Three-card Monte – known as Find the Lady and Three-card Trick – is a confidence game in which the victim, or "mark", is tricked into betting a sum of money, on the assumption that they can find the "money card" among three face-down playing cards. It is the same as the shell game except. In its full form, Three-card Monte is an example of a classic "short con" in which a shill pretends to conspire with the mark to cheat the dealer, while in fact conspiring with the dealer to cheat the mark; the mark has no chance whatsoever of winning, at any point in the game. In fact, anyone, observed winning anything in the game can be presumed to be a shill; this confidence trick was in use by the turn of the 15th century. The Three-card Monte game itself is simple. To play, a dealer places three cards face down on a table on a cardboard box which provides the ability to set up and disappear quickly; the dealer shows that one of the cards is the target card, e.g. the queen of hearts, rearranges the cards to confuse the player about which card is which.
The player is given an opportunity to select one of the three cards. If the player identifies the target card, the player gets the amount bet back, plus the same amount again. Since there are only three cards, the jack of spades and jack of clubs complement the "money card", a queen; the queen is a red card the queen of hearts. Sometimes the ace of spades is used as the money card, since in some cultures the ace of spades is viewed as lucky, which might lure the mark into playing the game; when the mark arrives at the Three-card Monte game, it is that a number of other players will be seen winning and losing money at the game. The people engaged in playing the game are shills, confederates of the dealer who pretend to play so as to give the illusion of a straight gambling game; as the mark watches the game, they are to notice that they can follow the queen more than the shills seem to be able to, which sets them up to believe that they can win the game. If the mark enters the game, they will be cheated through any number of methods.
An example of a simple scheme involves a dealer and two shills: The dealer and shills act as if they do not know each other. The mark will come upon a game being conducted in a clandestine manner with somebody "looking out" for police; the dealer will be engaged with the first shill betting money. The first shill may be winning, leading the mark to observe that easy money may be had, or losing, leading the mark to observe that they could beat the game and win money where the first shill is losing it. While the mark is watching, the second shill, acting as a casual passerby like the mark, will casually engage a mark in conversation regarding the game, commenting on either how the first shill is winning or how they are losing money because they cannot win at what appears to the mark to be a simple game; this conversation is engineered to implicitly encourage the mark to play, it is possible the second shill could resort to outright encouragement. If the mark does not enter the game, the dealer may claim to see police and will fold up the operation and restart it elsewhere, or will wait for another mark to appear on the scene.
If the mark enters the game, they may be "had" by a number of techniques. A common belief is that the operator may let the mark win a couple of bets to suck them in, but this is never true. In a true Monte scam, the mark will never win a single bet. There are too many ways for a well-run mob to attract the marks, suck them in, convince them to put money down; when the dealer and the shills have taken the mark, a lookout, the dealer, or a shill acting as an observer will claim to have spotted the police. The dealer will pack up the game and disperse along with the shills. Dealers employ sleight of misdirection to prevent the mark from finding the queen. While various moves have been devised for Monte, there is one basic move, overwhelmingly used with all Monte games, it has to do with the way the cards are tossed to the table. The dealer will pick up one of the cards with one hand, two with the other; this is the key: although it appears that the dealer is tossing the lowermost card to the table, in actuality they can toss either the top or the bottom card at will.
Thus, having done so, while mixing up the cards, the mark will be following the wrong card from the beginning. The move, done properly, is undetectable; the shills pretending to play are unaware of where the money card is without the dealer employing signals of various kinds to let them know where it is. Once in a while the mark will manage to find the right location of the card by pure chance; this presents no problem at all for the mob. In other words, the mark puts down money on the right card, at which point a shill will place a double bet on top of the card, thereby winning the "right" to play that round. Of course, if the mark picks the wrong card, the dealer takes the money; the dealer will never accept a winning bid from a mark. The psychology of the con is to increase the mark's confidence until they believe they have a special ability to cheat the dealer and win easy money. Everything the Monte mob does is geared towards creating that mindset in the mark. To increase the mark's motivation to bet, they will employ standard strategies such as
French playing cards
French playing cards are cards that use the French suits of trèfles, carreaux, cœurs, piques. Each suit contains three face cards. Aside from these aspects, decks can include a wide variety of regional and national patterns which have different deck sizes. In comparison to Spanish, Italian and Swiss playing cards, French cards are the most widespread due to the geopolitical and cultural influence of France and the United Kingdom in the past two centuries. Other reasons for their popularity were the simplicity of the suit insignia, which simplifies mass production, the popularity of whist and contract bridge. Playing cards arrived in Europe from Mamluk Egypt around 1370 and were reported in France in 1377; the French suit insignia was derived from German suits around 1480. Between the transition from the suit of bells to tiles there was a suit of crescents. One of the most distinguishing features of the French cards is the queen. Mamluk cards and their derivatives, the Latin suited and German suited cards, all have three male face cards.
