Politics of Denmark
The politics of Denmark take place within the framework of a parliamentary representative democracy, a constitutional monarchy and a decentralised unitary state in which the monarch of Denmark, Queen Margrethe II, is head of state. Denmark is described as a nation state. Danish politics and governance are characterized by a common striving for broad consensus on important issues, within both the political community and society as a whole. Executive power is exercised by the cabinet of Denmark, presided over by the Prime Minister, first among equals. Legislative power is vested in the national parliament. Members of the judiciary are nominated by the executive, formally appointed by the monarch and employed until retirement. Denmark has a multi-party system, with two strong parties, four or five other significant parties. No single party has held an absolute majority in the Folketing since the beginning of the 20th century. Since only four post-war coalition governments have enjoyed a majority, government bills become law without negotiations and compromise with both supporting and opposition parties.
Hence the Folketing tends to be more powerful than legislatures in other EU countries. The Constitution does not grant the judiciary power of judicial review of legislation, however the courts have asserted this power with the consent of the other branches of government. Since there are no constitutional or administrative courts, the Supreme Court deals with a constitutional dimension. On many issues the political parties tend to opt for co-operation, the Danish state welfare model receives broad parliamentary support; this ensures a focus on public-sector efficiency and devolved responsibilities of local government on regional and municipal levels. The degree of transparency and accountability is reflected in the public's high level of satisfaction with the political institutions, while Denmark is regularly considered one of the least corrupt countries in the world by international organizations; the Economist Intelligence Unit rated Denmark as "full democracy" in 2016. Margrethe II has ruled as Queen Regnant and head of state since 14 January 1972.
In accordance with the Danish Constitution the Danish monarch, as head of state, is the theoretical source of all executive and legislative power. However, since the introduction of parliamentary sovereignty in 1901, a de facto separation of powers has been in effect; the text of the Danish constitution dates back to 1849. Therefore, it has been interpreted by jurists to suit modern conditions. In a formal sense, the monarch retains the ability to deny giving a bill royal assent. In order for a bill to become law, a royal signature, a countersignature by a government minister, is required; the monarch chooses and dismisses the Prime Minister, although in modern times a dismissal would cause a constitutional crisis. On 28 March 1920, King Christian X was the last monarch to exercise the power of dismissal, sparking the 1920 Easter Crisis. All royal powers called Royal Prerogative, such as patronage to appoint ministers and the ability to declare war and make peace, are exercised by the Prime Minister and the Cabinet, with the formal consent of the Queen.
When a new government is to be formed, the monarch calls the party leaders to a conference of deliberation, where the latter advise the monarch. On the basis of the advice the monarch appoints the party leader who commands a majority of recommendation to lead negotiations for forming a new government. According to the principles of constitutional monarchy, today the monarch has an ceremonial role, restricted in his or her exercise of power by the convention of parliamentary democracy and the separation of powers. However, the monarch does continue to exercise three rights: the right to be consulted. Pursuant to these ideals, the Prime Minister and the Cabinet attend the regular meeting of the Council of State. Denmark has a multiparty system. Nine parties are represented in parliament; the four oldest and in history most influential parties are the Conservative People's Party, the Social Democrats and the Danish Social Liberal Party. However, demographics have been in favour of younger parties, which has led to a constant process of policy development and gradual renewal amongst the political parties.
