Portugal the Portuguese Republic, is a country located on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost sovereign state of mainland Europe, being bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain, its territory includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments. Portugal is the oldest state on the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled and fought over since prehistoric times; the pre-Celtic people, Celts and Romans were followed by the invasions of the Visigoths and Suebi Germanic peoples. Portugal as a country was established during the Christian Reconquista against the Moors who had invaded the Iberian Peninsula in 711 AD. Founded in 868, the County of Portugal gained prominence after the Battle of São Mamede in 1128; the Kingdom of Portugal was proclaimed following the Battle of Ourique in 1139, independence from León was recognised by the Treaty of Zamora in 1143.
In the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal established the first global empire, becoming one of the world's major economic and military powers. During this period, today referred to as the Age of Discovery, Portuguese explorers pioneered maritime exploration, notably under royal patronage of Prince Henry the Navigator and King John II, with such notable voyages as Bartolomeu Dias' sailing beyond the Cape of Good Hope, Vasco da Gama's discovery of the sea route to India and the European discovery of Brazil. During this time Portugal monopolized the spice trade, divided the world into hemispheres of dominion with Castille, the empire expanded with military campaigns in Asia. However, events such as the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, the country's occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, the independence of Brazil, a late industrialization compared to other European powers, erased to a great extent Portugal's prior opulence. After the 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, the democratic but unstable Portuguese First Republic was established being superseded by the Estado Novo right-wing authoritarian regime.
Democracy was restored after the Carnation Revolution in 1974. Shortly after, independence was granted to all its overseas territories; the handover of Macau to China in 1999 marked the end of what can be considered the longest-lived colonial empire. Portugal has left a profound cultural and architectural influence across the globe, a legacy of around 250 million Portuguese speakers, many Portuguese-based creoles, it is a developed country with a high-income advanced economy and high living standards. Additionally, it is placed in rankings of moral freedom, democracy, press freedom, social progress, LGBT rights. A member of the United Nations and the European Union, Portugal was one of the founding members of NATO, the eurozone, the OECD, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries; the word Portugal derives from the Roman-Celtic place name Portus Cale. Portus, the Latin word for port or harbour, Cala or Cailleach was the name of a Celtic goddess – in Scotland she is known as Beira – and the name of an early settlement located at the mouth of the Douro River which flows into the Atlantic Ocean in the north of what is now Portugal.
At the time the land of a specific people was named after its deity. Those names are the origins of the - gal in Galicia. Incidentally, the meaning of Cale or Calle is a derivation of the Celtic word for port which would confirm old links to pre-Roman, Celtic languages which compare to today's Irish caladh or Scottish cala, both meaning port; some French scholars believe it may have come from ` Portus Gallus', the port of the Celts. Around 200 BC, the Romans took the Iberian Peninsula from the Carthaginians during the Second Punic War, in the process conquered Cale and renamed it Portus Cale incorporating it to the province of Gaellicia with capital in Bracara Augusta. During the Middle Ages, the region around Portus Cale became known by the Suebi and Visigoths as Portucale; the name Portucale evolved into Portugale during the 7th and 8th centuries, by the 9th century, that term was used extensively to refer to the region between the rivers Douro and Minho. By the 11th and 12th centuries, Portugallia or Portvgalliae was referred to as Portugal.
The early history of Portugal is shared with the rest of the Iberian Peninsula located in South Western Europe. The name of Portugal derives from the joined Romano-Celtic name Portus Cale; the region was settled by Pre-Celts and Celts, giving origin to peoples like the Gallaeci, Lusitanians and Cynetes, visited by Phoenicians, Ancient Greeks and Carthaginians, incorporated in the Roman Republic dominions as Lusitania and part of Gallaecia, after 45 BC until 298 AD. The region of present-day Portugal was inhabited by Neanderthals and by Homo sapiens, who roamed the border-less region of the northern Iberian peninsula; these were subsistence societies that, although they did not establish prosperous settlements, did form organized societies. Neolithic Portugal experimented with domestication of herding animals, the raising of some cereal crops and fluvial or marine fishing, it is believed by some scholars that early in the first millennium BC, several waves of Celts invaded Portugal from Central Europe and inter-married with the local populations, forming differe
The natural horn is a musical instrument, the predecessor to the modern-day horn. Throughout the seventeenth and eighteenth century the natural horn evolved as a separation from the trumpet by widening the bell and lengthening the tubes, it consists of a mouthpiece, long coiled tubing, a large flared bell. This instrument was used extensively until the emergence of the valved horn in the early 19th century; the natural horn has several gaps in its harmonic range. To play chromatically, in addition to crooking the instrument into the right key, two additional techniques are required: bending and hand-stopping. Bending a note is achieved by modifying the embouchure to raise or lower the pitch fractionally, compensates for the out-of-pitch "wolf tones" which all brass instruments have. Hand-stopping is a technique whereby the player can modify the pitch of a note by up to a semitone by inserting a cupped hand into the bell. Both techniques change the timbre as well as the pitch. Pitch changes are made through a few techniques: Modulating the lip tension as done with modern brass instruments.
