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Portsmouth Harbour

Portsmouth Harbour is a large natural harbour in Hampshire, England. Geographically it is a ria: it was the valley of a stream flowing from Portsdown into the Solent; the city of Portsmouth lies to the east on Portsea Island, Gosport to the west on the mainland. At its north end is Portchester Castle, of Roman origin and the first fortress built to protect the harbour; the mouth of the harbour provides access to the Solent. It is best known as the home of HMNB Portsmouth; because of its strategic location on the south coast of England, protected by the natural defence of the Isle of Wight, it has since the Middle Ages been the home to England's navy. The narrow entrance, the forts surrounding it gave it a considerable advantage of being impregnable to attack from the sea. Before the fortifications were built the French burned Portsmouth in 1338. During the civil war parliamentary forces were able to carry out a successful cutting-out expedition within the harbour and capture the six-gunned Henrietta Marie.

In modern times, the harbour has become a major commercial ferry port, with regular services to Le Havre, Cherbourg, France, St Malo, The Channel Islands and the Isle of Wight. There is a passenger ferry to Gosport, it is a major area for leisure sailing. In 2006 the Gunwharf Quays development, including the Spinnaker Tower, was opened on the site of HMS Vernon. Portsmouth Harbour contains a number of islands. Whale Island is the home of the training establishment HMS Excellent. Horsea Island is now connected to the mainland due to land reclamation, it is part of HMS Excellent. Pewit Island is a small island located in the north western section of Portsmouth Harbour. Closer to the harbour entrance on the Gosport side is Burrow Island known as Rat Island. 50.791645°N 1.106565°W / 50.791645. Lying within the historic area of Old Portsmouth, it is part of Portsmouth Point that lies outside the original fortified boundaries of Portsmouth. After improvements in the King James's and Landport Gates and the areas military defences, civilian building of dockside storage and ancillary servicing facilities began from 1590.

With major ships anchored at Spithead, from the 18th century the surrounding area became noted as a popular but lewd area for visiting sailors. With advent of bigger steam powered ships, the physical restrictions of Camber Dock meant that it was bypassed for the larger capacity of the newer developed Portsmouth Harbour. Resultantly, Camber Quay became the home of the local fishing fleet, which it still remains today, together with the adjacent dockside development of the commercial fish market. Today it has a series of visiting berths for non-commercial craft. In 2015, the Land Rover BAR yacht racing headquarters was completed. Portsmouth investigated three locations for a ferry port at the end of the 1960s and the current location was chosen; the choice was based on cost and the benefit of cross-channel ferries. The site was at the end of the newly constructed M275. Built with two berths the site opened in 1976 with the Earl William running to the Channel Islands, the Viking Victory running to Cherbourg and the Brittany Ferries running to Saint-Malo.

All three operators increased their usage of the port during the mid-eighties, which led to expansion. An additional two berths were built, both twin tier. Berth 2 was filled and a new Berth 2 built, used by the Earl Granville running to both the Channel Islands and Cherbourg, Berth 1 become more tight to use and the newly roll-on, roll-off Commodore Shipping used it for their Channel Island freight services. Berth 3 was left incomplete; this was considered the Brittany Ferries berth. When Berth 3 was finished Townsend Thoresen moved their passenger operation from Southampton to Portsmouth. Shortly afterwards, Townsend Thoresen relocated them to Portsmouth; the old Southampton Ferry port was converted to a marina. The continued use of Portsmouth saw the final stage of development. Portsmouth had seen additional ferry companies Channel Island Ferries and Truckline and new routes to Caen and Bilbao. With the advent of the Channel Tunnel and the abolition of Duty Free most of the companies disappeared.

Sealink merged their Channel Island operations with the newly created Channel Island Ferries to create British Channel Island Ferries. They later relocated operations to Poole before merging into Condor Ferries. Sealink operated to Cherbourg with the Earl Granville for several further years until the Earl Granville violently ran aground off Cherbourg. Hoverspeed ran the HOVERSPEED GB from Portsmouth to Cherbourg intermittently one summer – the "new ferry of the future" was out of action and the now repaired but ageing Earl Granville would step into the breach – much to passenger annoyance. By 2000 Portsmouth only had ferries from Brittany Ferries, Condor and P&O. P&O replaced the ageing Super Vikings with a Ro-pax ship and a Sea-Cat on the Portsmouth-Cherbourg route, but by 2006 P&O had all but closed its operation from Portsmouth but retained the route to Bilbao and Portsmouth became a quiet port again. After P&O Ferries withdrawal from the Le Havre route in September 2005 a new company stepped in to replace them with LD Lines running one sailing a day to Le Havre with the Norman Spirit.