Queens began appearing in Italian tarot decks in the mid-15th century and some German decks replaced two kings with queens. While other decks abandoned the queen in non-tarot decks, the French kept them and dropped the knight as the middle face card. Face card design was influenced by Spanish cards that used to circulate in France. One of the most obvious traits inherited from Spain are the standing kings. Spanish-suited cards are still used in France in Northern Catalonia, Brittany and the Vendée with the latter two using the archaic Aluette cards. In the 19th century, corner indices and rounded corners were added and cards became reversible, relieving players from having to flip face cards right side up; the index for aces and face cards follow the local language but many decks of the Paris pattern use the numeral "1" for aces. The French suited deck has spawned many regional variations known as standard patterns based on their artwork and deck size; the Paris pattern was exported throughout continental Europe, why most French-suited patterns share a similar appearance.
The English pattern, based on the extinct Rouennais pattern, is the most well known pattern in the world. Note that patterns do not factor in Jokers as they are a recent addition which leads to every manufacturer making their own trademarked depiction of this card. All 52-card packs produced in the present will contain at least two jokers unless otherwise noted; the Paris pattern became known as the portrait officiel. From the 19th century to 1945, the appearance of the cards used for domestic consumption was regulated by the French government. All cards were produced on watermarked paper made by the state to show payment of the stamp tax; the most common deck sold in France is the 32-card deck with the 2 to 6 removed and 1s as the index for aces. 52-card decks are popular. The French have a unique habit of associating their face cards with historic or mythical personages which survives only in the portrait officiel; the Belgian-Genoese pattern is similar to its Parisian parent and is an export version not subject to France's domestic stamp tax.
The jack of clubs has a triangular shield bearing the coat of arms of the former Spanish Netherlands, face cards are unnamed, blue is replaced with green in the portraits. The diagonal dividing line lacks the beads; when the Ottoman Empire relaxed the ban against playing cards, Belgian type cards flooded their territory and is now found throughout the Balkans, North Africa, the Middle East. They are commonly found in France's former colonies. Within Belgium, the Francophone Walloons are the primary users of this pattern, the Flemish prefer the Dutch pattern; this is the second most common pattern in the world after the English pattern. Belgian decks come in either 52 cards like in France. Genoese type cards lack corner indices, they come in 40, or 52 card decks. The Piedmontese pattern is similar to the Genoese packs but its face cards have a horizontal instead of diagonal dividing line and the aces are found in a decorative garland, they come in the same number of cards as Genoese ones. The Piedmontese pattern was once used in neighboring Savoy as both were united until France annexed the latter in 1860.
A 78 card tarot version of the Piedmontese pattern, complete with knights, the fool, a suit of trumps depicting flowers, corner indices, was printed in 1902 for Savoyard players. It was discontinued some time after 1910 but reproductions have been in print since 1984; the Chambéry rules that come with the deck are similar to Piedmontese tarot games but the ace ranked between the jack and the 10 like in Triomphe. It should not be confused with the Italian-suited Piedmontese tarot. A Parisian variant appeared in Bavaria in the mid-18th century where the king of diamonds wore a turban; this originates from the German-suited Old Bavarian pattern. The king of spades, who used to represent David, no longer holds a harp; this group is associated with animal tarots. The Russian pattern created during the early 19th-century is based on a Baltic version of a Bavarian derivative; the current appearance was finalized by Adolf Charlemagne. It contains 52 or 36 cards, the latter lacking ranks 2 to 5; the stripped deck is used to play Durak.
