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Porto Alegre

Porto Alegre is the capital and largest city of the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. Founded in 1769 by Manuel Sepúlveda, its population of 1,481,019 inhabitants makes it the tenth most populous city in the country and the centre of Brazil's fifth largest metropolitan area, with 4,405,760 inhabitants; the city is the southernmost capital city of a Brazilian state. Porto Alegre was founded in 1769 by Manuel Jorge Gomes de Sepúlveda, who used the pseudonym José Marcelino de Figueiredo to hide his identity; the vast majority of the population is of European descent. The city lies on the eastern bank of the Guaíba River, where five rivers converge to form the Lagoa dos Patos, a giant freshwater lagoon navigable by the largest of ships; this five-river junction has become an important alluvial port as well as a chief industrial and commercial center of Brazil. In recent years, Porto Alegre hosted the World Social Forum, an initiative of several non-government organizations; the city became famous for being the first city.

The 9th Assembly of the World Council of Churches was held in Porto Alegre in 2006. Since 2000, Porto Alegre hosts one of the world's largest free software events, called FISL; the city was one of the host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup, having been a venue for the 1950 FIFA World Cup. In the middle of 2010's, Porto Alegre had a growing wave of violence, being ranked as 39th among the world's 50 most violent cities in 2017; the number of violent crimes has been dropping since 2018. The official date of the foundation of the city of Porto Alegre is 26 March 1772 by Manuel Sepúlveda, when Freguesia de São Francisco do Porto dos Casais was created and changed a year to Nossa Senhora da Madre de Deus de Porto Alegre. However, the village started in 1752, when 60 Azorean couples were brought over by the Treaty of Madrid in order to set up Missions at the Northeast Region of Rio Grande do Sul, handed over to the Portuguese Crown in exchange for the Sacramento Colony located on the margin of the Plata River.

Land demarcation took a long time and the Azoreans settled permanently at Porto de Viamão, the first name by which Porto Alegre went by. On 24 July 1773, Porto Alegre became the capital city of the province, when the administration of Manuel Sepúlveda, who used the fictitious name or pseudonym José Marcelino de Figueiredo, to hide their identity started. In 1824, immigrants from all over the world started arriving German, Spanish, Polish and Lebanese; this mosaic of diversity in appearance, ethnic origin and languages is what makes Porto Alegre, nowadays with nearly 1.5 million inhabitants, a cosmopolitan and multicultural city. The city is an example of plurality; the capital city of Rio Grande do Sul is the capital city of the Pampas region, the name given to the region of fauna and flora typical of the vast plains that dominate the landscape of the South of Brazil, part of Argentina and Uruguay. This is where the Gaúcho comes from, the historical figure of a brave warrior that fought legendary battles and wars in the quest to conquer the borders of the Kingdoms of Portugal and Spain in the 16th century.

There were many wars, but it was the nineteenth century that marked its people, after they fought a long war for their independence from the Brazilian Empire. The Farrapos War started with the confrontation in Porto Alegre, near the Azenha bridge on 20 September 1835. Albeit terminated, this conflict etched in the pages of history the myth of the gaucho, until our days praised in songs and celebrated in annual pageants and honored as names of streets and parks; when the Farrapos War ended, the city continued to develop and underwent strong urban restructuring during the last decades of the 18th century, driven by the accelerated growth of port-related activities and shipyards. Its development continued over time and the city kept abreast with cultural and social events that were taking place within Brazil. Porto Alegre is the birthplace of great writers, artists and episodes that marked the history of Brazil; the city became known worldwide in 1963 through hosting the World University Games.

