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Portuguese language

Portuguese is a Western Romance language originating in the Iberian Peninsula. It is the sole official language of Portugal, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Angola and São Tomé and Príncipe, it has co-official language status in East Timor, Equatorial Guinea and Chinese Macau. As the result of expansion during colonial times, a cultural presence of Portuguese and Portuguese creole speakers are found in Goa and Diu in India. A Portuguese-speaking person or nation is referred to as "Lusophone". Portuguese is part of the Ibero-Romance group that evolved from several dialects of Vulgar Latin in the medieval Kingdom of Galicia and the County of Portugal, has kept some Celtic phonology and lexicon. With 215 to 220 million native speakers and 250 million total speakers, Portuguese is listed as the sixth most natively spoken language in the world, the third-most spoken European language in the world in terms of native speakers, the most spoken language in the Southern Hemisphere, it is the second-most spoken language, after Spanish, in South America and all of Latin America, one of the 10 most spoken languages in Africa and is an official language of the European Union, Mercosur, OAS, ECOWAS and the African Union.

The Community of Portuguese Language Countries is an international organization made up of all of the world's Lusophone nations. When the Romans arrived at the Iberian Peninsula in 216 BC, they brought the Latin language with them, from which all Romance languages descend; the language was spread by Roman soldiers and merchants, who built Roman cities near the settlements of previous Celtic civilizations established long before the Roman arrivals. For that reason, the language has kept a relevant substratum of much older, Atlantic European Megalithic Culture and Celtic culture, part of the Hispano-Celtic group of ancient languages. Between AD 409 and AD 711, as the Roman Empire collapsed in Western Europe, the Iberian Peninsula was conquered by Germanic peoples of the Migration Period; the occupiers Suebi and Buri who spoke Germanic languages adopted late Roman culture and the Vulgar Latin dialects of the peninsula and over the next 300 years integrated into the local populations. After the Moorish invasion beginning in 711, Arabic became the administrative and common language in the conquered regions, but most of the remaining Christian population continued to speak a form of Romance known as Mozarabic, which lasted three centuries longer in Spain.

Like other Neo-Latin and European languages, Portuguese has adopted a significant number of loanwords from Greek in technical and scientific terminology. These borrowings occurred via Latin, during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Portuguese evolved from the medieval language, known today by linguists as Galician-Portuguese, Old Portuguese or Old Galician, of the northwestern medieval Kingdom of Galicia and County of Portugal, it is in Latin administrative documents of the 9th century that written Galician-Portuguese words and phrases are first recorded. This phase is known as Proto-Portuguese, which lasted from the 9th century until the 12th-century independence of the County of Portugal from the Kingdom of León, which had by assumed reign over Galicia. In the first part of the Galician-Portuguese period, the language was used for documents and other written forms. For some time, it was the language of preference for lyric poetry in Christian Hispania, much as Occitan was the language of the poetry of the troubadours in France.

The Occitan digraphs lh and nh, used in its classical orthography, were adopted by the orthography of Portuguese by Gerald of Braga, a monk from Moissac, who became bishop of Braga in Portugal in 1047, playing a major role in modernizing written Portuguese using classical Occitan norms. Portugal became an independent kingdom under King Afonso I of Portugal. In 1290, King Denis of Portugal created the first Portuguese university in Lisbon and decreed for Portuguese simply called the "common language", to be known as the Portuguese language and used officially. In the second period of Old Portuguese, in the 15th and 16th centuries, with the Portuguese discoveries, the language was taken to many regions of Africa and the Americas. By the mid-16th century, Portuguese had become a lingua franca in Asia and Africa, used not only for colonial administration and trade but for communication between local officials and Europeans of all nationalities, its spread was helped by mixed marriages between Portuguese and local people and by its association with Roman Catholic missionary efforts, which led to the formation of creole languages such as that called Kristang in many parts of Asia.

The language continued to be popular in parts of Asia until the 19th century. Some Portuguese-speaking Christian communities in India, Sri Lanka and Indonesia preserved their language after they were isolated from Portugal; the end of the Old Portuguese period was marked by the publication of the Cancioneiro Geral by Garcia de Resende, in 1516. The early times of Modern Portuguese, which spans the period from the 16th century to the present day, were characterized by an increase in the number of learned words borrowed from Classical Latin and Classical Greek because

Mount Aspiring / Tititea

Mount Aspiring / Tititea is New Zealand's 23rd-highest mountain. It is the country's highest outside the Aoraki / Mount Cook region. Set within Otago's Mount Aspiring National Park, it has a height of 3,033 metres. Māori named it Tititea, it was named in December 1857 by the Chief Surveyor for John Turnbull Thomson. It is often called'the Matterhorn of the South,' for its pyramidal peak when seen from the Matukituki River; the first ascent was on 23 November 1909 by Major Bernard Head and guides Jack Clarke and Alec Graham. Head's party climbed to the summit ridge by the west face from the Bonar Glacier, a route not repeated until 1965. Mount Aspiring / Tititea sits to the west of the main divide, 30 kilometres west of Lake Wanaka, it lies at the junction of three major glacial systems – the Bonar Glacier, which drains into the Waipara River, the Volta and Therma Glaciers, which both drain into the Waitoto River. The Waipara is a tributary of the Arawhata River, both the Arawhata and Waitoto Rivers flow out to the west coast in between Haast and Jackson Bay.

The most used route to Mount Aspiring is up the West Matukituki Valley, at the end of a 50-kilometre road from Wanaka at Raspberry Flat. From here a network of huts provide staging points for climbers; the first is Mount Aspiring Hut, 8 kilometres from the end of the road. The next hut is an 8-12hr hike away, off trail; the trail only provides a route for the first half of the approach that winds through the flat valley floor. From the end of the trail one can either ascend the French Ridge and traverse the Bonar Glacier, or ascend Bevan Col to the Bonar Glacier. Both require good route finding skills and knowledge of glacial travel. Many climbers opt to fly in via helicopter because of the gruelling approach; the mountain and park are popular with climbers and trampers, so has experienced a number of accidents and deaths. List of mountains of New Zealand by height Prelude to Aspiring A 1949 documentary by Brian Brake

Wrestling at the 1956 Summer Olympics – Men's Greco-Roman middleweight

The men's Greco-Roman middleweight competition at the 1956 Summer Olympics in Melbourne took place from 3 December to 6 December at the Royal Exhibition Building. Nations were limited to one competitor; this Greco-Roman wrestling competition continued to use the "bad points" elimination system introduced at the 1928 Summer Olympics for Greco-Roman and at the 1932 Summer Olympics for freestyle wrestling, as modified in 1952. Each round featured all wrestlers wrestling one bout; the loser received 3 points. The winner received 1 point 0 points if the win was by fall. At the end of each round, any wrestler with at least 5 points was eliminated; this elimination continued until the medal rounds. These 3 wrestlers each faced each other in a round-robin medal round. Simić withdrew after his bout. BoutsPoints BoutsPoints BoutsPoints BoutsPoints Kartozia's victories over Jansson in round 1 and over Dobrev in round 4 counted for the medal round, giving him the gold medal with a 2–0 record against the other medalists.

Dobrev defeated Jansson in a de facto silver medal bout. BoutsPoints