The nuraghe is the main type of ancient megalithic edifice found in Sardinia, developed during the Nuragic Age between 1900 and 730 BCE. Today it has come to be the symbol of Sardinia and its distinctive culture, more than 7000 nuraghi have been found, though archeologists believe that originally there were not fewer than 10,000. A connection with the Semitic base of Arabic nūr light, the Latin word murus may be related to it, as the old Italian word mora, as used by Dante in his Comedy. However, the derivation, murus–*muraghe–nuraghe is debated, another possible explanation is that Nuraghe came from the name of mythological hero Norax, and the root *nur would be an adaptation of the Indo-European root *nor. Some nuraghes are about 20 meters in height, the tallest one known, Nuraghe Arrubiu, the entrance leads into a corridor, on whose sides are often open niches, that leads to the round chamber. A spiral stone stair, leading to upper floors and/or to a terrace, was built within the thick walls, there are fewer than 7,000 nuraghes still existing in Sardinia, although their number was originally larger.
Nuraghes are most prevalent in the northwest and south-central parts of the island, some of the nuraghes are, located in strategic places – such as hills– from which important passages could be easily controlled. They might have something between a status symbol and a passive defence building, meant to be a deterrent for possible enemies. Nuraghes could have been the symbol of the Nuragic peoples. Small-scale models of nuraghe have often been excavated at religious sites, nuraghes may have just connoted wealth or power, or they may have been an indication that a site had its owners. In 2002, Juan Belmonte and Mauro Zedda measured the entrance orientations of 272 simple nuraghes, the data revealed clear peaks corresponding to orientations pointing to the sunrise at winter solstice and to the Moon at its southernmost rising position. These alignments remained constant throughout the history of nuraghe, the most common declinations revealed were of around −43° for the earlier nuraghes, shifting to just −45½° for the later.
Zedda has suggested that the target is likely a star, quite possibly Alpha Centauri and this type is distinguished by the restorations made in times, supposedly due to a change of the Protonuraghi design, or for other needs. Its the Nuraghe par excellence and represent the most diffused typology, the single tower, of a truncated conical shape, accommodates within itself one or more superimposed chambers, covered by a Tholoi. In addition to the circular rooms, in their inside can be found other smaller environments such as niches. Also called Nuragic royal palaces, the polylobed Nuraghi are the least frequent typology, very elaborate and often designed in a unified manner, constituted veritable fortress with several towers linked by high ramparts, whose function was to protect the central tower. These Megalithic castles were surrounded by walls, sometimes provided with towers. Nuraghes are inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage Site list, other famous nuraghi are near Alghero, Abbasanta, Orroli and Villanovaforru
Necropolis of Su Crucifissu Mannu
The necropolis of Su Crucifissu Mannu is an archaeological site located in the municipality of Porto Torres, Sardinia. The necropolis includes at least twenty-two domus de janas, all made in the period between the Neolithic and the Copper Age and intensely used until the time of Bonnanaro culture. Some internal chambers are decorated with elements and architectural elements typical of the period. Maria Luisa Ferrarese Ceruti, La tomba XVI di Su Crucifissu Mannu e la Cultura di Bonnanaro, in Bullettino di Paletnologia Italiana, nuova serie, XXIII, vol. 81, 1972–1974, Roma 1976, pp. 113–210 Maria Luisa Ferrarese Ceruti, Le necropoli di Su Crucifissu Mannu-Porto Torres e Ponte Secco-Sassari, problematiche e nuove acquisizioni, Ozieri,1989, pp. 37–47 Giovanni Maria Demartis, Tomba V di Montalè – Sassari. Necropoli di Su Crucifissu Mannu- Porto torres, Collana Il triangolo della Nurra, 2–4, Viterbo,1998, Betagamma editrice
An episcopal see is, in the usual meaning of the phrase, the area of a bishops ecclesiastical jurisdiction. Phrases concerning actions occurring within or outside an episcopal see are indicative of the significance of the term. The word see is derived from Latin sedes, which in its original or proper sense denotes the seat or chair that, the word throne is used, especially in the Eastern Orthodox Church, both for the seat and for the area of ecclesiastical jurisdiction. The term see is used of the town where the cathedral or the residence is located. Within Roman Catholicism, each diocese is considered to be a See unto itself with an allegiance to the See of Rome. The idea of a See as an entity is somewhat complicated due to the existence of the 23 Particular churches of the Roman Catholic Church. The Western Church and its Eastern Counterparts all reserve some level of autonomy within their particular See, the episcopal see of the Pope, the Bishop of Rome, is known as the Holy See or the Apostolic See, claiming Papal supremacy.