They can be found in many countries that were once part of the Russian Soviet Union. Adler-Ceg
Not to be confused with cut cardIn many card games, to cut the cards is a procedure used just prior to the cards being dealt to the players. A common procedure is that after the cards have been shuffled, the dealer sets the cards face-down on the table near the player designated to make the cut the player to the dealer's right; that player initiates a cut of the deck by taking a contiguous range of cards off the top of the deck and placing it face-down on the table farther from the dealer. Once the cut is complete, the dealer picks up the deck, straightens or "squares" it, deals the cards. Rules of procedure or etiquette may vary concerning who makes the cut, the minimum or maximum number of cards which may be cut off the top, whether the dealer or the cutter restacks the cards, whether a cut card is employed, whether a cut is mandatory; the practice of cutting is a method of reducing the likelihood of someone cheating by manipulating the order of cards to gain advantage. If the dealer does not plan on cheating, cutting will prevent suspicions, thus many rules require it.
Some players consider the cut to be lucky. Parlett says; the contiguous section may be taken from the middle of the deck. This is called "Scarne's cut", though in some settings this is considered poor etiquette or against the rules. A cut involving a small number of cards, such as taking only the top card, taking some cards from the bottom or taking every card bar the bottom one as a cut, is acceptable according to rules. Other rules may specify that at least three cards must be left in making a cut. Sometimes up to three cuts are allowed. A sensible minimum is about one-fifth of the deck. During informal card games, the dealer is not required to offer the cut, if offered, the designated player can decline the request. On the other hand, any player may request to cut the cards before they are dealt. If a cut is requested by a player, it must be granted by the dealer. In formal player dealt settings, such as in a casino or during a tournament, an offer to cut the deck is mandatory and the designated player must perform the cut by inserting a cut card into the deck.
When the dealer is not a player, the cut is mandatory and is performed by the dealer. In this instance, the deck is cut onto the aforementioned cut card, the cut completed. A cut should always be completed with one hand to limit possibility of a false cut. Scarne's cut was developed by John Scarne during World War II to help protect servicemen against cheating by unscrupulous dealers. First one places it back on top of the deck, it can be demonstrated. In fact, knowing the size of the deck and the size of the cuts, the formula for the composite single cut is given as the sum of the sizes of the cuts modulo the size of the deck. For example, in a 10 card deck, if a 7 card cut and a 4 card cut are made, that is, 7 cards are moved from the top of the deck to the bottom and the resulting top 4 cards are moved to the bottom those two consecutive cuts are equivalent to a cut the size of = 1; the deck will be in the order. A false cut is a move used either for cheating when playing card games, it leaves the deck in the same order as when it began.
More sophisticated versions may make specific desired changes to the deck's order, while still appearing to be an innocuous normal cut. There are many ways to accomplish a false cut, involving misdirection or using complex moves to conceal the real result. Cutting cards is a prelude to a game, but it can be a game unto itself; each player, in turn, removes a selection of cards from the top and reveals the bottom card to all the players, replaces the cards in the original position. Whoever has revealed the highest card is the winner; this is used in an informal setting, much like flipping coins. The command to "cut the cards", followed by someone chopping the deck in half with an axe, is a none-too-subtle gag, used many times in popular media, going back to at least the vaudeville days. Examples include Harpo Marx in Horse Feathers, Curly Howard in Ants in the Pantry, Bugs Bunny in Bugs Bunny Rides Again
Three-card brag is a 16th-century British card game, the British national representative of the vying or "bluffing" family of gambling games. Brag is a direct descendant of the Elizabethan game of Primero and one of the several ancestors to poker, just varying in betting style and hand rankings. A variant of the game is popular in Trinidad, India and Nepal, where it is known as "faras" and teen patti, played with numerous local variations. Everyone antes, players are each dealt three cards face down. There is a single round of betting, with action starting to the left of the dealer; each player has the option of betting or folding. If there was a previous bet, the player must contribute; this betting continues until there are only two players left, at which point either player may double the previous bet to "see" his opponent. At this point, the two hands are revealed, the player with the better hand takes the entire pot. If there is a tie, the player, seeing loses. For example, with four players A, B, C and D, this situation could occur: Player A bets 2 chips, B folds, C bets 2 chips and D bets 2 chips.
