The Salon, or Paris Salon, beginning in 1667 was the official art exhibition of the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Paris. Between 1748 and 1890 it was arguably the greatest annual or biennial art event in the Western world. At the 1761 Salon, thirty-three painters, nine sculptors, eleven engravers contributed. From 1881 onward, it has been managed by the Société des Artistes Français. In 1667, the royally sanctioned French institution of art patronage, the Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture, held its first semi-public art exhibit at the Salon Carré; the Salon's original focus was the display of the work of recent graduates of the École des Beaux-Arts, created by Cardinal Mazarin, chief minister of France, in 1648. Exhibition at the Salon de Paris was essential for any artist to achieve success in France for at least the next 200 years. Exhibition in the Salon marked a sign of royal favor. In 1725, the Salon was held in the Palace of the Louvre, when it became known as Salon or Salon de Paris.
In 1737, the exhibitions, held from 18 August 1737 to 5 September 1737 at the Grand Salon of the Louvre, became public. They were held, at first and biennially, in odd-numbered years, they would run for some weeks. Once made regular and public, the Salon's status was "never in doubt". In 1748 a jury of awarded artists was introduced. From this time forward, the influence of the Salon was undisputed; the Salon exhibited paintings floor-to-ceiling and on every available inch of space. The jostling of artwork became the subject of many other paintings, including Pietro Antonio Martini's Salon of 1785. Printed catalogues of the Salons are primary documents for art historians. Critical descriptions of the exhibitions published in the gazettes mark the beginning of the modern occupation of art critic; the French revolution opened the exhibition to foreign artists. In the 19th century the idea of a public Salon extended to an annual government-sponsored juried exhibition of new painting and sculpture, held in large commercial halls, to which the ticket-bearing public was invited.
The vernissage of opening night was a grand social occasion, a crush that gave subject matter to newspaper caricaturists like Honoré Daumier. Charles Baudelaire, Denis Diderot and others wrote reviews of the Salons; the 1848 revolution liberalized the Salon. The amount of refused works was reduced. In 1849 medals were introduced; the conservative and academic juries were not receptive to the Impressionist painters, whose works were rejected, or poorly placed if accepted. The Salon opposed the Impressionists' shift away from traditional painting styles. In 1857 the Salon jury turned away an unusually high number of the submitted paintings. An uproar resulted from regular exhibitors, rejected. In order to prove that the Salons were democratic, Napoleon III instituted the Salon des Refusés, containing a selection of the works that the Salon had rejected that year, it opened on 17 May 1863. The Impressionists held their own independent exhibitions in 1874, 1876, 1877, 1879, 1880, 1881, 1882 and 1886.
In 1881, the government withdrew official sponsorship from the annual Salon, a group of artists organized the Société des Artistes Français to take responsibility for the show. In December 1890, the leader of the Société des Artistes Français, William-Adolphe Bouguereau, propagated the idea that Salon should be an exhibition of young, not-yet awarded, artists. Ernest Meissonier, Puvis de Chavannes, Auguste Rodin and others rejected this proposal and made a secession, they created the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts and its own exhibition referred to in the press as the Salon du Champ de Mars or the Salon de la Société Nationale des Beaux–Arts. In 1903, in response to what many artists at the time felt was a bureaucratic and conservative organization, a group of painters and sculptors led by Pierre-Auguste Renoir and Auguste Rodin organized the Salon d'Automne. J. J. Marquet de Vasselot: Répertoire des catalogues du musée du Louvre, 1793–1917 Thomas Crow: Painters and Public Life in 18th Century Paris.
Yale University Press 1987 Patricia Mainardi: The End of the Salon: Art and the State in the Early Third Republic, Cambridge University Press, 1993. Fae Brauer and Conspirators: The Paris Salons and the Modern Art Centre, Newcastle upon Tyne, Cambridge Scholars, 2013. Albert Boime, "The Salon des Refuses and the Evolution of Modern Art," Art Quarterly 32: 41 1-26 Margo Bistis, "Bad Art: The Decline of Academic Art in the Caricatural Salon," International Journal of Comic Art 7, no.1. Timeline of the Paris Salons Harriet Griffiths and Alister Mill, Database of Salon Artists, 1827-1850
Antonio de La Gándara
Antonio de La Gándara was a French painter and draughtsman. La Gándara was born in Paris, but his father was of Spanish ancestry, born in San Luis Potosí, his mother was from England. La Gándara's talent was influenced by both cultures. At only 15 years of age, La Gándara was admitted as a student of Jean-Léon Gérôme and Cabanel at the École des Beaux-Arts. Soon, he was recognized by the jury of the 1883 Salon des Champs-Élysées, who singled out the first work he exhibited: a portrait of Saint Sebastian. Less than ten years young La Gándara had become one of the favourite artists of the Paris elite, his models included Countess Greffulhe, the Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg, the Princess of Chimay, the Prince de Polignac, the Prince de Sagan, Charles Leconte de Lisle, Paul Verlaine, Leonor Uriburu de Anchorena, Sarah Bernhardt, Romaine Brooks, Jean Moreas, Winnaretta Singer, Virginie Amélie Avegno Gautreau. Influenced by Chardin, his skill is demonstrated in his portraits, in a simplicity with the finest detail, or in the serenity of his scenes of the bridges and streets of Paris.