In 1985, the people of Porto Alegre joined the movement for free elections and one of the largest demonstrations took place in the city. The city is on a delta resulting from the junction of five rivers called Guaíba Lake. Although its origins date from the mid-18th century, when immigrants from the Azores settled in the area, the city was established in 1742. Porto Alegre is one of one of the most diverse, it has welcomed immigrants from all over the world, the largest numbers coming from Portugal, Italy and Poland. There are significant Arab and Jewish contingents among its population; the Afro-Brazilian population of the state is concentrated in the city. Before this, Porto Alegre was the port of Viamão on the shore of Guaíba Lake, its previous name was Porto dos Casais, it was settled by Azoreans. Many families of settlers came from the city of Rio Grande in the littoral Lagunar region, to the south, a military fortress at that time. Today Rio Grande is the most important port of the State of Rio Grande do Sul.

The city is known as "Porto do Sol" and "Cidade Sorriso". More than 70 neighborhoods are part of the city and t

Control (Pedro the Lion album)

Control is the third full-length album by Pedro the Lion. It was released on April 2002 on Jade Tree Records, it is a concept album about a businessman, having an extramarital affair, his untimely death at the hands of his spurned wife. It covers such subject matter as infidelity, greed, commercialism and fear of death. All songs by Bazan except "Penetration" and "Second Best", which were co-written with Casey Foubert. "Options" – 3:56 "Rapture" – 3:26 "Penetration" – 3:55 "Indian Summer" – 3:21 "Progress" – 4:09 "Magazine" – 4:01 "Rehearsal" – 3:48 "Second Best" – 6:00 "Priests And Paramedics" – 4:35 "Rejoice" – 3:11 David Bazanvocals, guitars, bass guitar, keyboards Casey Foubert – bass guitar, guitars, percussion Design and Illustration by Ryan Clark for Asterik Studio

River Mellte

Afon Mellte or the River Mellte is a river in south Wales. It is formed by the confluence of the Afon Dringarth, it flows south through the village of Ystradfellte to Pontneddfechan where it joins with the Nedd Fechan to become the River Neath. The river derives its name from'mellt' - the Welsh word for'lightning' - after its tendency to rise and fall in response to heavy rainfall; the entire river runs underground for 1/2 km at Porth yr Ogof as it crosses the Carboniferous Limestone outcrop. It resurges at Pwll Glas. There are fifteen known entrances to the cave system, it is a complex maze of passageways and small developed along one or two major bedding planes. In extreme flood conditions the entire cave can flood to the roof, it is used by school and adventure groups though sections of the cave can be hazardous for the unwary. There have been a number of fatalities over the years. Downstream of Porth-yr-Ogof and within'Waterfall Country', the river flows over several falls, the most significant of which are Sgwd Clun-gwyn, Sgwd Isaf Clun-gwyn and Sgwd y Pannwr - meaning'white meadow fall','lower white meadow fall' and'fall of the woollen washer'.

The larger part of the river and its valley is protected both as a site of special scientific interest and as a special area of conservation in respect of the bryophyte flora which the deep and wooded nature of the valleys help to support. The river provided; the site is strung out along 3 km of the valley on both sides of the river. The remains of two weirs from which leats took water to drive a series of waterwheels and turbines can still be seen. All production on the site ceased in 1931. Much of the river is accessible to walkers with both public footpaths and concessionary paths running beside the river and giving access to the various falls. Brecon Beacons National Park Authority has worked in conjunction with the Forestry Commission and the Countryside Council for Wales, subsequently with their successor body Natural Resources Wales, to ensure that the path erosion that has resulted from the popularity of this area is halted and reversed. A concessionary path runs through the gunpowder works site.

Visitors can park at the pay and display car parks at Cwm Porth and the nearby Gwaun Hepste or else in Pontneddfechan. The river and surrounding area is a hot spot for many different outdoor activities including the famous waterfall walks, canyoning, gorge walking and white water kayaking. Providing a fun day out with any activity you choose to do, each with their own dangers there are many companies that operate in the valley running fun days out for all; this is a classic white water kayaking river with paddlers that have kayaked all over the world still regarding it as one of their favourites on the grade 4/5 white water. Photos of the Afon Mellte on geograph.org.uk