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Poseidon

Poseidon was one of the Twelve Olympians in ancient Greek religion and myth, god of the sea, storms and horses. In pre-Olympian Bronze Age Greece, he was venerated as a chief deity at Thebes, his Roman equivalent is Neptune. Poseidon was protector of seafarers, of many Hellenic cities and colonies. In Homer's Iliad, Poseidon supports the Greeks against the Trojans during the Trojan War and in the Odyssey, during the sea-voyage from Troy back home to Ithaca, the Greek hero Odysseus provokes Poseidon's fury by blinding his son, the Cyclops Polyphemus, resulting in Poseidon punishing him with storms, the complete loss of his ship and companions, a ten-year delay. Poseidon is the subject of a Homeric hymn. In Plato's Timaeus and Critias, the island of Atlantis was Poseidon's domain; the earliest attested occurrence of the name, written in Linear B, is Po-se-da-o or Po-se-da-wo-ne, which correspond to Ποσειδάων and Ποσειδάϝονος in Mycenean Greek. The form Ποτειδάϝων appears in Corinth; the origins of the name "Poseidon" are unclear.

One theory breaks it down into an element meaning "husband" or "lord" and another element meaning "earth", producing something like lord or spouse of Da, i.e. of the earth. Walter Burkert finds that "the second element δᾶ- remains hopelessly ambiguous" and finds a "husband of Earth" reading "quite impossible to prove." According to Robert Beekes,Etymological Dictionary of Greek, "there is no indication that δᾶ means'earth'". Another, more plausible, theory interprets the second element as related to the Doric word *δᾶϝον dâwon, "water", Proto-Indo-European *dah₂- "water" or *dʰenh₂- "to run, flow", Sanskrit दन् dā́-nu- "fluid, dew" and names of rivers such as Danube or Don; this would make *Posei-dawōn into the master of waters. There is the possibility that the word has Pre-Greek origin. Plato in his dialogue Cratylus gives two traditional etymologies: either the sea restrained Poseidon when walking as a "foot-bond", or he "knew many things". At least a few sources deem Poseidon as a "prehellenic" word, considering an Indo-European etymology "quite pointless".

The name of the Frisian and Scandinavian god Fosite or Forseti, venerated on the island of Heligoland, may have been derived from Poseidon. According to the German philologist, Hans Kuhn, the Germanic form *Fosite is linguistically identical to Greek Poseidon. Roman altars dedicated to Poseidon have been found in the Middle Rhine area. Common epithets applied to Poseidon are Enosichthon "Earth Shaker" or "earth-shaking" and Ennosigaios, used by Homer in the Iliad and by Nonnus in Dionysiaca. Other epithets for Poseidon are Hippeios "belonging to a horse", Nauklarios "belonging to the ship-owners", Pelagikos "belonging to the sea", Petraios "rocky, stony", Ptortheion "promotor of vegatation", Thukios "full of seaweed", as well as several others. Of the two phrases, Enosichthon has an older evidence of use, as it is identified in Linear B, as, E-ne-si-da-o-ne,The epithets Ennosigaios indicate the chthonic nature of Poseidon, to say, Poseidon was regarded as holding sway over land as well as the sea.

Another epithet of Poseidon was "Dark-Haired". If surviving Linear B clay tablets can be trusted, the name po-se-da-wo-ne occurs with greater frequency than does di-u-ja. A feminine variant, po-se-de-ia, is found, indicating a lost consort goddess, in effect the precursor of Amphitrite. Poseidon carries the title wa-na-ka in Linear B inscriptions, as king of the underworld; the chthonic nature of Poseidon-Wanax is indicated by his title E-ne-si-da-o-ne in Mycenean Knossos and Pylos, a powerful attribute. In the cave of Amnisos Enesidaon is related with the cult of the goddess of childbirth, she was related with the annual birth of the divine child. During the Bronze Age, a goddess of nature, dominated both in Minoan and Mycenean cult, Wanax was her male companion in Mycenean cult, it is possible that Demeter appears as Da-ma-te in a Linear B inscription, however the interpretation is still under dispute. In Linear B inscriptions found at Pylos, E-ne-si-da-o-ne is related with Poseidon, Si-to Po-tini-ja is related with Demeter.