Gandara illustrated a small number of publications, including Les Danaïdes by Camille Mauclair. With James McNeill Whistler, Jean-Louis Forain, Yamamoto, La Gándara illustrated Les Chauves-Souris by the French poet Robert de Montesquiou; the book, published in 1893, has become a rare collector's item. The first exhibition of La Gándara's work organised in New York by Durand-Ruel in 1898 was a major success and confirmed the painter as one of the masters of his time. Major newspapers and magazines reproduced his portraits, several of which made the front page of publications like the fashionable Le Figaro magazine. Gandara participated in the most important exhibitions in Paris, Berlin, Dresden and Saragossa. La Gándara died on 30 June 1917, was interred in Père Lachaise Cemetery, France. Although his fame faded after his death, growing interest in the 20th century saw him regain popularity as a key witness to the art of his time, not only through his canvases, but as the model chosen by the novelists Jean Lorrain and Marcel Proust, through the anecdotes of his own life narrated by Edmond de Goncourt, Georges-Michel, Montesquiou.
On 3 November 2018, a major retrospective opened for four months at the Musée Lambinet in Versailles, bringing together more than one hundred works by the painter as well as many documents. Exhibition curator: Xavier Mathieu. A novel was published by the Editions L'Harmattan in 2016 that narrates La Gandara's remarkable life: Antonio de La Gandara - The Gentleman painter of the Belle Epoque. Xavier Mathieu, Antonio de La Gandara, Gentilhomme-Peintre de la Belle Époque 1861-1917, Éditions Gourcuff-Gradenigo - A richly illustrated book realised as part of the exhibition Antonio de La Gandara, Gentilhomme-Peintre de la Belle Époque. Preface by François de Mazières, mayor of Versailles. Jumeau-Lafond, Jean-David - Antonio de La Gandara. Un témoin de la Belle époque, 1861-1917 - La Tribune de l'Art - http://www.latribunedelart.com/antonio-de-la-gandara-un-temoin-de-la-belle-epoque-1861-1917 Gabriel Badea-Päun,Antonio de La Gandara, un portratiste mondain oublié, un parcours, un réseau, une mode http://www.istoria-artei.ro/resources/files/scia.ap2012%20-%20art.05.pdf Xavier Mathieu, "Antonio de La Gandara - Un témoin de la Belle Epoque", 308 pp, Editions Librairie des Musées, 2011 Gabriel Badea-Päun, « Entre mondanité et mécénat — les avatars d'une relation, Robert de Montesquiou et Antonio de La Gandara », Revue de la Bibliothèque nationale n° 25, 2007, p. 54-62.
Gabriel Badea-Päun, Antonio de La Gandara, naissance d'un portraitiste mondain. L'exposition chez Durand-Ruel, avril 1893, conférence à la Société de l'histoire de l'art français, présentée à l'Institut national d'histoire de l'art, Paris, le 18 novembre 2006, à paraître. Gabriel Badea-Päun, « Un intermezzo lithographique — les estampes d'Antonio de La Gandara », Nouvelles de l'estampe, n° 207, juillet-septembre 2006, pp. 23–36. Gabriel Badea-Päun, « De l'atelier de Gérôme au cabaret du Chat noir. Les années de formation d'Antonio de La Gandara », Le Vieux Montmartre, nouvelle série, fascicule n°75, octobre 2005, pp. 12–36. Gabriel Badea-Päun, Antonio de La Gandara, Allgemeines Künstlerlexikon, Leipzig-Munich, K. G. Saur Verlag, vol.49 Gabriel Badea-Päun, "Antonio de La Gandara", La Tribune de l'art. Gabriel Badea-Päun, Portraits de Société, Citadelles et Mazenod, 2007. Prix du cercle Montherlant de l'Académie des Beaux-Arts, 2008. Gabriel Badea-Päun, The Society Portrait, Thames & Hudson, Londres et Vendôme Press, New York, 2007.