The view of the Catholic Church contrasted by the Eastern Catholic idea of Pentarchy, followed by Eastern Orthodox opposition to papal supremacy
The term public domain has two senses of meaning. Anything published is out in the domain in the sense that it is available to the public. Once published and information in books is in the public domain, in the sense of intellectual property, works in the public domain are those whose exclusive intellectual property rights have expired, have been forfeited, or are inapplicable. Examples for works not covered by copyright which are therefore in the domain, are the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes. Examples for works actively dedicated into public domain by their authors are reference implementations of algorithms, NIHs ImageJ. The term is not normally applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, as rights are country-based and vary, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another. Some rights depend on registrations on a basis, and the absence of registration in a particular country, if required. Although the term public domain did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined many things that cannot be privately owned as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis.
The term res nullius was defined as not yet appropriated. The term res communes was defined as things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air, sunlight. The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, when the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by British and French jurists in the eighteenth century, instead of public domain they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law. The phrase fall in the domain can be traced to mid-nineteenth century France to describe the end of copyright term. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain. Because copyright law is different from country to country, Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being different sizes at different times in different countries.
According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the public domain and equates the public domain to public property. However, the usage of the public domain can be more granular. Such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair use rights, the materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival
Civitavecchia is a town and comune of the Metropolitan City of Rome in the central Italian region of Lazio. A sea port on the Tyrrhenian Sea, it is located 80 kilometres west-north-west of Rome, the harbour is formed by two piers and a breakwater, on which is a lighthouse. The name Civitavecchia means ancient town, population was around 53,000 as of 2015. The modern city was built over a pre-existing Etruscan settlement, the harbour was constructed by the Emperor Trajan at the beginning of the 2nd century. The first occurrence of the name Centum Cellae is from a letter by Pliny the Younger, the origin of the name is disputed, it has been suggested that it could refer to the centum halls of the villa of the emperor. In the early Middle Ages, Centumcellae was a Byzantine stronghold and it became part of the Papal States in 728. As the port was raided by the Saracens in 813-814,828,846 and finally in 876, a new settlement in a more secure place was therefore built by order of Pope Leo VII as soon as 854.
The Popes gave the settlement as a fief to several lords, including the Count Ranieri of Civitacastellana and the Abbey of Farfa, and the Di Vico. The place became a port under Pope Innocent XII in 1696. The French Empire occupied it in 1806, on 16 April 1859 the Rome and Civitavecchia Rail Road was opened for service. The Papal troops opened the gates of the fortress to the Italian general Nino Bixio in 1870, during World War II, Allied bombings severely damaged Civitavecchia, and caused civilian casualties. Louis Till, the father of Emmett Louis Till was convicted of the rape of two local Italian women and the murder of another in Civitavecchia. Civitavecchia is today a major cruise and ferry port, the starting point for sea connection from central Italy to Sardinia, Malta, Tunis. The city is the seat of two power stations. The conversion of one of them to coal has raised the populations protests, the massive Forte Michelangelo was first commissioned from Donato Bramante by Pope Julius II, to defend the port of Rome.
The upper part of the tower, was designed by Michelangelo. North of the city at Ficoncella are the Terme Taurine baths frequented by Romans, the modern name stems from the common fig plants among the various pools. And next to the town is the location of the ship docks
Philip the Arab
Marcus Julius Philippus, known commonly by his nickname Philip the Arab, known as Philip, was Roman Emperor from 244 to 249. He was born in Arabia Petraea, the Roman province of Arabia and he went on to become a major figure in the Roman Empire. He achieved power after the death of Gordian III, quickly negotiating peace with the Sassanid Empire, during his reign, Rome celebrated its millennium. Among early Christian writers, Philip had the reputation of being sympathetic to the Christian faith, probably for this reason it was even claimed by some that he had converted to Christianity, which would have made him the first Christian emperor. He supposedly tried to celebrate Easter with Christians in Antioch and his wife received letters from Origen. Philip was overthrown and killed following a rebellion led by his successor Decius, little is known about Philips early life and political career. He was born in what is today Shahba, about 55 miles southeast of Damascus, at the time this was in the Roman province of Arabia, earning Philip the nickname the Arab.