The Spanish ferry company Acciona tried in 2006 to compete on the northern Spain route to Bilbao using their ferry the Fortuny, but it lasted 3 months before closure. Today, Brittany Ferries operates a thr

California Pacific Railroad

The California Pacific Railroad Company was incorporated in 1865 at San Francisco, California as the California Pacific Rail Road Company. It was renamed the California Pacific Railroad Extension Company in the spring of 1869 renamed the California Pacific Railroad that same year; the railroad was constructed just months prior to the completion of the Central Pacific/Union Pacific Transcontinental Railway. The railroad ran from Sacramento to thence via passenger ferryboat to San Francisco, it had a branch from Adelante to Calistoga and another from Davis to Marysville. The Cal-P operated independently from 1865 to 1876, it was operated by the Central Pacific and was sold to the Southern Pacific. Amtrak's Capitol Corridor follows the original Cal-P Line from Sacramento to Suisun/Fairfield on its way to Oakland and San Jose. While the transcontintal railroad was the first railway line to cross the U. S. it wasn't a transcontinental line because it terminated at Sacramento, short of the Pacific destination of San Francisco.

The first transcontinental railroad was through Stockton, over Altamont Pass and thence via Niles Canyon to the San Francisco Bay Area, a distance of 140 miles. That line was constructed by Leland Stanford's Central Pacific Railroad subsidiary the Western Pacific Railroad; the route over Altamont Pass was completed in 1869. The other route via Stockton, to Banta, thence to Martinez to Oakland was 151 miles; the Central Pacific was searching for a shorter route to the Bay Area. In July 1871, the Central Pacific offered to buy the Cal-P but their offer was rejected. Central Pacific announced plans to build a parallel route of the Cal-P but diverging at Suisun via the Suisun Marsh to Benicia; the California Pacific, facing financial and expansion difficulties was sold to the Central Pacific in 1876. The Central Pacific shifted traffic from its mainline via Napa Junction to Vallejo in favor of a line across the Suisun Marsh to Benicia; the Central Pacific began construction in 1877 and completed the line across the Suisun Marsh to Benicia in 1879.

The 17 miles of track took so long to build because of the unstable subgrade through the marsh, requiring tons of crushed rock to stabilize the subgrade. A railroad ferry was established between Port Costa; the California Pacific commenced construction at South Vallejo. Grading began on Christmas Eve, 1866 and rails began to be laid on April 10, 1868; the railroad was built by Dewitt Clinton Haskin. Two months after grading began the track was completed from Vallejo via Napa Junction and Jameson Pass to Suisun on June 24, 1868; the original route of the Cal-P mainline from Suisun to Vallejo is now the route of the California Northern Railroad between Vallejo and Suisun and can be seen along portions of State Route 12. The original Cal-P line ran to Vallejo, not along the present main line route through the Suisun Marsh between Suisun – Benicia – Martinez. January 3, 1865 California Pacific Rail Road Company is incorporated. January 10, 1865 absorbs the Sacramento & San Francisco Rail Road Company and the San Francisco & Marysville Rail Road Company.

December 24, 1866 commenced grading from Vallejo towards Suisun Davisville. April 10, 1868 commenced laying of rails. June 24, 1868 construction completed Vallejo - Suisun. July 27, 1868 construction completed Suisun - Elmira. August 10, 1868 construction completed Elmira - Dixon. August 24, 1868 construction completed Dixon - Davisville November 15, 1868 construction completed Davisville - Washington, California April 14, 1869 renamed the California Pacific Railroad Extension Company. June 9, 1869 acquires under foreclosure the Napa Valley Rail Road Company, founded and developed by Samuel Brannan December 23, 1869 renamed the California Pacific Railroad Company. January 15, 1870 construction completed Washington, California - Sacramento and railroad ceases to be operated by builder, D. C. Haskin. Operation by California Pacific begins. July 1871 Central Pacific offer to buy railroad but offer is rejected. Central Pacific announces plan to build a line paralleling Cal-P but crossing the Carquinez Strait at Benicia instead of at Vallejo.

