Portugal the Portuguese Republic, is a country located on the Iberian Peninsula, in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost sovereign state of mainland Europe, being bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain, its territory includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments. Portugal is the oldest nation state on the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe and the world, its territory having been continuously settled and fought over since prehistoric times; the pre-Celtic people, Iberians and Romans were followed by the invasions of the Visigoths and Suebi Germanic peoples. After the Muslim conquests of the Iberian Peninsula, most of the territory was part of Al-Andalus until their expulsion. Portugal as a country was established during the early Christian Reconquista. Founded in 868, the County of Portugal gained prominence after the Battle of São Mamede in 1128; the Kingdom of Portugal was proclaimed following the Battle of Ourique in 1139, independence from León was recognised by the Treaty of Zamora in 1143.

On 12 December 2017, the Portuguese Navy commemorated the 700th anniversary of its official creation by King Denis of Portugal. Tracing its origins back to the 12th century, it is the oldest continuously serving navy in the world. In the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal established the first global empire, becoming one of the world's major economic and military powers. During this period, today referred to as the Age of Discovery, Portuguese explorers pioneered maritime exploration, notably under royal patronage of Prince Henry the Navigator and King John II, with such notable voyages as Bartolomeu Dias' sailing beyond the Cape of Good Hope, Vasco da Gama's discovery of the sea route to India and the European discovery of Brazil. During this time Portugal monopolized the spice trade, divided the world into hemispheres of dominion with Castille, the empire expanded with military campaigns in Asia. However, events such as the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, the country's occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, the independence of Brazil and a late industrialization compared to other European powers erased to a great extent Portugal's prior opulence.

After the 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, the democratic but unstable Portuguese First Republic was established being superseded by the Estado Novo authoritarian regime. Democracy was restored after the Carnation Revolution in 1974. Shortly after, independence was granted to all its overseas territories, including East Timor; the handover of Macau to China in 1999 marked the end of what can be considered the longest-lived colonial empire. Portugal has left a profound cultural and linguistic influence across the globe, with a legacy of around 250 million Portuguese speakers, many Portuguese-based creoles, it is a developed country with high living standards. Additionally, it is placed in rankings of moral freedom, peacefulness, LGBTI rights, press freedom, social progress, HDI. A member of the United Nations and the European Union, Portugal was one of the founding members of NATO, the eurozone, the OECD, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries; the word Portugal derives from the Roman-Celtic place name Portus Cale.

The name of the city is from the Latin word for port or harbor, but the second element of Portus Cale is the subject of numerous theories. The mainstream explanation for the name is that it is an ethnonym derived from the Castro people known as the Callaeci, Gallaeci or Gallaecia, a people who occupied the north-west of the Iberian Peninsula; the names cactusi and Cale are the origin of Galicia. Another romantic theory has it. A further theory is that Cale or Calle is a derivation of the Celtic word for port, like the Irish called or Scottish Gaelic call; these explanations, would require the pre-Roman language of the area to have been a branch of Q-Celtic, not accepted. The region's pre-Roman language was Gallaecian Celtic; some French scholars believe the name may have come from'Portus Gallus', the port of the Gauls or Celts. Around 200 BC, the Romans took the Iberian Peninsula from the Carthaginians during the Second Punic War, in the process conquered Cale renaming it Portus Cale incorporating it to the province of Gaellicia with capital in Bracara Augusta.

During the Middle Ages, the region around Portus Cale became known by the Suebi and Visigoths as Portucale. The name Portucale evolved into Portugale during the 7th and 8th centuries, by the 9th century, that term was used extensively to refer to the region between the rivers Douro and Minho. By the 11th and 12th centuries, Portugallia, Portvgallo or Portvgalliae was referred to as Portugal; the early history of Portugal is shared with the rest of the Iberian Peninsula located in South Western Europe. The name of Portugal derives from the joined Romano-Celtic name Portus Cale; the region was settled by Pre-Celts and Celts, giving origin to peoples like the Gallaeci, Lusitanians and Cynetes, visited by Phoenicians, Ancient Greeks and Carthaginians, incorporated in the Roman Repub

Stephen Orbelian

Stepanos Orbelian was a thirteenth-century Armenian historian and the Metropolitan bishop of the province of Syunik. He is known for writing his well-researched History of the Province of Syunik. Orbelian was a member of the Orbelian family of princes and feudal lords who ruled Armenia's province of Syunik, he received his education at a religious seminary, in 1285 his father, Tarsayich Orbelian, sent him to Cilician Armenia, where he was consecrated a metropolitan bishop on Easter 1286. He remained there for three months as a guest of King Levon III and returned to Syunik in 1287. Orbelian was buried in the family mausoleum in the monastery complex at Noravank. Orbelian is known to have completed three works during his lifetime: the History of the Province of Syunik, in 1297. Of the three, the most prominent is that on the history of the Orbelian family. Before he began writing it, he conducted an extensive amount of research, utilizing a wide variety of sources derived from speeches, colophons, previous histories and chronicles by Armenian historians, as well as works by Georgian authors.

