with Powys and Ceredigion the distinction of hosting the only UNESCO Biosphere reserve in Wales, Biosffer Dyfi Biosphere. The region is made up of the following administrative areas: the county borough of Wrexham the county of Flintshire the county of Denbighshire the county borough of Conwy the county of Gwynedd the county of the Isle of Anglesey In addition to the six Local Authority divisions, North Wales is divided into the following preserved counties for various ceremonial purposes: the preserved county of Clwyd the preserved county of Gwynedd North Wales was a European Parliament constituency until 1999.
There is an electoral region for the National Assembly for Wales with the name, which covers the northeast of Wales as well as the northern-most coastal areas of north-western Wales. The area is rural with many mountains and valleys. This, in combination with its coast, means. Farming, once the principal economic force in the area, is now much reduced in importance; the average income per capita of the local population is the lowest in the UK and much of the region has EU Objective 1 status. The eastern part of North Wales contains the most populous areas, with more than 300,000 people living in the areas around Wrexham and Deeside. Wrexham, with a population of 63,084 in 2001 is the largest town; the total population of North Wales is 687,937. The majority of other settlements are along the coast, including some popular resort towns, such as Rhyl, Llandudno and Tywyn; the A55 road links these towns to cities like Manchester and Birmingham and the port of Holyhead for ferries to Ireland. There are two cathedral cities – Bangor and St. Asaph – and a number of mediaeval castles The area of North Wales is about 6,172 square kilometres, making it larger than the country of Brunei, or the island of Bali.
The highest mountain in Wales and Ireland, is Snowdon in northwest Wales. North Wales has a diverse and complex geology with Precambrian schists along the Menai Strait and the great Cambrian dome behind Harlech and underlying much of western Snowdonia. In the Ordovician period much volcanism deposited a range of minerals and rocks over the north western parts of Gwynedd whilst to the east of the River Conwy lies a large area of upland rolling hills underlain by the Silurian mudstones and grits comprising the Denbigh and Migneint Moors. To the east, around Llangollen, to the north on Halkyn Mountain and the Great Orme and in eastern Anglesey are beds of limestone from which metals have been mined since pre-Roman times. Added to all this are the complexities posed by Parys Mountain and the outcrops of unusual minerals such as Jasper and Mona Marble which make the area of special interest to geologists. North Wales has a distinct regional identity, its dialect of the Welsh language differs from that of other regions, such as South Wales, in some ways: for example llefrith is used in most of the North instead of llaeth for "milk".
Waunfawr is a large village and community, 6 kilometres SE of Caernarfon, near the Snowdonia National Park, Gwynedd, in Wales. The community had a population of 1,427 at the 2011 census; the ward had a population of 1,676 at the 2011 census, includes Caeathro nearer to Caernarfon. It is on the A4085 road from Caernarfon to Beddgelert. Waunfawr railway station on the Welsh Highland Railway between Caernarfon and Porthmadog adjoins the Snowdonia Park Brewpub and Campsite at the southern end of the village; the brewpub is a recent winner of the Campaign for Real Ale award for a number of its beers and voted best pub in the region for 2012. The name Waunfawr was spelled Waenfawr, a garbled version corrected by common consent in 1994 consistent with the aims of the Welsh Language Society to maintain the Welsh language in its proper form throughout public signage and usage. According to the United Kingdom Census 2011, the percentage of Welsh language speakers above age 3 was 79.5%. This was a 1.4% increase since the previous census in 2001.
The local landscape reflects the village name, with the nearby mountains such as Mynydd Mawr and Moel Eilio, with views of Snowdon, the highest mountain in Wales, possible from some locations. There are a number of tourist locations for camping in Waunfawr and there is the opportunity to enjoy trekking and other Snowdonia National Park activities such as canoeing and mountain climbing. Glan Gwna is a grade II* listed country house, which stands in the 200 acres Glan Gwna estate within the community of Waunfawr on the banks of the River Seiont; the estate is now the Glan Gwna Holiday Park. In 1893 the estate was bought by the wealthy slate quarry owner John Ernest Greaves, who owned Bron Eifion, near Criccieth, he rebuilt it. On his death in 1945, Glan Gwna was left to his granddaughter Dorothy, who had married a cousin, William Flower of the brewing family, the estate farms were subsequently sold. In the 1950s the estate was bought by a local businessman as a caravan park. During the 1970s, under new ownership, the estate became a holiday park, with 45 of the 200 acres dedicated to lodges and cottages.
The local social enterprise, Antur Waunfawr, created by R. Gwynn Davies, in 1984, among its many initiatives, has three sites, with the Bryn Pistyll site at Waunfawr housing the organisation's head office; this site has proved to be a popular attraction for local people and tourists alike, as it includes a seven-acre nature park, Blas y Waun café, a crafts shop and a children's play area. Antur provides work and training opportunities to adults with learning difficulties, operates a green agenda, with their other sites recycling everything from cardboard to curtains; the Marconi Company built a large high-powered longwave wireless telegraph transmitting station on the hilltop above the village in 1914 which worked in association with its receiving station at Tywyn. The station initiated commercial transatlantic wireless service from London to New York City in 1920, it replaced Marconi's transatlantic wireless service from Clifden, Ireland to Canada, after the Clifden station was destroyed in the Irish Civil War in 1922.