Gabriel Badea-Päun: Antonio de La Gandara, sa vie, son œuvre, catalogue raisonné de l'œuvre peint et dessiné, thèse de doctorat sous la direction du M. le professeur Bruno Foucart, Paris-IV Sorbonne, 2005, 3 volumes, 881 pages. Works by or about Antonio de La Gándara at Internet Archive Site officiel d'antonio de la gandara at www.lagandara.fr
Tate is an institution that houses, in a network of four art museums, the United Kingdom's national collection of British art, international modern and contemporary art. It is not a government institution, but its main sponsor is the UK Department for Digital, Culture and Sport; the name "Tate" is used as the operating name for the corporate body, established by the Museums and Galleries Act 1992 as "The Board of Trustees of the Tate Gallery". The gallery was founded as the National Gallery of British Art; when its role was changed to include the national collection of modern art as well as the national collection of British art, in 1932, it was renamed the Tate Gallery after sugar magnate Henry Tate of Tate & Lyle, who had laid the foundations for the collection. The Tate Gallery was housed in the current building occupied by Tate Britain, situated in Millbank, London. In 2000, the Tate Gallery transformed itself into the current-day Tate, which consists of a network of four museums: Tate Britain, which displays the collection of British art from 1500 to the present day.
All four museums share the Tate Collection. One of the Tate's most publicised art events is the awarding of the annual Turner Prize, which takes place at Tate Britain; the original Tate was called the National Gallery of British Art, situated on Millbank, London at the site of the former Millbank Prison. The idea of a National Gallery of British Art was first proposed in the 1820s by Sir John Leicester, Baron de Tabley, it took a step nearer when Robert Vernon gave his collection to the National Gallery in 1847. A decade John Sheepshanks gave his collection to the South Kensington Museum, known for years as the National Gallery of Art. Forty years Sir Henry Tate, a sugar magnate and a major collector of Victorian art, offered to fund the building of the gallery to house British Art on the condition that the State pay for the site and revenue costs. Henry Tate donated his own collection to the gallery, it was a collection of modern British art, concentrating on the works of modern—that is Victorian era—painters.
It was controlled by the National Gallery until 1954. In 1915, Sir Hugh Lane bequeathed his collection of European modern art to Dublin, but controversially this went to the Tate, which expanded its collection to include foreign art and continued to acquire contemporary art. In 1926 and 1937, the art dealer and patron Joseph Duveen paid for two major expansions of the gallery building, his father had earlier paid for an extension to house the major part of the Turner Bequest, which in 1987 was transferred to a wing paid for by Sir Charles Clore. Henry Courtauld endowed Tate with a purchase fund. By the mid 20th century, it was fulfilling a dual function of showing the history of British art as well as international modern art. In 1954, the Tate Gallery was separated from the National Gallery. During the 1950s and 1960s, the visual arts department of the Arts Council of Great Britain funded and organised temporary exhibitions at the Tate Gallery including, in 1966, a retrospective of Marcel Duchamp.
The Tate began organising its own temporary exhibition programme. In 1979 with funding from a Japanese bank a large modern extension was opened that would house larger income generating exhibitions. In 1987, the Clore Wing opened to house the major part of the Turner bequest and provided a 200-seat auditorium. In 1988, an outpost in north west England opened as Tate Liverpool; this shows various works of modern art from the Tate collection as well as mounting its own temporary exhibitions. In 2007, Tate Liverpool hosted the first time this has been held outside London; this was an overture to Liverpool's being the European Capital of Culture 2008. In 1993, another offshoot opened, Tate St Ives, it exhibits work by modern British artists those of the St Ives School. Additionally the Tate manages the Barbara Hepworth Museum and Sculpture Garden, which opened in 1980. Neither of these two new Tates had a significant effect on the functioning of the original London Tate Gallery, whose size was proving a constraint as the collection grew.