Like other Armenian historians and chroniclers, Orbelian's work narrates the beginning of the world starting with Adam and Eve, but moves on to tell Syunik's and Armenia's history, spanning from the time of king Tiridates I to the end of the thirteenth century. Orbelian's work is valuable as it contains many unknown details about the province and Armenian history. In 1864 and 1866, History was translated into French by orientalist Marie-Félicité Brosset; some excerpts were translated into Russian and Georgian

Go West, Young Lady

Go West, Young Lady is a 1941 American comedy western film directed by Frank R. Strayer and starring Penny Singleton, Glenn Ford and Ann Miller; the town of Headstone eagerly awaits the arrival of their new sheriff, hoping that he will vanquish the dreaded outlaw, Killer Pete, who has murdered the last four sheriffs. Meanwhile, on the stage bound for Headstone, Tex Miller, the new sheriff, is making small talk with fellow passenger and former seminary student Belinda "Bill" Pendergast when the stage is attacked by a band of Indians. Taking aim at the Indians, Bill shoots them off their horses and calmly explains to the astonished Tex that her father always wanted a son and taught her to handle a gun. Back in town, Killer Pete and his gang rob the Crystal Palace saloon. After the outlaws abscond with the money, Judge Harmon hands saloon owner Jim Pendergast a letter from his deceased brother Joe, asking Jim to take care of Joe's progeny Bill. Jim insists that Bill be appointed as the new sheriff until the stage arrives and he discovers that Bill is a girl.

Bill scandalizes the women of the town. Weeks Tex visits Bill and asks her to marry him, she sends him to her uncle to ask permission, in Tex's absence, Killer Pete enters the saloon with guns blazing. Upset that the sound of gunfire has caused a pie baking in her oven to fall, Bill proceeds downstairs and throws the pie at the outlaw, but misses and hits Tex, who has come running into the saloon. Blinded by the pie, the sheriff is unable to pursue the bandits, who hijack a carriage, tied up outside the saloon. Unknown to the outlaws, Judge Harmon and Hank, the deputy, are hiding in the back of the carriage. Killer Pete visits his girl friend Lola, a dancer at the saloon; the outlaw removes his disguise and becomes Tom Hannegan, a respected and wealthy rancher. Lola, jealous of Bill's presence in town, demands; when Jim broaches the topic with Bill, she insists on discussing the issue with Lola. After Bill informs Lola that she intends to remain in Headstone, Lola quits her job at the saloon, Bill decides to take her place onstage.

Embarrassed by his niece's unladylike performance, Jim orders her to return East immediately. Jim relents, when Tex asks for his niece's hand in marriage. Jim consents to the union and Tex rushes to tell Bill the good news, but is met by another pie in the face when Bill, unaware of Tex's presence, berates the pie for spoiling her engagement and throws it; that night, Judge Hank return from their buggy ride, having captured one of the bandits. After locking him in jail, they meet Hannegan and blurt out that they have captured bandit Dave Watson, who revealed the location of the gang's hideout. Soon after Hannegan shoots Dave in his jail cell, he arranges for Chief Big Thunder Cloud and his tribe to ambush the posse when they ride to the hideout. In the posse's absence and his gang plan to loot the town. After Tex and the others ride out of Headstone, Bill begins to pack her suitcase and goes to Lola's dressing room to retrieve her costume; when Bill's dog Waffles uncovers Hannegan's disguise there, Bill visits Lola and tricks her into revealing Hannegan's plans.

The two women fight and after Bill subdues Lola, the women of the town denounce her for being unfeminine. Bill changes their minds when she tells them of the planned robbery and ambush, recruits Bertha, one of the wives, to warn the posse; when Hannegan and his gang stride confidently into the saloon and the women pelt them with pans and brooms. By the time the posse arrives, the women have captured the outlaws, Bill, in her enthusiasm, flattens Tex with a frying pan. Penny Singleton as Belinda'Bill' Pendergast Glenn Ford as Sheriff Tex Miller Ann Miller as Lola Charles Ruggles as Jim Pendergast Allen Jenkins as Deputy Hank Onslow Stevens as Tom Hannegan San Antonio Rose: The Life and Music of Bob Wills by Charles Townsend The motion picture guide by Jay Robert Nash, Stanley Ralph Ross "Go West, Young Lady - IMDb". Retrieved 2014-06-09