The building was until used as a climbing centre called Beacon Climbing, which has since relocated to Caernarfon town. There are many recreational facilities available in Waunfawr, from playing snooker to playing football on the all-weather pitch. There is a youth club and a junior football club; the village has its own school teaching local children up to the age of 11, called Ysgol Waunfawr. The village has a number of interesting church buildings, some of them dating back over 150 years and possessing classic forms of masonry and architecture. John Evans was produced an early map of the Missouri River in North America. Griffith Williams, a bardic pupil of Dafydd Ddu Eryri. Owen Williams and the author of a Welsh dictionary. William Henry Preece, pioneer in the development of the telephone, mentor to Guglielmo Marconi Waunfawr was the name of a village which now forms a northern suburb of Aberystwyth and is not recognized any more geographically. Hari Williams and His Wireless Stations in Wales.
ISBN 0-86381-536-7 Antur Waunfawr website A Short History of the Marconi Long Wave Transmitting Station Chamois Mountaineering Club www.geograph.co.uk: photos of Waunfawr and surrounding area Ysgol Waunfawr Snowdonia Parc Brewpub & Campsite Map sources for Waunfawr
Traeth Mawr is a polder near Porthmadog in Gwynedd in Wales. The area was the large tidal estuary of the Afon Glaslyn, it was created after large-scale land reclamation occurred in the late 18th century and the early 19th century. A large embankment, called the Cob, separates the area from the sea and carries a road and railway line; the original estuary of the Afon Glaslyn was a dangerous place. In the late 18th century, various landowners around the edge of the estuary began to systematically reclaim land of between 50 acres and 100 acres. Between 1770 and 1800 this resulted in the creation of about 1,500 acres of new land. Around 1798, William Madocks bought the Tan-yr-Allt estate near Penmorfa Marsh. Soon afterwards he reclaimed an area of sand from the sea and the river by building a 2 mi earthen bank from Prenteg to Clog-y-Berth; the township of Tremadog was founded within the new area. A wooden-tracked railway was used in the dyke's construction; the rails were used by the Croesor Tramway.
In 1807 Madocks obtained a Private Act of Parliament permitting him to complete the reclamation of Traeth Mawr. Between 1808 and 1811 an embankment called "the Cob" was constructed from the island of Ynys Towyn to Boston Lodge in the Meirionnydd; the massive stone-lined earthwork was 1,600 yards long, 90 feet wide at the bottom, tapering to 18 feet at the top, 21 feet above the level of the river. The work completed the reclamation of 1,500 acres of Traeth Mawr. Soon after completion in 1812, the embankment was breached in a violent storm. Repairs were completed by the end of September 1814. Although the original estimate to complete The Cob was £23,500, it cost Madocks £60,000 to finish. At its seaward end, Traeth Mawr joins "Traeth Bach", the estuary of the Afon Dwyryd. In 1836, the Ffestiniog Railway began using The Cob when it built a tramroad to transport slate from the quarries around the inland town of Blaenau Ffestiniog to Porthmadog where it was loaded onto ships. Empty wagons were hauled back up to the quarries by horses.
Loaded dandy waggons used gravity to run downhill from Blaenau Ffestiniog to the port across The Cob. After a number of trials and some modifications, the line was upgraded to a narrow gauge railway in 1863. In 1927 the Cob was breached again, took several months to repair. A carriageway was constructed at a lower level on the inland side to take a public highway; until September 2003, when The Cob was bought by the Welsh Assembly Government, all vehicles crossing the embankment were required to pay a toll. The collection of fees caused traffic jams at peak holiday travel times: it was not exceptional for queues to back up to 1 mile in each direction. In 2002, the highway across the Cob was widened while a separate path was added for walkers and cyclists; the pedestrian route now forms part of Lôn Las Cymru, the national cycle route from Holyhead to Cardiff. In 2010 work started on the Porthmadog and Tremadog bypass to reduce the amount of through traffic in the town. On completion the original course of the A487 across The Cob was renumbered as the A4971.
In 2012, 260 m of the embankment were widened on the seaward side of the Porthmadog end to allow a second platform to be constructed at the Ffestiniog & Welsh Highland Railway's Harbour Station. Boyd, James I. C.. The Festiniog Railway 1800 - 1974; the British Narrow Gauge Railway. Blandford: The Oakwood Press. ISBN 978-0-85361-167-7. OCLC 2074549. B1A. Google Earth view of Porthmadog and Traeth Mawr Google Earth ground-level view across Traeth Mawr
The Ffestiniog Railway is a 1 ft 11 1⁄2 in narrow-gauge heritage railway, located in Gwynedd, Wales. It is a major tourist attraction located within the Snowdonia National Park; the railway is 13 1⁄2 miles long and runs from the harbour at Porthmadog to the slate mining town of Blaenau Ffestiniog, travelling through forested and mountainous scenery. The line is single track throughout with four intermediate passing places; the first mile of the line out of Porthmadog runs atop an embankment locally called the Cob, the dyke of the Traeth Mawr "polder". The Festiniog Railway Company which owns the railway is the oldest surviving railway company in the world, it owns the Welsh Highland Railway, re-opened in 2011. The two railways share the same track gauge and meet at Porthmadog station, with occasional trains working the entire 40-mile route from Blaenau Ffestiniog to Caernarfon; the railway company is properly known as the "Festiniog Railway Company". The single F spelling is in the official title of the company in the Act.