This allows for notes in the harmonic series to be played. Changing the length of the instrument by switching the crooks; this is a rather slow process. Before the advent of the modern valved horn, many ideas were attempted to speed up the process of changing the key of the instrument. Crooks were in common use by 1740. Changing the position of the hand in the bell; the effect is a pitch that dampens the sound. The List of compositions for horn includes many pieces that were written with the natural horn in mind; until the development of the modern horn in the early to mid-19th century, Western music employed the natural horn and its natural brass brethren. Substantial contributors to the horn repertoire include Handel, Beethoven, Weber and many others; the chromatic abilities of developed brass instruments, opened new possibilities for composers of the Romantic era, fit with the artistic currents of the time. By the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century all music was written for the modern valved horn.
However, the natural horn still found its way into the works of some composers. Brahms wrote for natural horn. Benjamin Britten's Serenade for Tenor and Strings, though written for the modern horn, makes notable use of the F harmonic series and has been recorded at least once on a natural horn. György Ligeti's Hamburg Concerto makes a great use of the natural horn and of natural sounds on the modern horn in the solo part and requires four natural horns in the orchestra. Below lists natural horn keys with their corresponding fingering on the modern horn. If a piece of music says the key on the left you can press the key combination on the right on the modern double horn to get the correct tube length; this is useful for simulating natural horn. B♭ alto – T0 A – T2 A♭ – T1 G – T12 G♭/F♯ – T23 F – open E – 2 E♭ – 1 D – 12 D♭ – 23 C – 13 B basso – 123 B♭ basso – not possible on F horn, unless you pull all the valve slides and tuning slide out as far as they will go and use the 123 fingering; the intonation may still be sharp, a greater degree of hand in the horn bell can be needed.
Alphorn Natural trumpet John. The Natural Horn. Seraphinoff, Richard. Natural Horns
Johann Sebastian Bach
Johann Sebastian Bach was a German composer and musician of the Baroque period. He is known for instrumental compositions such as the Art of Fugue, the Brandenburg Concertos, the Goldberg Variations as well as for vocal music such as the St Matthew Passion and the Mass in B minor. Since the 19th-century Bach Revival he has been regarded as one of the greatest composers of all time; the Bach family counted several composers when Johann Sebastian was born as the last child of a city musician in Eisenach. After becoming an orphan at age 10, he lived for five years with his eldest brother Johann Christoph Bach, after which he continued his musical development in Lüneburg. From 1703 he was back in Thuringia, working as a musician for Protestant churches in Arnstadt and Mühlhausen and, for longer stretches of time, at courts in Weimar—where he expanded his repertoire for the organ—and Köthen—where he was engaged with chamber music. From 1723 he was employed as Thomaskantor in Leipzig, he composed music for the principal Lutheran churches of the city, for its university's student ensemble Collegium Musicum.
From 1726 he published some of his organ music. In Leipzig, as had happened in some of his earlier positions, he had a difficult relation with his employer, a situation, little remedied when he was granted the title of court composer by King Augustus III of Poland in 1736. In the last decades of his life he extended many of his earlier compositions, he died of complications after eye surgery in 1750 at the age of 65. Bach enriched established German styles through his mastery of counterpoint and motivic organisation, his adaptation of rhythms and textures from abroad from Italy and France. Bach's compositions include hundreds of both sacred and secular, he composed Latin church music, Passions and motets. He adopted Lutheran hymns, not only in his larger vocal works, but for instance in his four-part chorales and his sacred songs, he wrote extensively for other keyboard instruments. He composed concertos, for instance for violin and for harpsichord, suites, as chamber music as well as for orchestra.