In order to stay in, A would have to bet another 2 chips. Hands follow the same sequence as the five-card hands of poker with some variation created by the differing odds of a three-card hand; as there are only three cards, four of a kind and a full house are not possible. Three of a kind is a high-ranked hand, while a straight beats a flush, as three-card flushes are more than three-card straights while the reverse is true of five-card poker hands; the full probabilities are as follows: Four-card brag: Players are dealt four cards, must choose which card to throw away in order to create the best combination. The game is played in the same way as three-card brag. Seven-card brag: Seven cards are dealt, players must choose three cards to play from their hands, or make two hands, with only a successful win if both hands win the pot. Nine-card brag: Nine cards are dealt, players sort these into three sets. Four antes are played, one for each set, a main pot; each set is played out without further betting.
The winner of each set takes one lot of antes. Players must always play the next best available set. A player may be able to make two good sets and a poor third, so players that do not think they will be able to win all three will order their hands to leave themselves with a strong third set to protect the main pot. Thirteen-card brag: Thirteen cards are dealt, from which players must choose three cards to play. Another variation involves making four hands from the thirteen cards. Four of a kind can be played, is rewarded by an additional fee to be paid by the other players, apart from any original stake. Players show their respective best hands second best hands, etc. with each winning hand scoring that player a point, or points. Score is kept on a cribbage board, is either a sprint of 10 or so holes, with one point scored for each winning hand, or played over the full length, or street, of the board, with 4 points awarded to the best highest hand, 3 points to the best second-highest hand, etc.
Players not on the board by the time someone wins may have to pay double. Winnings are either a pre-arranged fixed amount from each loser to the winner, or paid proportionate to how far behind the winner they finish. Any player winning all four hands in any round is said to have crashed, automatically wins the entire game. In some regions the game is known as'Crash'. Bastard brag: Three cards are dealt to each player, three face-up communal cards are dealt. Players take turns at exchanging all of their cards for any or all of the communal cards. Play continues ` knocks', meaning that they are happy with their hand. All the remaining players exchange one last time before hands are compared; the player with the lowest hand loses a life. The name may originate from several of the rules making. Knocking on the first round is prohibited, forcing anyone dealt a good hand to break it up, knocking isn't allowed directly after an exchange, rather instead of an exchange, i.e. you have to make a good hand, wait for your next turn to stick.
Players can't exchange two cards at once preventing the immediate accumulation of a good hand, with the card needed to complete the hand maybe taken by another player before the next opportunity. It is otherwise known as Stop the BusFifteen card Brag: A non-gambling related variant, played as a family game; each player is dealt fifteen cards. Each player must lay their tricks down in order, highest first; the winner is the one. This variant has a much higher likelihood of more powerful tricks, due to the extra cards; this version can be played with 10 cards and one card is discarded. Some of these rules can lead to games heads-up, becoming tactical, with players avoiding making their best hand until their hand is forced into that last exchange by another player sticking, risking that the card that completes their hand isn't taken by another player in the meantime. Players have the option of playing blind. A blind pl
William Shakespeare was an English poet and actor regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's greatest dramatist. He is called England's national poet and the "Bard of Avon", his extant works, including collaborations, consist of 39 plays, 154 sonnets, two long narrative poems, a few other verses, some of uncertain authorship. His plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed more than those of any other playwright. Shakespeare was raised in Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire. At the age of 18, he married Anne Hathaway, with whom he had three children: Susanna and twins Hamnet and Judith. Sometime between 1585 and 1592, he began a successful career in London as an actor and part-owner of a playing company called the Lord Chamberlain's Men known as the King's Men. At age 49, he appears to have retired to Stratford. Few records of Shakespeare's private life survive; such theories are criticised for failing to adequately note that few records survive of most commoners of the period.