No two parties have the same organization. It is however common for a party to have: an annual convention which approves manifestos and elects party chairmen. In most cases the party members in parliament form their own group with autonomy to develop and promote party politics in parliament and between elections; the government performs the executive functions of the kingdom. The affairs of government are decided by the Cabinet, headed by the Prime Minister; the Cabinet and the Prime Minister are responsible for their actions to the Folketing. Members of the Cabinet are given the title of "minister" and each hold a different portfolio of government duties; the day to day role of the cabinet members is to serve as head of one or more segments of the national bureaucracy, as head of the civil servants to which all employees in that department report. Enjoying the status of primus inter pares, the Prime Minister is head of the Danish government; the Prime Minister and members of the Cabinet are appointed by the Crown on basi
The Deutsche Post AG, operating under the trade name Deutsche Post DHL Group, is a German postal service and international courier service company, the world's largest. With its headquarters in Bonn, the corporation has 510,000 employees; the postal division delivers 61 million letters each day in Germany, making it Europe's largest such company. The Express division claims to be present in over territories; the Deutsche Post is the successor to the German mail authority Deutsche Bundespost, privatized in 1995 and became a independent company in 2000. DHL Express is a wholly owned subsidiary. Since its privatization, Deutsche Post has expanded its business area through acquisitions. In late 2014, the Group acquired a small manufacturer of electric vehicles. Two years the Group acquired UK Mail, a business-focused postal service in the UK for US$315.5 million. The former company became a division of the Deutsche Post European parcel network; the Deutsche Post DHL Group 2016 earnings before interest and taxes was €3.491 billion, with a net profit of €2.64 billion on revenue of €57.334 billion.
Return on equity, before taxes, was 27.7 percent. The Group's long term credit rating, in November 2016, was BBB+ with a Stable outlook per Fitch's. Deutsche Post AG is listed on the Börse Frankfurt as DPW and is in the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index. In 2016, 20.5% of the Group's shares were held by the state-owned KfW bank. The Deutsche Post DHL Group has become a world-wide company in about two decades; the following are significant dates in the development into its current form. 2 January 1995: Deutsche Bundespost Postdienst becomes Deutsche Post AG. The government of Germany still owns a large share of the company. 1998: Deutsche Post begins acquiring shares in DHL International. 1999: Deutsche Post World Net acquires the Dutch distribution company Van Gend & Loos from Nedlloyd and in 2000 the Swiss distribution company Danzas. 20 November 2000: Deutsche Post AG becomes a private company, with a new Board of Directors, in an IPO listed on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange. The government of Germany sells one third of its shares and KfW bank sells some of its shares.
December 2002: Deutsche Post AG acquires the remaining shares in DHL International. August 2003: The company acquires the Seattle-based Airborne Express; the company integrates Van Gend & Loos, Airborne Express, its own EuroExpress into DHL to form DHL Express. December 2005: The Group acquires the logistics company Exel in the UK, a£3.7 billion takeover. 2006: DHL GlobalMail UK merges with Mercury International. December 2014: The Group acquires StreetScooter GmbH, a small manufacturer of electric vehicles in Aachen, Germany. December 2016: The Group completes the purchase of UK Mail, a business-focused postal service - with "one of the largest integrated parcels and mail operations in the U. K." - for US$315.5 million. The former company becomes a division of the Deutsche Post European parcel network, although its web site reveals only a relationship with DHL Express; the postal division delivers 59 million letters every working day in Germany, provides services across the entire mail value chain, including production facilities at central hubs, sales offices and production centers on four continents.
This division inherited most of the traditional mail services offered by the state-owned monopoly, for which it uses the Deutsche Post brand. Its exclusive right to deliver letters under 50 grams in Germany expired on 1 January 2008, following the implementation of European legislation. A number of companies are vying to challenge Deutsche Post's near monopolistic hold on letter deliveries, including Luxembourg-based PIN Group and Dutch-owned TNT Post. In 2002, Deutsche Post was granted a license to deliver mail in the United Kingdom, breaking Royal Mail's long-standing monopoly. In 2016, in Germany alone, the Post – eCommerce – Parcel division delivered over 1.2 billion parcels, an increase of 9.3% over 2015, much of it as result of shipping products purchased by customers on-line. The e-commerce aspect helped to generate a great deal of revenue; this division's revenue increased by 4.1 percent to €16.8 billion while earnings before interest and taxes increased by 30.8 percent to over €1.4 billion.
