Marquis of Pombal (title)
Count of Oeiras was a Portuguese title of nobility created by a royal decree, dated from July 15, 1759, by King Joseph I of Portugal, granted to Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, head of the Portuguese government. Through another royal decree dated from September 16, 1769, the same king upgraded the title to Marquis of Pombal. Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, 1st Count of Oeiras and 1st Marquess of Pombal. Chairman of the Lisbon Senate. List of Marquesses in Portugal List of Countships in Portugal Genealogy of the Counts of Oeiras, in Portuguese Genealogy of the Marquesses of Pombal, in Portuguese Genealogy of the Counts of Santiago de Beduído, in Portuguese ”Nobreza de Portugal e do Brasil" – Vol. III, pages 68/69 and 133/152. Published by Zairol Lda. Lisbon 1989
Constitution of Portugal
The present Constitution of Portugal was adopted in 1976 after the Carnation Revolution. It was preceded by a number of constitutions including ones created in 1822, 1838, 1911, 1933; the Constitution of 1911 was voted on August 21, 1911 and it was the basic law of the Portuguese First Republic. It was the first republican constitution; the Portuguese Constitution of 1933 was introduced by Prime Minister António de Oliveira Salazar in 1933, establishing the basis of the authoritarian Estado Novo regime, following the 28 May 1926 coup d'état. It is credited as the first constitution of any recognized country embracing corporatist principles, espousing a bicameral parliament, including a western-styled National Assembly, elected directly every four years, the Corporative Chamber, representing different "corporations", universities and local municipalities, in effect appointed by the National Assembly after its inaugural; the role of the Corporative Chamber was limited to that of an advisory body, while all legislation was handled by the Assembly under the direction of its only party or "movement", the National Union, an ideology-lacking beacon subordinate to the Salazar administration.
The Constitution stipulated for a strong President of Portugal, naming the Prime Minister on his own accord with no deference to the opinions of the Assembly required to be taken into consideration, such President to be elected every five years through direct elections with no term limits. Óscar Carmona served as President, although outmaneuvered politically by Salazar, until his death in 1951. The two following presidents, Craveiro Lopes and Américo Tomás, were more or less puppets of an aging Salazar, although the latter did not hesitate to use his wide-ranging powers to prevent Salazar's successor, Marcelo Caetano from performing changes aimed at reforming Portugal's authoritarian government; the direct consequence was the coup d'état of 1974. The Constitution of 1976 was drafted by a Constituent Assembly, elected on April 25, 1975, one year after the Carnation Revolution, it was completed in 1975 finished and promulgated in early 1976. At the time the constitution was being drafted, a democratic outcome was still uncertain in the midst of the revolution.
After a leftist coup had been put down in November 1975, it was not known if the armed forces would respect the assembly and allow work on the constitution to go forward. The Movimento das Forças Armadas and leftist groups pressured and cajoled the assembly, there was much discussion of establishing a revolutionary and socialist system of government. Moreover, not all of the assembly's members were committed to parliamentary democracy; the membership was intensely partisan, with some 60 percent of the seats occupied by the left. After great struggle, the Constituent Assembly adopted a constitution that provided for a democratic, parliamentary system with political parties, elections, a parliament, a prime minister; the document established an independent judiciary and listed a number of human rights. Although few of these provisions are exceptional, some of the constitution's features are noteworthy; until the constitutional revisions of 1982 and 1989, the constitution was a charged ideological document with numerous references to socialism, the rights of workers, the desirability of a socialist economy.
It restricted private investment and business activity. Many of these articles were advanced by Portuguese Communist Party representatives in the Constituent Assembly, but they were advocated by members of the Socialist Party, who at that time, for electoral reasons, were seeking to be as revolutionary as the other left groups; the resulting document proclaimed that the object of the republic was "to ensure the transition to socialism". The constitution urged the state to "socialize the means of production and abolish the exploitation of man by man," phrases that echoed Karl Marx's Communist Manifesto. Workers' Committees were given the right to supervise the management of enterprises and to have their representatives elected to the boards of state-owned firms; the government, among many admonitions in the same vein, was to "direct its work toward the socialization of medicine and the medicopharmaceutical sectors". Next, the military was given great political power through the role given by the constitution to the MFA-controlled Revolution Council that, in effect, made the MFA a separate and co-equal branch of government.