December, 1871 flooding damages track between Knight's Landing and Yuba City/Marysville, placing line out of service and causing railroad financial hardship. June 30, 1876 the railroad, facing financial difficulties caused by the flooding of December 1871, is sold to the Central Pacific Railroad but continues to be listed as California Pacific. May 14, 1877 damaged and abandoned track is removed between Knight's Yuba City. December 6, 1879 Central Pacific completes 17-mile line from Suisun - Benicia and the trial run of the ferry across the Carquinez Strait between Benicia and Port Costa begins. April 1, 1885 the railroad was operated by the Southern Pacific Railroad. SP acquires the Northern Railway, a subsidiary paper railroad of the SP. 1888 listed in ICC reports as a non-operating subsidiary of Southern Pacific Railroad. April 14, 1898 the railroad is sold to the Southern Pacific Railroad; the Southern Pacific line between Martinez and Sacramento was informally known as the "Cal-P" after the original builder of the line, the California Pacific Railroad.

California Pacific purchased the Napa Valley Rail Road at foreclosure on June 9, 1869. The Napa Valley Rail Road was bui

Lincoln Street Historic District (Brunswick, Maine)

The Lincoln Street Historic District in Brunswick, Maine is an 8-acre historic district encompassing a remarkably uniform assemblage of mid 19th-century residential construction. It includes fourteen houses, most of which were built in a two-year period between 1843 and 1845; the district was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1976. Lincoln Street is an east-west residential street, one block in length, extending west from Maine Street, Brunswick's principal downtown thoroughfare; the land on which it was laid out was acquired over a multi-year period by Dr. Isaac Lincoln, a professor at Bowdoin College's Maine Medical School for many years. In response to local demand for housing, Lincoln subdivided the land and sold off most of the lots in 1843. Lincoln created uniformly-sized lots, specified minimum setback requirements for the houses that were built on them; the result is representative of residential development of the period. Except for the commercial buildings facing Maine Street, the street is lined on both sides with residential buildings.

All are 1-1/2 to 2-1/2 stories in height, are a mixture of wood frame and brick construction. There are seven on each side, including four duplexes. Most of these houses are Greek Revival in style. There is one house, built in 1871, which has Italianate style; the Richardson House at 11 Lincoln Street is separately listed on the National Register, as one of the region's finest examples of transitional Greek Revival-Italianate architecture. National Register of Historic Places listings in Cumberland County, Maine

Beef cattle vaccination in Australia

Vaccinations for cattle involves the process of applying subcutaneous injections of biological microorganisms in a weakened state to help the immune system develop protection by providing active acquirement of immunity to a particular disease. Cattle are bovine livestock and are thus susceptible to diseases. Vaccinations for cattle are used in the livestock industries of the Australian agriculture sector by farmers to prevent harmful and deadly diseases from infecting their livestock, avoiding any economical or biological harm. Farmed livestock industries account for 45% of the gross value of Australian agricultural output, beef cattle being the largest farmed livestock nationally with around 26.2 million head of cattle nationwide. The beef industry within Australia generates a gross value of $8 billion AUD in beef exports and a total gross value of $11.4 billion in farm production. Thus, vaccinations play a vital role in protecting and growing the beef cattle industry in the Australian agriculture sector.

Caused by the bacteria Clostridium. There are 6 species of the clostridia disease, they include. Young cattle are at a higher risk than adults to these diseases due to marking and dehorning procedures allowing the clostridial diseases to invade. Tetanus results in the production of a toxin that invades through deep puncture wounds affecting the nervous system, causing stimulation and contraction of skeletal muscles; this leads to'tetanic' convulsions and respiratory failure. Malignant Oedema is caused from deep wounds formed during calving. Toxins are produced causing swelling and accumulation of dead tissue; the toxins are absorbed into the bloodstream resulting in fever and death. Black leg and Pulpy kidney affect cattle over 2 years of age and tend to be a disease in young growing calves as well as breeding females if a calf injury has been sustained. Black leg involves the species c.chauvoei to produce a toxins causing severe muscle damage. Gas builds up in the muscle with a rapid progression to gangrene resulting in a lame animal.

The toxin can be absorbed into the bloodstream and fever and death can occur. Pulpy kidney produces a number of toxins that directly affect the nervous system and blood vessels causing damage, it causes diarrhoea, mania, blindess and death. Black disease occurs when the liver becomes damaged via liver fluke and producing a toxin causing severe liver damge and death. Botulism takes place when the cattle are deficient in protein and phosphorus resulting in decaying material and the chewing of bones as well as toxins being created that cause paralysis leading to breathing failure. An external parasite known as Rhipicephalus microplus which spread tick fever onto the cattle via three blood-borne organisms Babesia bovis, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina. Tick fever results in exterior material damage, internal damage, loss of condition and death due to blood loss. Cattle tick is a problem within endemic regions of Australia, with infestation occurring in Western Australia and the Northern Territory.