He was the son of a citizen, Julius Marinus. While the name of Philips mother is unknown, he did have a brother, Gaius Julius Priscus, in 234, Philip married Marcia Otacilia Severa, daughter of a Roman Governor. Philips rise to prominence began through the intervention of his brother Priscus and his big break came in 243, during Gordian IIIs campaign against Shapur I of Persia, when the Praetorian prefect Timesitheus died under unclear circumstances. Following a military defeat, Gordian III died in 244 under circumstances that are still debated, while some claim that Philip conspired in his murder, other accounts state that Gordian died in battle. Whatever the case, Philip assumed the purple robe following Gordians death, according to Edward Gibbon, His rise from so obscure a station to the first dignities of the empire seems to prove that he was a bold and able leader. But his boldness prompted him to aspire to the throne, and his abilities were employed to supplant, not to serve, his indulgent master.
Philip was not willing to repeat the mistakes of previous claimants, his first priority was to conclude a peace treaty with Shapur I of Persia, and withdraw the army from a potentially disastrous situation. Although Philip was accused of abandoning territory, the terms of the peace were not as humiliating as they could have been. Philip apparently retained Timesitheus’ reconquest of Osroene and Mesopotamia, but he had to agree that Armenia lay within Persia’s sphere of influence and he had to pay an enormous indemnity to the Persians of 500,000 gold denarii. Philip immediately issued coins proclaiming that he had made peace with the Persians, leading his army back up the Euphrates, south of Circesium Philip erected a cenotaph in honor of Gordian III, but his ashes were sent ahead to Rome, where he arranged for Gordian III’s deification. Whilst in Antioch, he left his brother Priscus as extraordinary ruler of the Eastern provinces, moving westward, he gave his brother-in-law Severianus control of the provinces of Moesia and Macedonia
Claudius Ptolemy was a Greek writer, known as a mathematician, geographer and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology. He lived in the city of Alexandria in the Roman province of Egypt, wrote in Koine Greek, beyond that, few reliable details of his life are known. His birthplace has been given as Ptolemais Hermiou in the Thebaid in a statement by the 14th-century astronomer Theodore Meliteniotes. This is a very late attestation and there is no reason to suppose that he ever lived elsewhere than Alexandria. Ptolemy wrote several treatises, three of which were of importance to Byzantine and European science. The first is the astronomical treatise now known as the Almagest, although it was entitled the Mathematical Treatise. The second is the Geography, which is a discussion of the geographic knowledge of the Greco-Roman world. The third is the treatise in which he attempted to adapt horoscopic astrology to the Aristotelian natural philosophy of his day. This is sometimes known as the Apotelesmatika but more known as the Tetrabiblos from the Greek meaning Four Books or by the Latin Quadripartitum.
The name Claudius is a Roman nomen, the fact that Ptolemy bore it indicates he lived under the Roman rule of Egypt with the privileges and political rights of Roman citizenship. It would have suited custom if the first of Ptolemys family to become a citizen took the nomen from a Roman called Claudius who was responsible for granting citizenship, if, as was common, this was the emperor, citizenship would have been granted between AD41 and 68. The astronomer would have had a praenomen, which remains unknown and it occurs once in Greek mythology, and is of Homeric form. All the kings after him, until Egypt became a Roman province in 30 BC, were Ptolemies, abu Mashar recorded a belief that a different member of this royal line composed the book on astrology and attributed it to Ptolemy. The correct answer is not known”, Ptolemy wrote in Greek and can be shown to have utilized Babylonian astronomical data. He was a Roman citizen, but most scholars conclude that Ptolemy was ethnically Greek and he was often known in Arabic sources as the Upper Egyptian, suggesting he may have had origins in southern Egypt.
Later Arabic astronomers and physicists referred to him by his name in Arabic, Ptolemys Almagest is the only surviving comprehensive ancient treatise on astronomy. Ptolemy presented his models in convenient tables, which could be used to compute the future or past position of the planets. The Almagest contains a catalogue, which is a version of a catalogue created by Hipparchus
Province of Sassari
The Province of Sassari is a province in the autonomous island region of Sardinia in Italy. Its capital is the city of Sassari, as of 2014, the province had a population of 334,413 people. In ancient times, between 1600 and 1500 BC, the Nuraghi civilization was at its peak in this area, during the Roman domination, the Logudoro region was one of the main grain suppliers of the Western Roman Empire, and was the seat of several legions. The numerous countryside Romanesque basilicas date from this period, after the conquest by the House of Aragon, Logoduro declined, but later, under the House of Savoy rule as part of the Kingdom of Sardinia, it grew in significance. In the 20th century the construction of roads and railways brought more prosperity, the modern University of Sassari dates to around the same time that the province was created. Since 1878 the province has been administered from the Palazzo della Provincia in Sassari, facing the Sardinian Sea to the north and west, the Province of Sassari is bordered to the south by the provinces of Nuoro and Oristano and east by the Province of Olbia-Tempio.