The council was to be an advisory body to the president, would function as a sort of constitutional court to ensure that the laws passed by parliament were in accord with the MFA's desires and did not undermine the achievements of the revolution. The council was to serve as a high-level decision-making body for the armed forces themselves; the council was a concession to the MFA for allowing the Constituent Assembly to sit and promulgate a new "basic law". Some of the Portuguese Left the PCP, supported the idea; the final innovative feature of the constitution was that it provided for a system of government, both presidential and parliamentarian. The Constituent Assembly favored two centers
Leonor de Almeida Portugal, 4th Marquise of Alorna
D. Leonor de Almeida Portugal, 4th Marquise of Alorna, 8th Countess of Assumar was a Portuguese noblewoman and poet. Known by her nickname, the Marquise was a prime figure in the Portuguese Neoclassic a proto-Romantic literary scene, while still a follower of Neoclassicism when it came to painting. Leonor was born into one of the many branches of the House of Távora, Portugal's most illustrious and powerful noble family at the time; this being said, the time of her birth and the subsequent years were a time of great trouble for the House of Távora, as they had been accused of treason against King José I of Portugal, in a series of events known as the Távora affair. Because of the unfortunate events in her early childhood, Leonor spent nineteen years forcibly imprisoned in a convent, where she spent most of her time reading and writing poetry, her early success as a poet at the convent started her lifelong career which would lead her to becoming one of Europe's most noteworthy literary figures at the time.
The occupation of Leonor's husband, Count Carlos Pedro of Oyenhausen-Groewenbourg, as a diplomat in the service of Queen Maria I of Portugal, meant that Leonor and her family spent much of their lives traveling the courts of Europe, most notably the Austrian Imperial Court at Vienna. Her travels allowed Leonor to acquaint herself with many of Europe's great minds of the time, thus spreading her literary and artistic influence throughout the continent and expanding Leonor's views and perceptions, both in poetry and in painting. D. Leonor de Almeida Portugal was born in Lisbon, on 31 October 1750, to João de Almeida Portugal, 2nd Marquis of Alorna and 4th Count of Assumar, Leonor de Lorena e Távora, daughter of Leonor Tomásia de Távora, 3rd Marchioness of Távora, she was born into the House of one of the most illustrious noble families in Portugal. Her family's wealth and power, achieved them suspicion from King José I's Prime Minister Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, 1st Marquis of Pombal.
These tensions between the Távoras and the Marquis of Pombal accumulated in 1758, when Leonor was eight years old, in the Távora affair. The affair saw the execution of her maternal grandparents and Leonor and her mother's forced placement in the Convent of São Félix of Chelas, until 1777, her father and brother were imprisoned in the Tower of Belém. While in the convent at Chelas, Leonor lived with her sister, she devoted her time to studying the works of Rousseau, Montesquieu, Pierre Bayle, to the Encyclopedia of Diderot. As there was not much for a young girl to do at a convent, Leonor spent most of her time composing poems and other lyrical pieces, it is during her childhood at the convent when Leonor began her career as a poet, publishing her first work, the Poems of Chelas. It was in the convent where she came in contact with famed poets and members of the Portuguese literary scene and monasteries having been a traditional place for refuge by writers and artists in Portugal; the convent was a location of retreat to the members of the Arcadia, a literary society, to distinguished poets like Francisco Manuel do Nascimento, best known by his pen-name, Filinto Elísio.
Nascimento, having read the Poems of Chelas, sought out Leonor, to listen her works and discuss poetry with her, became her tutor in literature and Latin. Nascimento's pen-name was, given to him by Leonor, while he was her tutor at the convent, it was during her time at the convent when Leonor started being called Alcipe, as the nuns gave nicknames to the young girls at the convent, as they gave Leonor's sister, Maria de Almeida Portugal, the nickname Dafne. Leonor left the convent in 1777, when she was twenty-seven years old, at the orders of the newly acclaimed Queen Maria I, who sought to reverse all the policies and actions of the Marquis of Pombal, whom she despised, her father and brother were released from Belém Tower and the two branches of the family reunited. The family's former palaces, the envy of the Portuguese nobility, had been destroyed by order of the Marquis of Pombal, thus the family moved to the Quinta of Vale de Nabais, outside of Lisbon, which they renamed Quinta of Alorna.