Shakespeare produced most of his known works between 1589 and 1613. His early plays were comedies and histories and are regarded as some of the best work produced in these genres; until about 1608, he wrote tragedies, among them Hamlet, King Lear, Macbeth, all considered to be among the finest works in the English language. In the last phase of his life, he collaborated with other playwrights. Many of Shakespeare's plays were published in editions of varying quality and accuracy in his lifetime. However, in 1623, two fellow actors and friends of Shakespeare's, John Heminges and Henry Condell, published a more definitive text known as the First Folio, a posthumous collected edition of Shakespeare's dramatic works that included all but two of his plays; the volume was prefaced with a poem by Ben Jonson, in which Jonson presciently hails Shakespeare in a now-famous quote as "not of an age, but for all time". Throughout the 20th and 21st centuries, Shakespeare's works have been continually adapted and rediscovered by new movements in scholarship and performance.
His plays remain popular and are studied and reinterpreted through various cultural and political contexts around the world. William Shakespeare was the son of John Shakespeare, an alderman and a successful glover from Snitterfield, Mary Arden, the daughter of an affluent landowning farmer, he was born in Stratford-upon-Avon and baptised there on 26 April 1564. His actual date of birth remains unknown, but is traditionally observed on 23 April, Saint George's Day; this date, which can be traced to a mistake made by an 18th-century scholar, has proved appealing to biographers because Shakespeare died on the same date in 1616. He was the third of eight children, the eldest surviving son. Although no attendance records for the period survive, most biographers agree that Shakespeare was educated at the King's New School in Stratford, a free school chartered in 1553, about a quarter-mile from his home. Grammar schools varied in quality during the Elizabethan era, but grammar school curricula were similar: the basic Latin text was standardised by royal decree, the school would have provided an intensive education in grammar based upon Latin classical authors.
At the age of 18, Shakespeare married 26-year-old Anne Hathaway. The consistory court of the Diocese of Worcester issued a marriage licence on 27 November 1582; the next day, two of Hathaway's neighbours posted bonds guaranteeing that no lawful claims impeded the marriage. The ceremony may have been arranged in some haste since the Worcester chancellor allowed the marriage banns to be read once instead of the usual three times, six months after the marriage Anne gave birth to a daughter, baptised 26 May 1583. Twins, son Hamnet and daughter Judith, followed two years and were baptised 2 February 1585. Hamnet died of unknown causes at the age of 11 and was buried 11 August 1596. After the birth of the twins, Shakespeare left few historical traces until he is mentioned as part of the London theatre scene in 1592; the exception is the appearance of his name in the "complaints bill" of a law case before the Queen's Bench court at Westminster dated Michaelmas Term 1588 and 9 October 1589. Scholars refer to the years between 1585 and 1592 as Shakespeare's "lost years".
Biographers attempting to account for this period have reported many apocryphal stories. Nicholas Rowe, Shakespeare's first biographer, recounted a Stratford legend that Shakespeare fled the town for London to escape prosecution for deer poaching in the estate of local squire Thomas Lucy. Shakespeare is supposed to have taken his revenge on Lucy by writing a scurrilous ballad about him. Another 18th-century story has Shakespeare starting his theatrical career minding the horses of theatre patrons in London. John Aubrey reported; some 20th-century scholars have suggested that Shakespeare may have been employed as a schoolmaster by Alexander Hoghton of Lancashire, a Catholic landowner who named a certain "William Shakeshafte" in his will. Little evidence substantiates such stories other than hearsay collected after his death, Shakeshafte was a common name in the Lancashire area, it is not known definitively when Shakespeare began writing, but contemporary allusions and records of performances show that several of
Charles Cotton was an English poet and writer, best known for translating the work of Michel de Montaigne from the French, for his contributions to The Compleat Angler, for the influential The Compleat Gamester attributed to him. He was born in Alstonefield, near the Derbyshire Peak District, his father, Charles Cotton the Elder, was a friend of Ben Jonson, John Selden, Sir Henry Wotton and Izaak Walton. The son was not sent to university, but was tutored by Ralph Rawson, one of the fellows ejected from Brasenose College, Oxford, in 1648. Cotton travelled in France and in Italy, at the age of twenty-eight he succeeded to an estate encumbered by lawsuits during his father's lifetime. Like many Royalist gentlemen after the English Civil War the rest of his life was spent chiefly in quiet country pursuits, in Cotton's case in the Peak District and North Staffordshire, his Voyage to Ireland in Burlesque states that he served in Ireland. His friendship with Izaak Walton began about 1655, contradicts any assumptions about Cotton's character based on his coarse burlesques of Virgil and Lucian.