Many of his works employ the genres of fugue. Throughout the 18th century Bach was renowned as an organist, while his keyboard music, such as The Well-Tempered Clavier, was appreciated for its didactic qualities; the 19th century saw the publication of some major Bach biographies, by the end of that century all of his known music had been printed. Dissemination of scholarship on the composer continued through periodicals and websites devoted to him, other publications such as the Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis and new critical editions of his compositions, his music was further popularised through a multitude of arrangements, including for instance the Air on the G String, of recordings, for instance three different box sets with complete performances of the composer's works marking the 250th anniversary of his death. Bach was born in the duchy of Saxe-Eisenach, into a great musical family, his father, Johann Ambrosius Bach, was the director of the town musicians, all of his uncles were professional musicians.
His father taught him to play the violin and harpsichord, his brother Johann Christoph Bach taught him the clavichord and exposed him to much contemporary music. At his own initiative, Bach attended St. Michael's School in Lüneburg for two years. After graduating he held several musical posts across Germany: he served as Kapellmeister to Leopold, Prince of Anhalt-Köthen, as Thomaskantor in Leipzig, a position of music director at the main Lutheran churches and educator at the Thomasschule, he received the title of "Royal Court Composer" from Augustus III in 1736. Bach's health and vision declined in 1749, he died on 28 July 1750. Johann Sebastian Bach was born in Eisenach, the capital of the duchy of Saxe-Eisenach, in present-day Germany, on 21 March 1685 O. S.. He was the son of Johann Ambrosius Bach, the director of the town musicians, Maria Elisabeth Lämmerhirt, he was the eighth and youngest child of Johann Ambrosius, who taught him violin and basic music theory. His uncles were all professional musicians, whose posts included church organists, court chamber musicians, composers.
One uncle, Johann Christoph Bach, introduced him to the organ, an older second cousin, Johann Ludwig Bach, was a well-known composer and violinist. Bach's mother died in 1694, his father died eight months later; the 10-year-old Bach moved in with his eldest brother, Johann Christoph Bach, the organist at St. Michael's Church in Ohrdruf, Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg. There he studied and copied music, including his own brother's, despite being forbidden to do so because scores were so valuable and private, blank ledger paper of that type was costly, he received valuable teaching from his brother. J. C. Bach exposed him to the works of great composers of the day, including South German composers such as Johann Pachelbel and Johann Jakob Froberger. During this time, he was taught theology, Greek and Italian at the local gymnasium. By 3 April 1700, Bach and his schoolfriend Georg Erdmann—who was two years Bach's elder—were enrolled in the prestigious St. Michael's School in Lüneburg, some two weeks' travel north of Ohrdruf
Georg Philipp Telemann
Georg Philipp Telemann was a German Baroque composer and multi-instrumentalist. Self-taught in music, he became a composer against his family's wishes. After studying in Magdeburg and Hildesheim, Telemann entered the University of Leipzig to study law, but settled on a career in music, he held important positions in Leipzig, Sorau and Frankfurt before settling in Hamburg in 1721, where he became musical director of that city's five main churches. While Telemann's career prospered, his personal life was always troubled: his first wife died only a few months after their marriage, his second wife had extramarital affairs and accumulated a large gambling debt before leaving him. Telemann is one of the most prolific composers in history and was considered by his contemporaries to be one of the leading German composers of the time—he was compared favorably both to his friend Johann Sebastian Bach, who made Telemann the godfather and namesake of his son Carl Philipp Emanuel, to George Frideric Handel, whom Telemann knew personally.
As part of his duties, he wrote a considerable amount of music for educating organists under his direction. This includes 48 chorale preludes and 20 small fugues to accompany his chorale harmonizations for 500 hymns, his music incorporates French and German national styles, he was at times influenced by Polish popular music. He remained at the forefront of all new musical tendencies, his music stands as an important link between the late Baroque and early Classical styles; the Telemann Museum is Hamburg. Telemann was born in Magdeburg the capital of the Duchy of Magdeburg, Brandenburg-Prussia, his father Heinrich, deacon at the Church of the Holy Spirit, died. The future composer received his first music lessons at 10, from a local organist, became immensely interested in music in general, composition in particular. Despite opposition from his mother and relatives, who forbade any musical activities, Telemann found it possible to study and compose in secret creating an opera at age 12. In 1697, after studies at the Domschule in Magdeburg and at a school in Zellerfeld, Telemann was sent to the famous Gymnasium Andreanum at Hildesheim, where his musical talent flourished, supported by school authorities, including the rector himself.