The Express division offers worldwide courier and parcel shipment service, combining air and ground transport, under the DHL brand. It owns five airlines: European Air Transport Leipzig, DHL Air UK, DHL Aero Expreso, SNAS/DHL and Blue Dart Aviation. In 2016, this division's revenue increased by 2.7 per cent to €14 billion. The operating profit before interest and taxes increased by 11.3% over 2015 to €1.5 billion. Express is divided into business units along regions: Europe Asia Pacific Americas Europe, the Middle East and Africa DHL Global Forwarding this division carries goods by rail, road and sea under the DHL brand and includes the DHL Freight operation which runs a ground-based freight network covering Europe and traffic into the Middle East. In 2016, this division's revenue declined by 7.7 percent to €13.7 billion but operating profit before interest and taxes improved from -€181 million in 2015 to +€287 million. The DHL Supply Chain division provides contract logistics and corporate information solutions tailor-made for customers.
In 2016, this division's revenue decreased by 11.6% to €14.0 billion versus 201
Post Danmark A/S is the company responsible for the Danish postal service. Established in 1995 following political liberalization efforts, it has taken over the mail delivery duties of the governmental department Postvæsenet. In 2005, 22% of the company shares were sold to CVC Capital Partners, 3.5% of the company shares were sold to employees at a discount kept in reserve for a management incentives program. As of 2007, Post Danmark employs about 21,000 people, delivers a billion letters and 37 million parcels every year. Post Danmark has a wide variety of services, such an express deliveries, courier services, facility services, 10 o'clock service, Electronic mailbox. On 1 April 2008 Post Danmark announced its intention to merge with its Swedish counterpart, Posten AB to realise greater economies of scale and postal synergies; the combined company post-merger had an annual revenue of 45 billion Swedish crowns and employed more than 50,000 people. Following the merger the combined company was 18% owned by the Danish state and the company's employees, 60% by the Swedish state, 22% by the private equity house CVC Capital Partners.
At that time it was expected that the company would be listed on the stock exchanges of both Copenhagen and Stockholm within 3–5 years, but as of 2019 this has yet to happen. The merger completed on 24 June 2009 Post Danmark merged with Posten AB to form the new holding company Posten Norden AB known as PostNord. Posten Norden AB has since been renamed PostNord AB. On 2 February 2019, in advance of the merger, it was announced that CVC had entered into an agreement with the Government of Denmark to sell its stake in Post Danmark in exchange for Post Danmark's 49.9 stake in De Post, the state postal service of the Kingdom of Belgium, in a transaction valued at 473 million euros. CVC had original acquired its stake in Post Danmark in 2005 during its the latter's partial privatisation. List of postal codes in Denmark Postage stamps and postal history of Denmark Postverk Føroya - Faroese postal service Post Greenland - Greenlandic postal service Official website Details from the CVR register
Posti Group Corporation is the main Finnish postal service delivering mail and parcels in Finland. The State of Finland is the sole shareholder of the company. Posti Ltd has a universal service obligation that entails weekday deliveries of letters in all of Finland’s municipalities. Posti’s head office is located in Pohjois-Pasila in Helsinki. Posti’s history spans nearly 400 years; the Finnish company is divided into four business groups: Postal Services and Logistics Services, Itella Russia and OpusCapita. Posti’s net sales in 2016 amounted to EUR 1,647 million. Posti has 20,300 employees. Of the net sales 96% comes from businesses and organizations; the company’s key customer sectors are commerce and media. As of 2015 the group is headed by Heikki Malinen, Arto Markku Pohjola is Chairman of the Board of Directors; the company has operations in eleven countries: Finland, Sweden, Estonia, Lithuania, Germany and United States. Åland Post is the independent postal operator for the Åland Islands. Postal Services handles the delivery of letters, direct mail, newspapers and magazines in Finland through its subsidiary Posti Oy.