Tablets from Pylos record sacrificial goods destined for "the Two Queens and Poseidon". The "Two Queens" may be related with Demeter and Persephone, or their precursors, goddesses who were not associated with Poseidon in periods; the illuminating exception is the archaic and localised myth of the stallion Poseidon and mare Demeter at Phigalia in isolated and conservative Arcadia, noted by Pausanias as having fallen into desuetude. The violated Demeter was Demeter Erinys. In Arcadia, Demeter's mare-form was worshiped into historical times, her xoanon of Phigaleia shows. A Medusa type with a horse's head with snaky hair, holding

Anthony L. Knapp

Anthony Lausett Knapp was a U. S. Representative from Illinois, brother of Robert McCarty Knapp. Born in Middletown, New York, Knapp moved with his parents to Illinois in 1839 and settled in the city of Jerseyville, he completed preparatory studies and studied law. He was admitted to the commenced practice in Jerseyville, he served as member of the Illinois Senate 1859-1861. Knapp was elected as a Democrat to the Thirty-seventh Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of John A. McClernand, he was reelected to the Thirty-eighth Congress and served from December 12, 1861, to March 3, 1865. He was not a candidate for renomination in 1864, he continued the practice of law. He died in Springfield, May 24, 1881, he was interred in Springfield Cemetery. He was reinterred in Oak Grove Cemetery in Jerseyville. United States Congress. "Anthony L. Knapp". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Anthony L. Knapp at Find a Grave This article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congress.gov

Long-lived fission product

Long-lived fission products are radioactive materials with a long half-life produced by nuclear fission of uranium and plutonium. Nuclear fission produces fission products, as well as actinides from nuclear fuel nuclei that capture neutrons but fail to fission, activation products from neutron activation of reactor or environmental materials; the high short-term radioactivity of spent nuclear fuel is from fission products with short half-life. The radioactivity in the fission product mixture is short-lived isotopes such as 131I and 140Ba, after about four months 141Ce, 95Zr/95Nb and 89Sr take the largest share, while after about two or three years the largest share is taken by 144Ce/144Pr, 106Ru/106Rh and 147Pm. Note that in the case of a release of radioactivity from a power reactor or used fuel, only some elements are released; as a result, the isotopic signature of the radioactivity is different from an open air nuclear detonation where all the fission products are dispersed. After several years of cooling, most radioactivity is from the fission products caesium-137 and strontium-90, which are each produced in about 6% of fissions, have half-lives of about 30 years.

Other fission products with similar half-lives have much lower fission product yields, lower decay energy, several are quickly destroyed by neutron capture while still in the reactor, so are not responsible for more than a tiny fraction of the radiation production at any time. Therefore, in the period from several years to several hundred years after use, radioactivity of spent fuel can be modeled as exponential decay of the 137Cs and 90Sr; these are sometimes known as medium-lived fission products. Krypton-85, the 3rd most active MLFP, is a noble gas, allowed to escape during current nuclear reprocessing. Spent fuel in the U. S. and some other countries is not to be reprocessed until decades after use, by that time most of the 85Kr will have decayed. After 137Cs and 90Sr have decayed to low levels, the bulk of radioactivity from spent fuel come not from fission products but actinides, notably plutonium-239, plutonium-240, americium-241, americium-243, curium-245, curium-246; these can be recovered by nuclear reprocessing and fissioned, offering the possibility of reducing waste radioactivity in the time scale of about 103 to 105 years.

239Pu is usable as fuel in existing thermal reactors, but some minor actinides like 241Am, as well as the non-fissile and less-fertile isotope plutonium-242, are better destroyed in fast reactors, accelerator-driven subcritical reactors, or fusion reactors. On scales greater than 105 years, fission products, chiefly 99Tc, again represent a significant proportion of the remaining, though lower radioactivity, along with longer-lived actinides like neptunium-237 and plutonium-242, if those have not been destroyed; the most abundant long-lived fission products have total decay energy around 100–300 keV, only part of which appears in the beta particle. In contrast, actinides undergo multiple alpha decays, each with decay energy around 4–5 MeV. Only seven fission products have long half-lives, these are much longer than 30 years, in the range of 200,000 to 16 million years; these are known as long-lived fission products. Two or three have high yields of about 6%, while the rest appear at much lower yields.

The first three have between 200 thousand and 300 thousand years. Technetium-99 produces the largest amount of LLFP radioactivity, it emits beta particles of low to medium energy but no gamma rays, so has little hazard on external exposure, but only if ingested. However, technetium's chemistry allows it to form anions that are mobile in the environment. Tin-126 has a large decay energy and is the only LLFP that emits energetic gamma radiation, an external exposure hazard. However, this isotope is produced in small quantities in fission by thermal neutrons, so the energy per unit time from 126Sn is only about 5% as much as from 99Tc for U-235 fission, or 20% as much for 65% U-235+35% Pu-239. Fast fission may produce higher yields. Tin is an inert metal with little mobility in the environment, helping to limit health risks from its radiation. Selenium-79 emits only weak radiation, its decay energy per unit time should be only about 0.2% that of Tc-99. Zirconium-93 is produced at a high yield of about 6%, but its decay is 7.5 times slower than Tc-99, its decay energy is only 30% as great.

93Zr does produce gamma radiation, but of a low energy, zirconium is inert in the environment. Caesium-135's predecessor xenon-135 is produced at a high rate of over 6% of fissions, but is an pot