It is the oldest surviving railway company in the world, having been founded by the Act of Parliament on 23 May 1832 with capital raised in Dublin by Henry Archer, the company's first secretary and managing director. Most British railways were amalgamated into four large groups in 1921 and into British Railways in 1948 but the Festiniog Railway Company, like most narrow-gauge railways, remained independent. In 1921, this was due to political influence, whereas in 1947 it was left out of British Railways because it was closed for traffic, despite vigorous local lobbying for it to be included. Various important developments in the Railway's early history were celebrated by the firing of rock cannon at various points along the line. Cannon were fired, for instance, to mark the laying of the first stone at Creuau in 1833, the railway's opening in 1836, the opening of the Moelwyn Tunnel in 1842; the passing of a Act for the railway saw cannon celebrations, but on this occasion a fitter at Boston Lodge, assisting with firing, lost the fingers of one hand in an accident.
The line was constructed between 1833 and 1836 to transport slate from the quarries around the inland town of Blaenau Ffestiniog to the coastal town of Porthmadog where it was loaded onto ships. The railway was graded so that loaded wagons could be run by gravity downhill all the way from Blaenau Ffestiniog to the port; the empty wagons were hauled back up by horses. To achieve this continuous grade, the line followed natural contours and employed cuttings and embankments built of stone and slate blocks without mortar. Prior to the completion in 1842 of a long tunnel through a spur in the Moelwyn Mountain, the slate trains were worked over the top via inclines, the site of which can still be seen although there are few visible remnants. Up to six trains daily were operated in each direction and a printed timetable was published on 16 September 1856 by Charles Easton Spooner who, following his father, served as Manager and Clerk for 30 years, it shows departures from the Quarry Terminus at 7:30, 9:28, 11:16, 1:14, 3:12 and 5:10.
Trains waited ten minutes at the intermediate stations called Tunnel Halt, Hafod y Llyn and Rhiw Goch. The fastest journey time from Quarry Terminus to Boston Lodge was 1 hour 32 minutes, including three stops. From Boston Lodge, the slate wagons were hauled to and from Porthmadog harbour by horses. Up trains took nearly six hours from Boston Lodge to the Quarry Terminus and each train ran in up to four sections, each hauled by a horse and comprising eight empty slate wagons plus a horse dandy; this timetable gave a maximum annual capacity of 70,000 tons of dressed slate. Two brakesmen travelled on each down train, controlling the speed by the application of brakes as needed. At passing loops, trains passed on the right and this continues to be a feature of Ffestiniog Railway operation. There is evidence for tourist passengers being carried as early as 1850 without the blessing of the Board of Trade, but these journeys would observe the timetable. Hafod y Llyn was replaced by Tan y Bwlch around 1872.
Dinas Station and much of that branch is now all but buried under slate waste. Occasional confusion arises because places named Hafod y Llyn Isaf and Dinas exist on the Welsh Highland Railway, albeit 10 miles or more to the northwest of those on the FR; the railway employed just one police officer. Board of Trade returns for 1884 show. In more recent times the British Transport Police made friendly overtures and were politely informed that the FR had powers to swear its own constables. During the late 1850s it became clear that the line was reaching its operational capacity, while the output of the Blaenau Ffestiniog slate quarries continued to rise. In 1860, the board of the company began to investigate the possibility of introducing steam locomotives to increase the carrying capacity of the railway. Although narrow-gauge steam locomotives had been tried before this few had been built to so narrow a gauge. In 1862 the company advertised for manufacturers to tender to build the line's first locomotives.
In February 1863, the bid of George England and Co. was accepted and production of the first locomotives was begun. The first of these locomotives, Mountaineer' was delivered to P
Rhyd Ddu is a small village in Snowdonia, North Wales, a starting point for walks up Snowdon, Moel Hebog, Yr Aran and the Nantlle Ridge. It lies on the A4085 between Beddgelert and Caernarfon, at its junction with the B4418 to Nantlle and Penygroes. Rhyd Ddu railway station is one of the stops of the Welsh Highland Railway between Caernarfon and Porthmadog. T. H. Parry-Williams, the poet and academic was born and raised at Rhyd Ddu, he twice won both the Chair and the Crown at the National Eisteddfod, in 1912 and 1915. Walks from Rhyd Ddu and local information The Rhyd-Ddu and Y Garn Walk A blog about a model of Rhyd Ddu station and Fridd Isaf www.geograph.co.uk: photos of Rhyd Ddu and surrounding area Map sources for Rhyd-ddu