Delivery personnel offer check-in and assistance services for the elderly, in 2016 ran a pilot program offering lawn mowing. Home services help public and private home care providers be more efficient and flexible in producing their services Parcel and Logistics Services offers comprehensive supply chain solutions, parcel and e-commerce services, transport services, international road, air and rail freight services, warehousing or supplementary services and customs clearance services; the company provides global services through its partners. Itella Russia provides logistics services in Russia. OpusCapita provides financial process automation. OpusCapita has operations in eight European countries and a network of international partners covering the globe. On 6 September 1638, Governor-General Per Brahe the Younger established postal services in Finland, part of the Kingdom of Sweden at the time. In 1811, a central postal administration was established within the postal services of autonomous Finland.
In 1845, postal service for parcels began. In 1856, stamps were introduced. In 1858, home delivery of letters and newspapers began. Posti was one of the first institutions to hire women as employees. In 1927, the Telegraph was merged with the Finnish Post. In 1981, Post and Telegraph was renamed Telecommunications. In 1990, Posti-Tele became a state-owned enterprise no longer dependent on the state budget. In 1994, Post and Telecommunications became Suomen PT Oy, with the subsidiaries Finland Post Corporation, providing postal services, Telecom Finland Oy, engaged in telecommunications. In 1998, Suomen PT Group was demerged. Finland Post Corporation and Sonera Oy became state-owned enterprises. In 2001, Finland Post became a public company. Since 1 June 2007, the company name has been Itella Corporation; the group's more diversified and internationalised business operations were the reason for the change of name. In 2008 Itella acquired in Russia the logistics company NLC and Connexions company, specialising in direct marketing services.
In Poland Itella acquired BusinessPoint S. A. specialising in printing and document management. In 2011, Finnish postal services have been transferred to Itella Posti Oy. In 2011, Itella Information acquired OpusCapita, Itella Information acquired OpusCapita expanding services to cash flow automation. Itella Bank started as a deposit bank in the beginning of 2012. In 2013, Itella divested the entire share capital of Itella Bank Ltd to Savings Banks. In connection with the divestment, the name of the bank will change to Bank of Savings Banks Ltd. In 2013, Itella Information was renamed OpusCapita, it operates as a subgroup of Itella Group. On 1 January 2015, Itella Oyj changed its name to Posti Group Oyj. Subsidiaries Itella Posti Oy and Itella Logistics Oy were renamed to Posti Oy. In 2015, Posti sold its Scandinavian road freight business operations to the Danish Nordic Transport Group. Posti launched the first municipal cooperation within Posti’s new home services with the South Karelia Social and Health Care District Eksote.
Posti acquired Kuljetus Kovalainen and Veine, a company specializing in temperature-regulated logistics. Domestic postal services were centralized in Posti Oy. Posti has more than 1,400 service points: post offices, of which most are in conjunction with companies run by local entrepreneurs, Parcel Points, pick-up outlets. There are SmartPOST automatic parcel terminals in Estonia; as of February 2011, Finland will be the first country in the world to receive all letters, publications and direct advertisements through carbon-neutral delivery by Posti. This does not involve any extra fees to the customers. Posti Group is responsible for providing postal services. In its current form, the Post Act entered into force in 2011. By virtue of this act, postal services must be provided on a permanent basis and for reasonable prices to all users, throughout the country. In each municipality there must be at least one outlet providing postal services; the responsibility for the general steering and development of postal services belongs to the Ministry of Transport and Communications.