Telemann was becoming adept both at composing and performing, teaching himself flute, violin, double bass, other instruments. In 1701 he graduated from the Gymnasium and went to Leipzig to become a student at the Leipzig University, where he intended to study law, he ended up becoming a professional musician composing works for Nikolaikirche and St. Thomas. In 1702 he became director of the municipal opera house Opernhaus auf dem Brühl, music director at the Neukirche. Prodigiously productive, Telemann supplied a wealth of new music for Leipzig, including several operas, one of, his first major opera, Germanicus. However, he became engaged in a conflict with the cantor of Johann Kuhnau; the conflict intensified when Telemann started employing numerous students for his projects, including those who were Kuhnau's, from the Thomasschule. Telemann left Leipzig in 1705 at the age of 24, after receiving an invitation to become Kapellmeister for the court of Count Erdmann II of Promnitz at Sorau, his career there was cut short in early 1706 by the hostilities of the Great Northern War, after a short period of travels he entered the service of Duke Johann Wilhelm, in Eisenach where Johann Sebastian Bach was born.
He became Konzertmeister on 24 December 1708 and Secretary and Kapellmeister in August 1709. During his tenure at Eisenach, Telemann wrote a great deal of music: at least four annual cycles of church cantatas, dozens of sonatas and concertos, other works. In 1709, he married Amalie Louise Juliane Eberlin, lady-in-waiting to the Countess of Promnitz and daughter of the musician Daniel Eberlin, their daughter was born in January 1711. The mother died soon afterwards, leaving Telemann distraught. After less than a year he sought another position, moved to Frankfurt on 18 March 1712 at the age of 31 to become city music director and Kapellmeister at the Barfüßerkirche and St. Catherine's Church. In Frankfurt, he gained his mature personal style. Here, as in Leipzig, he was a powerful force in the city's musical life, creating music for two major churches, civic ceremonies, various ensembles and musicians. By 1720 he had adopted the use of the da capo aria, adopted by composers such as Domenico Scarlatti.
Operas such as Narciso, brought to Frankfurt in 1719, written in the Italian idiom of composition, made a mark on Telemann's output. On 28 August 1714, three years after his first wife had died, Telemann married his second wife, Maria Catharina Textor, daughter of a Frankfurt council clerk, they had nine children together. This was a source of much personal happiness, helped him produce compositions. Telemann continued to be extraordinarily productive and successful augmenting his income by working for Eisenach employers as a Kapellmeister von Haus aus, sending new music while not living in Eisenach. Telemann's first published works appeared during the Frankfurt period, his output increased for he fervently composed overture-suites and chamber music, most of, unappreciated. In the latter half of the Frankfurt period, he composed an innovative work, his Viola Concerto in G major, twice
Belshazzar is an oratorio by George Frideric Handel. The libretto was by Charles Jennens, Handel abridged it considerably. Jennens' libretto was based on the Biblical account of the fall of Babylon at the hands of Cyrus the Great and the subsequent freeing of the Jewish nation, as found in the Book of Daniel. Handel composed Belshazzar in the late Summer of 1744 concurrently with Hercules, during a time that Winton Dean calls "the peak of Handel's creative life"; the work premiered the following Lenten season on 27 March 1745 at London. The work fell into neglect after Handel's death, with revivals of the work occurring in the United Kingdom in 1847, 1848 and 1873. With the revival of interest in Baroque music and informed musical performance since the 1960s, Belsahzzar receives performances in concert form today and is sometimes staged as an opera. Among other performances, Belshazzar was staged at the Aix-en-Provence Festival in 2008. Precis: Despite the warnings of his mother Queen Nitocris, King Belshazzar of Babylon commits sacrileges against the God of the Jews, who are in captivity there.
The city is besieged, Belshazzar is slain, the Jews are freed to return to their homeland by Cyrus the Great of Persia. Scene: Babylon, 538 BC; the city is being besieged by an army of Persians, led by Cyrus. The Palace in Babylon The Queen Mother Nitocris, mother of Belshazzar, muses on the changes than can affect the most powerful of human beings Nitocris has become convinced that the God of the Jews, who are being held in captivity in Babylon, is the true God, to Him she prays; the Jewish prophet Daniel, whom she has learnt to trust, comes to her. She is concerned about the fate of the empire under the rule of her wayward son. Daniel advises her; the camp of Cyrus before Babylon. A view of the city, with the River Euphrates running through it The Babylonians watch from the city walls and deride Cyrus and his army for making what they believe are impracticable preparations for storming the city. Gobrias, a Babylonian noble who has defected to Cyrus, fears. Gobrias longs for revenge for the death of his son, caused by Belshazzar.