It has an area of 4,282 square kilometres, there are 66 municipalities in the province, the largest of which are Sassari, Porto Torres, Ozieri and Sennori. Another town of note, Pattada, is known for its handmade knives. In this territory is one of the largest plains in Sardinia, the province contains some of the most famous resorts of Sardinia including Castelsardo, Porto Torres, the Riviera del Corallo and others. Stintino is located on the peninsula of the name, running from the Nurra plain to the Asinara Island. Among the notable beaches of the Province of Sassari is Balai in Porto Torres, Pelosa Beach in Stintino, and others such as Alghero il Lido, Maria Pia and Mugoni. The inner part of the province in the traditional Logoduro region is characterized by a hilly and mountainous landscape, the town of Ozieri is its most important center for culture and history away from the coast, noted for its production of tools and pottery from ancient times. Media related to Province of Sassari at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Basilica of San Gavino
The Basilica di San Gavino is a proto-Romanesque church in Porto Torres, Italy. A former cathedral, it is now a place for the veneration of local martyrs, turris Libisonis was a bishopric seat from 489 until 1441, when the see was moved to nearby Sassari. The earliest known document mentioning the church dates to 1065, according to it, the church was founded in the early 11th century by Gonario I, giudice of Torres and Arborea, who commissioned the work to Pisan masters. The construction continued under his son Barisone I, and was inaugurated by the giudice Marianus I of Arborea, an epigraph in the Romanesque portal testifies restoration work in the 15th century, which introduced Catalan-Gothic elements. In the 18th century the crypt was renovated to house the remains of Torres martyrs found in 1614, the church is located between two courtyards, known as atrio Comita and atrio Metropoli. In the southern side is the entrance, a 15th-century portal in Catalan Gothic style. It is surmounted by an arch supported by two columns, whose capitals have angels with coats of arms.
The church has two apses, one on each side of the rectangular plan. The exterior is decorated by columns and Lombard bands. The ceiling is covered with lead plates, most of the capitals are of Roman origin. The nave is some three time wider than the aisles, and is covered by trusses, the aisles have instead cross vaults. Architettura Romanica dalla metà del Mille al primo 300
In its many centuries of existence, the Roman state evolved from a monarchy to a classical republic and to an increasingly autocratic empire. Through conquest and assimilation, it came to dominate the Mediterranean region and Western Europe, Asia Minor, North Africa and it is often grouped into classical antiquity together with ancient Greece, and their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world. Ancient Roman civilisation has contributed to modern government, politics, art, architecture, warfare, religion and society. Rome professionalised and expanded its military and created a system of government called res publica, the inspiration for modern republics such as the United States and France. By the end of the Republic, Rome had conquered the lands around the Mediterranean and beyond, its domain extended from the Atlantic to Arabia, the Roman Empire emerged with the end of the Republic and the dictatorship of Augustus Caesar. 721 years of Roman-Persian Wars started in 92 BC with their first war against Parthia and it would become the longest conflict in human history, and have major lasting effects and consequences for both empires.
Under Trajan, the Empire reached its territorial peak, Republican mores and traditions started to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a prelude common to the rise of a new emperor. Splinter states, such as the Palmyrene Empire, would divide the Empire during the crisis of the 3rd century. Plagued by internal instability and attacked by various migrating peoples, the part of the empire broke up into independent kingdoms in the 5th century. This splintering is a landmark historians use to divide the ancient period of history from the pre-medieval Dark Ages of Europe. King Numitor was deposed from his throne by his brother, while Numitors daughter, Rhea Silvia, because Rhea Silvia was raped and impregnated by Mars, the Roman god of war, the twins were considered half-divine. The new king, feared Romulus and Remus would take back the throne, a she-wolf saved and raised them, and when they were old enough, they returned the throne of Alba Longa to Numitor. Romulus became the source of the citys name, in order to attract people to the city, Rome became a sanctuary for the indigent and unwanted.
This caused a problem for Rome, which had a large workforce but was bereft of women, Romulus traveled to the neighboring towns and tribes and attempted to secure marriage rights, but as Rome was so full of undesirables they all refused. Legend says that the Latins invited the Sabines to a festival and stole their unmarried maidens, leading to the integration of the Latins, after a long time in rough seas, they landed at the banks of the Tiber River. Not long after they landed, the men wanted to take to the sea again, one woman, named Roma, suggested that the women burn the ships out at sea to prevent them from leaving. At first, the men were angry with Roma, but they realized that they were in the ideal place to settle. They named the settlement after the woman who torched their ships, the Roman poet Virgil recounted this legend in his classical epic poem the Aeneid