The Finnish Communications Regulatory Authority, acting under this ministry, participates in the deve
Österreichische Post is the company responsible for postal service in Austria. This company was established in 1999 after its split-off from the mail corporate division of the former telecommunications Austrian concern Post und Telekom Austria, it is listed on the Vienna Stock Exchange. Austrian post offices in Crete Austrian post offices in Liechtenstein Austrian post offices in the Ottoman Empire List of people on stamps of Austria Postage stamps and postal history of Austria Postal codes in Austria Official website Vienna Stock Exchange: Market Data Österreichische Post AG
HayPost CJSC is the official national postal operator of Armenia which provides postal and retail services. Haypost operates through 900 postal offices across Armenia, from urban to the most remote rural regions. Official website
Norway the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe whose territory comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The Antarctic Peter I Island and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the kingdom. Norway lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land. Norway has a total area of 385,207 square kilometres and a population of 5,312,300; the country shares a long eastern border with Sweden. Norway is bordered by Finland and Russia to the north-east, the Skagerrak strait to the south, with Denmark on the other side. Norway has an extensive coastline, facing the Barents Sea. Harald V of the House of Glücksburg is the current King of Norway. Erna Solberg has been prime minister since 2013. A unitary sovereign state with a constitutional monarchy, Norway divides state power between the parliament, the cabinet and the supreme court, as determined by the 1814 constitution; the kingdom was established in 872 as a merger of a large number of petty kingdoms and has existed continuously for 1,147 years.
From 1537 to 1814, Norway was a part of the Kingdom of Denmark-Norway, from 1814 to 1905, it was in a personal union with the Kingdom of Sweden. Norway was neutral during the First World War. Norway remained neutral until April 1940 when the country was invaded and occupied by Germany until the end of Second World War. Norway has both administrative and political subdivisions on two levels: counties and municipalities; the Sámi people have a certain amount of self-determination and influence over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament and the Finnmark Act. Norway maintains close ties with both the United States. Norway is a founding member of the United Nations, NATO, the European Free Trade Association, the Council of Europe, the Antarctic Treaty, the Nordic Council. Norway maintains the Nordic welfare model with universal health care and a comprehensive social security system, its values are rooted in egalitarian ideals; the Norwegian state has large ownership positions in key industrial sectors, having extensive reserves of petroleum, natural gas, lumber and fresh water.
The petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the country's gross domestic product. On a per-capita basis, Norway is the world's largest producer of oil and natural gas outside of the Middle East; the country has the fourth-highest per capita income in the world on the World IMF lists. On the CIA's GDP per capita list which includes autonomous territories and regions, Norway ranks as number eleven, it has the world's largest sovereign wealth fund, with a value of US$1 trillion. Norway has had the highest Human Development Index ranking in the world since 2009, a position held between 2001 and 2006, it had the highest inequality-adjusted ranking until 2018 when Iceland moved to the top of the list. Norway ranked first on the World Happiness Report for 2017 and ranks first on the OECD Better Life Index, the Index of Public Integrity, the Democracy Index. Norway has one of the lowest crime rates in the world. Norway has two official names: Norge in Noreg in Nynorsk; the English name Norway comes from the Old English word Norþweg mentioned in 880, meaning "northern way" or "way leading to the north", how the Anglo-Saxons referred to the coastline of Atlantic Norway similar to scientific consensus about the origin of the Norwegian language name.
The Anglo-Saxons of Britain referred to the kingdom of Norway in 880 as Norðmanna land. There is some disagreement about whether the native name of Norway had the same etymology as the English form. According to the traditional dominant view, the first component was norðr, a cognate of English north, so the full name was Norðr vegr, "the way northwards", referring to the sailing route along the Norwegian coast, contrasting with suðrvegar "southern way" for, austrvegr "eastern way" for the Baltic. In the translation of Orosius for Alfred, the name is Norðweg, while in younger Old English sources the ð is gone. In the 10th century many Norsemen settled in Northern France, according to the sagas, in the area, called Normandy from norðmann, although not a Norwegian possession. In France normanni or northmanni referred to people of Sweden or Denmark; until around 1800 inhabitants of Western Norway where referred to as nordmenn while inhabitants of Eastern Norway where referred to as austmenn. According to another theory, the first component was a word nór, meaning "narrow" or "northern", referring to the inner-archipelago sailing route through the land.
The interpretation as "northern", as reflected in the English and Latin forms of the name, would have been due to folk etymology. This latter view originated with philologist Niels Halvorsen Trønnes in 1847; the form Nore is still used in placenames such as the village of Nore and lake Norefjorden in Buskerud county, still has the same meaning. Among other arguments in favour of the theor