Though reduced from their previous standing, the family rose in the Portuguese court and nobility. Leonor became a personality of the aristocracy, her intelligence and charm having captivated the nobles who expected a girl ruined by a forced convent life. Two years after her release from her imprisoned life at the convent, Leonor had numerous suitors for her hand in marriage, her prime suitor was Carlos Pedro Maria José Augusto, Count of Oyenhausen-Grevenburg, a nobleman and military-man from the Holy Roman Empire. The Count served in the Seven Years' War, as an aide-de-camp to General Frederick Charles Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg. In 1762, Carlos Pedro came to Portugal with his cousin, Count of Schaumburg-Lippe, invited by the Marquis of Pombal to train the Portuguese army. Carlos Pedro went into the service of Queen Maria I, where he distinguished himself as a notable military-man and honourable statesman, his position and reputation made him the prime candidate for Leonor's hand and thus the two married on 15 February 1779.
Present were Queen Maria I and King Pedro III, Leonor's godparents, alongside many of the most important nobles at the Portuguese Royal Court. As a gift to the couple, Queen Maria I invested Carlos Pedro as a knight of the Order of Christ, Portugal's highest and noblest order. In 1779, Count Carlos Pedro moved the couple to Porto, as he was made commander of the VI Royal Infantry Regiment, based in that city. While in Porto, Leonor bore the couple's f
John II of Portugal
John II, called the Perfect Prince, was King of Portugal from 1481 until his death in 1495, for a brief time in 1477. He is known for re-establishing the power of the Portuguese monarchy, reinvigorating the Portuguese economy, renewing his country's exploration of Africa and the Orient. Born in Lisbon, the son of King Afonso V of Portugal by his wife, Isabella of Coimbra, John II succeeded his father as ruler of Portugal in 1477, when the king retired to a monastery, but only became king in 1481, after the death of his father and predecessor; as a prince, John II accompanied his father in the campaigns in northern Africa and was made a knight after the victory in the Conquest of Arzila in 1471. In 1473, he married an infanta of Portugal and his first cousin. At a young age, John was not popular among the peers of the kingdom since he was immune to external influence and appeared to despise intrigue; the nobles were afraid of his future policies as king. After his official accession to the throne in 1481, John II took a series of measures to curtail the power of the Portuguese aristocracy and concentrate power in himself.
As one of example of the measure he took, he deprived the nobles of their right to administer justice on their estates. The nobles started to conspire. Letters of complaint and pleas to intervene were exchanged between the Duke of Braganza and Queen Isabella I of Castile. King John took the precaution of renegotiating the "Tercerias de Moura" agreement to insure that his son Afonso was living safely back at court before he would move against Braganza, the most powerful noble in the realm. In 1483, additional correspondence was intercepted by royal spies; the House of Braganza was outlawed, their lands confiscated and the duke executed in Évora. The Duke's widow, Isabella of Viseu, John's cousin and sister-in-law, fled with her children to Castile. In the following year, the Duke of Viseu, John's cousin and brother-in-law, was summoned to the palace and stabbed to death by the king himself for suspicion of a new conspiracy. Many other people were executed, murdered, or exiled to Castile, including the Bishop of Évora, poisoned in prison.
Following the crackdown, no one in the country dared to defy the king and John saw no further conspiracies during his reign. A great confiscation of estates followed and enriched the crown, which now became the dominant power of the realm. Facing a bankrupt kingdom, John II showed the initiative to solve the situation by creating a regime in which a Council of Scholars took a vital role; the king conducted a search of the population and selected members for the Council on the basis of their abilities and credentials. John's exploration policies paid great dividends; such was the profit coming from John II's investments in the overseas explorations and expansion that the Portuguese currency had become the soundest in Europe. The kingdom could collect taxes for its own use rather than to pay debts thanks to its main gold source at that time, the coast of Guinea. John II famously restored the policies of Atlantic exploration, reviving the work of his great-uncle, Henry the Navigator; the Portuguese explorations were his main priority in government.