Walton's initials, made into a cipher with Cotton's own, were placed over the door of Cotton's fishing cottage on the Dove near Hartington. Cotton contributed a second section "Instructions how to angle for a trout or grayling in a clear stream", to Walton's The Compleat Angler. Another addition to the volume was Cotton's well-known poem "The Retirement", which appeared from the 5th edition onwards. In 1656 he married his cousin Isabella Hutchinson, the daughter of Charles Hutchinson, M. P. for Nottingham. She was a half-sister of Col. John Hutchinson. Isebella Cotton, died in 1670. At the request of his wife's sister, Miss Stanhope Hutchinson, he undertook the translation of Pierre Corneille's Horace in 1671. In 1675, he married the dowager Countess of Ardglass; the 1674 first edition of The Compleat Gamester is attributed to Cotton by publishers of editions, to which additional, post-Cotton material was added in 1709 and 1725, along with some updates to the rules Cotton had described earlier.
The book was considered the "standard" English-language reference work on the playing of games – gambling games, including billiards, card games, horse racing and cock fighting, among others – until the publication of Edmond Hoyle's Mr. Hoyle's Games Complete in 1750, which outsold Cotton's then-obsolete work. At Cotton's death in 1687 he left his estates to his creditors, he was buried in St James's Church, Piccadilly, on 16 February 1687. Cotton's reputation as a burlesque writer may account for the neglect with which the rest of his poems have been treated, their excellence was not, overlooked by good critics. Coleridge praises the purity and unaffectedness of his style in Biographia Literaria, Wordsworth gave a copious quotation from the "Ode to Winter"; the "Retirement" is printed by Walton in the second part of the Compleat Angler. He was a Derbyshire man who loved the Peak District and wrote a long topographic poem describing it: his father had moved there from the south of England, to live on his wife's estates.
In Cotton's day, in the decades after the Civil War, the inaccessibility of good fishing spots was physical as well as legal. The opening chapters of his section of the Compleat Angler draw Cotton and his friend across a savage and mountainous landscape; the friend, who will be taught fly-fishing, expresses doubt as to whether they are still in Christendom: "What do I think? Why, I think it is the steepest place that sure men and horses went down. After he picked his way down, they reach a bridge. "Do you... travel with wheelbarrows in this country" he asks. "Because this bridge was made for nothing else. It is the first description of paradise in fishing history. "It stands in a kind of peninsula, with a delicate clear river about it." There Cotton and his friend breakfast on ale and a pipe of tobacco to give them the strength to wield their rods. For a trout river, he says, a rod of five or six yards should be long enough. In fact, "longer, though never so neatly and artificially made, it ought not to be, if you intend to fish at ease".
Though he used a light line of tapered horse-hair, Cotton's rod, of solid wood, was heavy. His description of the sport differs from modern fly-casting, which began with the arrival of heavy dressed-silk lines 200 years later. On windy days, he advises his guest to fish the pools because in the rapids, where the gorge of the Dove is narrower, the wind will be too strong for fishing; some of Cotton's advice is still useful, as when he tells his guest to fish "fine and far off". The flies which catch fish will always look wrong to the untrained eye, because they look too small and too delicate. Cotton's dressings are made with bear hair and camel's under fur, the soft bristles from inside a black hog's ear, from dog's tails. "What a heap of trumpery is here!" Cries his visitor, when Cotton's dubbing bag is opened. "Certainly never an angler in Europe has his shop
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.