It was a logical step to separate the "British" and "Modern" aspects of the collection, they are now housed in separate buildings in London. The original gallery is now called Tate Britain and is the national gallery for British art from 1500 to the present day, as well as some modern British art. Tate Modern, in Bankside Power Station on the south side of the Thames, opened in 2000 and now exhibits the national collection of modern art from 1900 to the present day, including some modern British art. In its first year, the Tate Modern was the most popular museum in the world, with 5,250,000 visitors. In the late 2000s, the Tate announced a new development project to the south of the existing building. According to the museum this new development would "transform Tate Modern. An iconic new building will be added at the south of the existing gallery, it will create more spaces for displaying the collection and installation art and learning, all allowing visitors to engage more with art, as well as creating more social spaces for visitors to unwind and
Arab Woman (watercolor)
Arab Woman is a watercolor painting by John Singer Sargent. Completed in either the late 19th or early 20th century, the painting is in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Prominent American painter John Singer Sargent took two notable trips to the middle east during his lifetime; these trips spurred Sargent to create a number of works of art concerning various subjects. Arab Woman was produced by Sargent during his one of his travels in the middle east; the image, done in watercolor and gouache on woven white paper, depicts a veiled Muslim woman wearing a white niqāb. According to an inscription left by Sargent on the painting, the work is incomplete
Brittany is a cultural region in the northwest of France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occupation. It became an independent kingdom and a duchy before being united with the Kingdom of France in 1532 as a province governed as if it were a separate nation under the crown. Brittany has been referred to as Less, Lesser or Little Britain, it is bordered by the English Channel to the north, the Celtic Sea and the Atlantic Ocean to the west, the Bay of Biscay to the south. Its land area is 34,023 km². Brittany is the site of some of the world's oldest standing architecture, home to the Barnenez, the Tumulus Saint-Michel and others, which date to the early 5th millennium BC. Today, the historical province of Brittany is split among five French departments: Finistère in the west, Côtes-d'Armor in the north, Ille-et-Vilaine in the north east, Loire-Atlantique in the south east and Morbihan in the south on the Bay of Biscay. Since reorganisation in 1956, the modern administrative region of Brittany comprises only four of the five Breton departments, or 80% of historical Brittany.
The remaining area of old Brittany, the Loire-Atlantique department around Nantes, now forms part of the Pays de la Loire region. At the 2010 census, the population of historic Brittany was estimated to be 4,475,295. Of these, 71 % lived in the region of Brittany. In 2012, the largest metropolitan areas were Nantes and Brest. Brittany is the traditional homeland of the Breton people and is recognised by the Celtic League as one of the six Celtic nations, retaining a distinct cultural identity that reflects its history. A nationalist movement seeks greater autonomy within the French Republic; the word Brittany, along with its French and Gallo equivalents Bretagne and Bertaèyn, derive from the Latin Britannia, which means "Britons' land". This word had been used by the Romans since the 1st century to refer to Great Britain, more the Roman province of Britain; this word derives from a Greek word, Πρεττανικη or Βρεττανίαι, used by Pytheas, an explorer from Massalia who visited the British Islands around 320 BC.
The Greek word itself comes from the common Brythonic ethnonym reconstructed as *Pritanī, itself from Proto-Celtic *kʷritanoi. The Romans called Brittany Armorica, together with a quite indefinite region that extended along the English Channel coast from the Seine estuary to the Loire estuary, according to several sources, maybe along the Atlantic coast to the Garonne estuary; this term comes from a Gallic word, which means "close to the sea". Another name, was used until the 12th century, it means "wide and flat" or "to expand" and it gave the Welsh name for Brittany: Llydaw. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, many Britons settled in western Armorica, the region started to be called Britannia, although this name only replaced Armorica in the sixth century or by the end of the fifth. Authors like Geoffrey of Monmouth used the terms Britannia minor and Britannia major to distinguish Brittany from Britain. Breton-speaking people may pronounce the word Breizh in two different ways, according to their region of origin.
Breton can be divided into the dialect of Vannes. KLT speakers pronounce it and would write it Breiz, while the Vannetais speakers pronounce it and would write it Breih; the official spelling is a compromise with a z and an h together. In 1941, efforts to unify the dialects led to the creation of the so-called Breton zh, a standard which has never been accepted. On its side, Gallo language has never had a accepted writing system and several ones coexist. For instance, the name of the region in that language can be written Bertaèyn in ELG script, or Bertègn in MOGA, a couple of other scripts exist. Brittany has been inhabited by humans since the Lower Paleolithic; the first settlers were Neanderthals. This population was scarce and similar to the other Neanderthals found in the whole of Western Europe, their only original feature was a distinct culture, called "Colombanian". One of the oldest hearths in the world has been found in Finistère, it is 450,000 years old. Homo sapiens settled in Brittany around 35,000 years ago.