Portuguese explorers pushed south along the known coast of Africa with the purpose of discovering the maritime route to India and breaking into the spice trade. During his reign, the following achievements were realized: 1482 – Foundation of the coastal fortress and trade post of São Jorge da Mina 1484 – Discovery of the Congo River by Diogo Cão. 1488 – Discovery and passage of the Cape of Good Hope by Bartolomeu Dias in Mossel Bay. 1493 – Start of the settlement of the São Tomé and Príncipe islands by Álvaro Caminha. Funding of land expeditions by Afonso de Paiva and Pêro da Covilhã to India and Ethiopia in search of the kingdom of Prester John; the true extent of Portuguese explorations has been the subject of academic debate. According to one theory, some navigations were kept secret for fear of competition by neighbouring Castile; the archives of this period were destroyed in the fire after the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, what was not destroyed during the earthquake was either stolen or destroyed during the Peninsular War or otherwise lost.
When Columbus returned from his first voyage early in 1493, he first stopped in Lisbon to claim his victory in front of King John II. King John II's only response to this was that under the Treaty of Alcáçovas signed with Spain, Columbus's discoveries lay within Portugal's sphere of influence. Before Columbus reached Isabella I of Castile, John II had sent a letter to them threatening to send a fleet to claim it for Portugal. Spain hastened to the negotiating table, which took place in a small Spanish town named Tordesillas. A papal representative was present to act as mediator; the result of this meeting would be the famous Treaty of Tordesillas, which sought to divide all newly discovered lands in the New World between Spain and Portugal. John II died at Alvor at age 40 without legitimate children, he was succeeded by his first cousin Manuel I. The nickname the Perfect Prince is a posthumous appellation, intended to refer to Niccolò Machiavelli's work The Prince. John II is considered to have lived his life according to the writer's idea of a perfect prince.
He was admired as one of the greatest European monarchs of his time. Isabel
House of Braganza
The Most Serene House of Braganza, or the Brigantine Dynasty known in the Empire of Brazil as the Most August House of Braganza, is a dynasty of emperors, kings and dukes of Portuguese origin, a cadet branch of the House of Aviz. The house was founded by Afonso I, 1st Duke of Braganza, illegitimate son of King John I of Portugal, founder of the House of Aviz, would grow into one of the wealthiest and most powerful noble houses of the Iberian Peninsula of the Renaissance period; the Braganzas came to rule the Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves after deposing the Philippine Dynasty in the Restoration War, resulting in the Duke of Braganza becoming King John IV of Portugal, in 1640. The Braganzas ruled Portugal and the Portuguese Empire from 1640 and with the creation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves, in 1815, the subsequent independence of the Empire of Brazil, in 1822, the Braganzas came to rule as the monarchs of Brazil; the House of Braganza produced 15 Portuguese monarchs and all 4 Brazilian monarchs, numerous consorts to various European kingdoms, such as Catherine of Braganza and Maria Isabel of Braganza, as well as sometime candidates for the thrones of Poland and Greece, Infante Manuel, Count of Ourém and Pedro, Duke of Braganza and numerous other notable figures in the histories of Europe and the Americas.
The Braganzas were deposed from their thrones in Europe and the Americas at the turn of the 19th–20th centuries, when Emperor Pedro II was deposed in Brazil, in 1889, when King Manuel II was deposed in Portugal, in 1910. Following the reign of King John VI of Portugal, the Braganzas were split into three main branches of the family: the Brazilian branch, headed by King John VI's eldest son, Emperor Pedro I of Brazil, the Constitutional branch, headed by Emperor Pedro I's eldest daughter, Queen Maria II of Portugal, the Miguelist branch, headed by King John VI's second eldest son, King Miguel I of Portugal; the Brazilian branch, following 1921, became the House of Orléans-Braganza, whose leadership is disputed by two branches of its own: the Vassouras branch, headed by Prince Luiz of Orléans-Braganza, the Petrópolis branch, headed by Prince Pedro Carlos of Orléans-Braganza. The Constitutional branch died out with the death of King Manuel II in 1932, passing its claim to the Portuguese throne to the Miguelist Branch, by way of Duarte Nuno, Duke of Braganza.