A sexually transmitted disease caused by a venereal bacteria. Bulls are not directly affected and there are no visual signs of the disease however, they can carry the disease for an extended period of time and spread the disease during breeding to females resulting in infertility and abortions occurring around mid-pregnancy. Conception rates can drop as low as 40% and permanent infertility can occur in some heifers. A complex disease caused by bovine pestivirus known as BVDV; the disease results in disrupted ovulation and fertilisation around the time of mating resulting in the reduction of pregnancy and conception rates, increased occurrence of calf scours as well as an increase in the occurrence in diarrhoea and respiratory disease. Abortions are to occur with the viability of calving and the calves themselves are decreased. Eye defects and central nervous system problems are very likely. A bacterial infection caused by L. L. pomona, which form leptosira. Leptospirosis results in infertility, abortions and discolourisation, red water in young calves all of which are severe and fatal.

Other well known diseases include buffalo fly, neonatal calf mortality, internal parasites, calf scours and bovine ephemeral fever but not all require a vaccination to cure. The frequency of the major diseases varies depending on climate, time of year, geographical location and management practices; these variations make it complex to develop appropriate vaccination models. As cattle vaccinations are subcutaneous, the vaccine must be injected under the skin and must not penetrate into the muscle. Vaccines must be administered in the area outlined in the source given. An area where the skin is clean should be used for the injection; some loose skin should be folded and lifted with the free hand, the vaccination given at the base of the skin where it is'tented', thus ensuring the needle only penetrates the fold of skin and no further. Alcohol and other disenfectants can disable a vaccine and therefore should not be used when vaccinating. However, ensure that the needles being used have been sterilised.

The needles have been sterilised if they come in a separate package. It is recommended to use a multi-dose inoculator gun with a clean sharp needle; the needles must be chan

A Night like This (song)

"A Night like This" is the second single by Caro Emerald, taken from the album Deleted Scenes from the Cutting Room Floor. It was released on 11 December 2009 in the Netherlands after it was first presented in an online Martini commercial on 16 October. Being released in 2010 in Europe, including the UK where it peaked at Number 65 in the UK Singles Chart, it was added to the'A' list on BBC Radio One. Schreurs told HitQuarters he created the track for "A Night like This" while Degiorgio packed his bags to leave for his hometown Toronto, the two "sat down for an hour and knocked out the song"; the lyrics are based on a specific scene in the 1967 Bond movie Casino Royale. "A Night Like This" was arranged by David Schreurs and produced by Schreurs and Jan van Wieringen. A video for the song was shot in Amsterdam and Opatija and Rijeka in Croatia; the song has been used in the sixth episode of season 3 of Pretty Little Liars, "Remains of the A" and episode 16 of The Secret Circle, "Lucky". In season one of the TV series Go On, it was used as the opening theme in one of the episodes.

The song has been used in advertising campaigns for Martini, Nestlé amongst others. A Night like This – EP"A Night like This" – 3:46 "A Night like This" – 3:46 "A Night like This" – 3:36 "Back It Up" – 3:51A Night like This – Single"A Night like This" – 3:51 List of Romanian Top 100 number ones of the 2010s Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics

The Merchanter novels

The Merchanter novels are several loosely connected novels by science fiction and fantasy author C. J. Cherryh set in her Alliance-Union universe; these science fiction novels explore her merchanter subculture: the extended families that own and operate the ships that supply goods, transportation and trade to the various worlds and space stations in the human Earth and Union space. The novels are related by a common setting and theme – a misfit who finds his or her proper home – rather than plot and character. Cherryh's merchanter-oriented works include: Merchanter's Luck Rimrunners Tripoint Finity's End Alliance Rising – credited to C. J. Cherryh and Jane S. FancherRimrunners differs from the other three novels in that the story does not take place aboard a merchanter ship and does not feature merchanter families. All four books were nominated for the Locus Award for Best Science Fiction Novel in their respective years of eligibility, but only Rimrunners and Finity's End were shortlisted.

Cherryh's Hugo Award-winning novel Downbelow Station, is closely related to these works, as it covers the conclusion of the Company Wars between the Earth Company Fleet and Union, the formation of the Merchanter's Alliance itself. The books are works of space opera, some have aspects of military science fiction Rimrunners. Cherryh, C. J.. Cherryh, C. J. Downbelow Station, DAW Books, 1981. Cherryh, C. J. Finity's End, Warner Aspect, 1997. Cherryh, C. J. Merchanter's Luck, DAW Books, 1982. Cherryh, C. J. Rimrunners, Warner Books, 1989. Cherryh, C. J. Tripoint, Warner Aspect, 1994