They replaced or absorbed the Neanderthals and developed local industries, similar to the Châtelperronian or to the Magdalenian. After the last glacial period, the warmer climate allowed the area to become wooded. At that time, Brittany was populated by large communities who started to change their lifestyles from a life of hunting and gathering, to become settled farmers. Agriculture was introduced during the 5th millennium BC by migrants from the east. However, the Neolithic Revolution in Brittany did not happen due to a radical change of population, but by slow immigration and exchange of skills. Neolithic Brittany is characterised by important megalithic production, it is sometimes designated as the "core area" of megalithic culture; the oldest monuments, were followed by princely tombs and stone rows. The Morbihan département, on the southern coast, comprises a large share of these structures, including the Carnac stones and the Broken Menhir of Er Grah in the Locmariaquer megaliths, the largest single stone erected by Neoli
Le Figaro is a French daily morning newspaper founded in 1826 and published in Paris. Le Figaro is the oldest national daily in France and is one of the three French newspapers of record, along with Le Monde and Libération. With its center-right editorial line, Le Figaro is the second-largest national newspaper in France after Le Parisien and before Le Monde, although some regional papers such as Ouest-France have larger circulations. In 2012, the paper had an average circulation of 330,952 copies per issue; the paper is published in the berliner format, switching from a broadsheet in 2009. The newspaper is owned by Le Figaro Group owned by Dassault Group since 2004 whose publications include TV Magazine and Evene. Le Figaro was founded as a satirical weekly in 1826, taking its name and motto from Le Mariage de Figaro, the 1778 play by Pierre Beaumarchais that poked fun at privilege, its motto, from Figaro's monologue in the play's final act, is "Sans la liberté de blâmer, il n'est point d'éloge flatteur".
In 1833, editor Nestor Roqueplan fought a duel with a Colonel Gallois, offended by an article in Le Figaro, was wounded but recovered. Albert Wolff, Émile Zola, Alphonse Karr, Jules Claretie were among the paper's early contributors, it was published somewhat irregularly until 1854, when it was taken over by Hippolyte de Villemessant. In 1866, Le Figaro became a daily newspaper, its first daily edition, that of 16 November 1866, sold 56,000 copies, having highest circulation of any newspaper in France. Its editorial line was royalist. Pauline Savari was among the contributors to the paper at this time. On 16 March 1914, Gaston Calmette, the editor of Le Figaro, was assassinated by Henriette Caillaux, the wife of Finance Minister Joseph Caillaux, after he published a letter that cast serious doubt on her husband's integrity. In 1922, Le Figaro was purchased by perfume millionaire François Coty. Abel Faivre did cartoons for the paper. Coty enraged many when he renamed the paper Figaro, which it remained until 1933.
By the start of World War II, Le Figaro had become France's leading newspaper. After the war, it became the voice of the upper middle class, continues to maintain a conservative position. In 1975, Le Figaro was bought by Robert Hersant's Socpresse. In 1999, the Carlyle Group obtained a 40% stake in the paper, which it sold in March 2002. Since March 2004, Le Figaro has been controlled by Serge Dassault, a conservative businessman and politician best known for running the aircraft manufacturer Dassault Aviation, which he inherited from his father, its founder, Marcel Dassault. Dassault owns 80% of the paper. In 2006, Le Figaro was banned in Egypt and Tunisia for publishing articles insulting Islam. Le Figaro switched to Berliner format in 2009; the paper has published The New York Times International Weekly on Friday since 2009, an 8-page supplement featuring a selection of articles from The New York Times translated into French. In 2010, Lefigaro.fr created a section called Le Figaro in English, which provides the global English-speaking community with daily original or translated content from Le Figaro’s website.
The section ended in 2012. Le Figaro has traditionally held a conservative editorial stance, becoming the voice of the French upper and middle classes; the newspaper's ownership by Serge Dassault has been a source of controversy in terms of conflict-of-interest, as Dassault owns a major military supplier and has served in political positions from the Union for a Popular Movement party. His son Olivier Dassault is a member of the French National Assembly. Dassault has remarked in an interview in 2004 on the public radio station France Inter that "newspapers must promulgate healthy ideas" and that "left-wing ideas are not healthy ideas."In February 2012, a general assembly of the newspaper's journalists adopted a motion accusing the paper's managing editor, Étienne Mougeotte, of having made Le Figaro into the "bulletin" of the governing party, the Union for a Popular Movement, of the government and of President Nicolas Sarkozy. They accused the paper of one-sided political reporting. Mougeotte had said that Le Figaro would do nothing to embarrass the government and the right.
Mougeotte publicly replied: "Our editorial line pleases our readers. I don't see. We are a right-wing newspaper and we express it by the way. Our readers our journalists too. There's nothing new to that!" In the period of 1995–96, the paper had a circulation of 391,533 copies, behind Le Parisien's 451,159 copies. Libération Madame Figaro Merrill, John C. and Harold A. Fisher; the World's Great Dailies: Profiles of Fifty Newspapers pp 124–29 Le Figaro website Le Figaro digital archives from 1826 to 1942 in Gallica, the digital library of the BnF