The claim to the Portuguese Crown, thus to the leadership of the House of Braganza, passed to Duarte Nuno's son, Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza, the most recognized pretender to the Portuguese throne. The House of Braganza originated with Afonso I, an illegitimate son of King John I of Portugal, founder of the House of Aviz, Inês Pires. Though Afonso was illegitimate, his father valued and cared for him a great deal, demonstrated by his arrangement of Afonso's marriage to Beatriz Pereira de Alvim, daughter of Nuno Álvares Pereira, Portugal's most important general and a personal friend of King John I; as well as increasing his social status by his marriage into a well-established house, Afonso became the eighth Count of Barcelos, an honour ceded to him by his father-in-law, made the seventh count by John I. With his newly consolidated place in the nobility of Portugal, Afonso commenced what would be a successful political and social career. In 1415 he took part in the Conquest of Ceuta, alongside his father, his brothers, the leading members of the nobility and military.
By the time of his father's death in 1433, Afonso had won favour with his brother, King Duarte I and the rest of high Portuguese society. With his brother's premature death in 1438, a regency was established for Afonso's nephew, the 6 year old King Afonso V, under the leadership of the king's mother, Leonor of Aragon, Afonso's brother, Infante Pedro, Duke of Coimbra; the Duke of Coimbra's regency, soon proved unpopular and Afonso became the King's preferred advisor. On 30 December 1442, the Duke of Coimbra, still the King's regent and thus acting in his name, created Afonso as the Duke of Braganza, as a gesture of good will and reconciliation between the two brothers. Afonso's elevation to the dukedom, the highest level of nobility, marked the foundation of the House of Braganza, to become a key family in Portuguese history; as a result of the hard work and success of Afonso I, his children all secured successful positions and lived privileged lives. Afonso I's first son, Afonso of Braganza, was a prominent member of the nobility, having been ceded, by his grandfather, Nuno Álvares Pereira, the lucrative and powerful title of Count of Ourém, in 1422.
He was an accomplished diplomat, served as the king's representative at the Council of Basel in 1436, the Council of Florence in 1439. In 1451, the Count of Ourém was made Marquis of Valença and escorted Infanta Leonor of Portugal to her husband Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor. In 1458, he participated in the capture and conquest of Alcácer-Ceguer; the Marquis of Valença, died in 1460, one year before his father and therefore did not succeed him. Afonso I's first daughter, Isabel of Braganza, married Infante João, Lord of Reguengos de Monsaraz, thus relinking the House of Braganza to the Royal House of Portugal. Isabel's strategic marriage proved successful, produced four children, whose descendants would be some of the most important in Iberian history. Afonso I's last child and successor, Fernando I, Duke of Braganza, continued his legacy of prominence in the mil
Duarte Nuno, Duke of Braganza
Dom Duarte Nuno, Duke of Braganza was the claimant to the defunct Portuguese throne, as both the Miguelist successor of his father, Duke of Braganza, as the head of the only Brigantine house, after the death of the last Legitimist Braganza, King Manuel II of Portugal. In 1952, when the Portuguese Laws of Banishment were repealed, the Duke moved his family to Portugal, thus returning the Miguelist Braganzas to their homeland and becoming the first of the former Portuguese royal dynasty to live in Portugal since the deposition of the monarchy, in 1910. Once established in Portugal, the Duke was granted a pension and residence by the Fundação da Casa de Bragança, the organization has owned and managed all the private assets of the House of Braganza, since the death of King Manuel II, in 1932. Duarte Nuno spent the rest of his life attempting, without success, the restoration of all Brigantine assets to his family and recreating the image of the Miguelist Braganzas in Portuguese society, all under the goal of the restoration of the Portuguese monarchy, under the Braganzas.
In 1942, the Duarte Nuno married Princess Maria Francisca of Orléans-Braganza, daughter of Pedro de Alcântara, Prince of Grão-Pará. Their marriage reconciled two branches of the House of Braganza, in two different ways, reuniting the Portuguese and Brazilian Brigantine houses and reuniting the Miguelist and Liberal Braganzas, estranged since 1828, when the War of Two Brothers was waged between King-Emperor Pedro IV & I, founder of the Liberal Braganzas, King Miguel I, founder of the Miguelist Braganzas; the couple had three sons, the eldest of whom is Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza, the current pretender to the defunct Portuguese throne. Duarte Nuno Fernando Maria Miguel Gabriel Rafael Francisco Xavier Raimundo António was born at Seebenstein Castle in Austria-Hungary, the son of Miguel, Duke of Braganza and of his second wife, Princess Maria Theresa of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg. Duarte Nuno had one older half-sister and eight sisters, his paternal grandparents were Miguel I of Portugal and Princess Adelaide of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg.
His maternal grandparents were Charles, 6th Prince of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg, Princess Sophie of Liechtenstein. Duarte Nuno’s father was the Miguelist claimant to the throne of Portugal who opposed his cousins, the reigning line of the House of Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha descended from Queen Maria II. Duarte Nuno's family had been banished by Maria II for rebellion. In spite of this, with the permission of Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria, Portuguese soil had been placed under the bed where he was born, so that Duarte Nuno and his siblings could claim to have been born on Portuguese soil in order to comply with the Portuguese law of succession; the day after his birth, Duarte Nuno was baptised at Seebenstein. His godparents were his aunt the Infanta Adelgundes, Duchess of Guimarães and the husband of another aunt, the Infante Alfonso Carlos, Duke of San Jaime. Duarte Nuno’s second brother, Prince Francis Joseph of Braganza, died in 1919, on 21 July 1920 his eldest brother, Prince Miguel, Duke of Viseu, renounced his succession rights.
Ten days on 31 July 1920 Duarte Nuno’s father, abdicated his claim to the Portuguese throne in favour of Duarte Nuno. Henceforth the Miguelists recognised Duarte Nuno as King Duarte II of Portugal though Portugal had become a republic in 1910 when Maria II’s great-grandson, King Manuel II, was sent into exile. Duarte Nuno used Duke of Braganza as a title of pretense. Since Duarte Nuno was only twelve years old when he succeeded as Miguelist claimant to the Portuguese throne, his aunt, the Duchess of Guimarães, acted as regent for him until he attained his majority. In 1921, she issued a manifesto outlining the family’s goals for the restoration of the monarchy; the renouncement of Duarte Nuno’s father was intended to improve the relationship between the two monarchist groups in Portugal: the supporters of the Braganza-Saxe-Coburg line of Manuel II and the supporters of the Miguelist line of Duarte Nuno. The Braganza-Saxe-Coburg line was called "constitutional" because it had accepted a liberal constitution for Portugal.
After the death of his uncle Afonso in 1920, ex-King Manuel II had no close relatives who could claim the throne according to the Constitutional Charter of 1826. The conflict between the Miguelist line and the Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha's was not just about which person should be sovereign; the Miguelists upheld Portugal's tradition of autocratic absolutism, while the Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha's adhered to constitutional monarchy. In 1912, Duarte Nuno’s father, met with Manuel to try to come to some agreement so that there would not be two claimants to the Portuguese throne, both living in exile, their representatives signed the Pact of Dover by which Miguel recognised Manuel as king, while Manuel recognised the succession rights of Duarte Nuno should Manuel and his uncle Afonso die without children. The pact was unpopular with the supporters of both sides, some claiming that it was never signed. On 17 April 1922 a second agreement called the Pact of Paris was signed by the representatives of Duarte Nuno and Manuel in which Manuel agreed that the Cortes should select his heir if he died without descendants, while Duarte Nuno agreed to ask and recommend that his followers accept Manuel as king-in-exile.
Speaking the Pact of Dover and the Pact of Paris were private agreements unenforceable. Nor did