Cyrus assures him he will prevail. Cyrus says that, as he stood on the banks of the Euphrates, he was seized by what seemed a divine inspiration. Cyrus had the idea to drain the river which runs through the city and march into it along the riverbed. A good opportunity to do this will be during the feast of the Babylonian god Sesach, on which, Gobrias confirms, it is a religious duty to the Babylonians to get roaring drunk in the god's honour. Cyrus dedicates himself to the, as yet unknown to him, powerful deity whom he feels is directing his steps, his army comment. Daniel's house. Daniel, with the Prophecies of Isaiah and Jeremiah open before him. Other Jews Daniel is consulting sacred Jewish texts for guidance, he feels sure that his fellow Jews will soon attain their freedom. Daniel has found a prophesy in the texts that indicates that Cyrus is the anointed of the Lord and will imminently overthrow Babylon and release the Jews from their captivity; the Jews praise God for His mercy The Palace Belsahzzar, with his mother and Jews present, is celebrating the feast of Sesach by uproariously drinking copious amounts of wine.
His mother Nitocris rebukes him for his riotous excess. Belshazzar responds that getting drunk on the feast of Sesach is the custom, in fact a duty, noticing the Jews around him, orders the sacred vessels from the temple of Jerusalem that were brought as tribute to Babylon to be brought to him so he can continue to drink from them, his mother is horrified by such sacrilege and the Jews beg the King not to perform such a profanation. Nitrocis implores her beloved son not to thus incur God's wrath, but Belshazzar scornfully rejects what he considers his mother's superstition The Jews comment that the Lord is slow to anger but his wrath will be awoken. Without the city, the river empty The Persians are elated that Cyrus' scheme has succeeded and the Euphrates has been diverted. Cyrus assures his army that now is the perfect time to attack as their enemies will all be off their guard due to being intoxicated or in a drunken stupor after the feast of Sesach; the army is eager to follow him into battle.
A banquet-room, adorned with the images of the Babylonian gods. Belshazzar, his wives and lords, drinking out of the Jewish temple-vessels, singing the praises of their gods The Babylonians are having a wonderful time on their holiday getting drunk in honour of their gods (Chorus of Babylonians:Ye tutelar gods of ou
World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It
Nail Men or Men of Nails were a form of propaganda and fundraising for members of the armed forces and their dependents in the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the German Empire in World War I. They consisted of wooden statues into which nails were driven, either iron, or coloured silver or gold, in exchange for donations of different amounts; some took different forms, including pillars, shields or local coats of arms and crosses the Iron Cross, in German there are a variety of alternate names for them, including Wehrmann in Eisen or eiserner Wehrmann, Nagelbild or Nagelbrett and Kriegswahrzeichen. The most famous were the original Wehrmann in Eisen in Vienna and the'Iron Hindenburg', a 12 metre statue of Hindenburg adjacent to the Victory Column in Berlin; the idea for the Nail Men came from the Stock im Eisen in Vienna, a tree-trunk which had had nails hammered into it for centuries. The first Nail Man, a medieval knight, was set up in Vienna and was first nailed on 6 March 1915 in a public ceremony attended by many dignitaries, including members of the imperial household and the German and Ottoman ambassadors.
They were promoted as a patriotic fund-raising method in German-speaking parts of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and in the German Empire, including by publications such as Gotthold Riegelmann's Der Stock in Eisen: praktische Ratschläge zur Errichtung einfacher Nagelholzmale mit Ideenskizzen und Kostenberechnungen and Benno Fitzke and Paul Matzdorf's Eiserne Kreuz-Nagelungen zum Besten der Kriegshilfe und zur Schaffung von Kriegswahrzeichen. They have been seen as "fit in much more with Protestant celebrations of the Prussian military genius and the grandeur of the Kaiserreich" than with Austrian Catholicism. Municipalities and charitable organisations, either specially founded associations or the Red Cross, had a statue or other emblem made out of wood, sometimes by well known sculptors, such as the medieval knight Wehrmann in Eisen by M. Molitar in Leipzig; the nails which the donor could use depending on the level of the donation could be iron, or silver- or gold-plated. The placement of the nail reflected the level of the donation.
For example, in the case of the Iron Cross at Heidelberg, a black nail cost 1 mark, a silver nail hammered into the border, 3 marks, a nail in the'1914' inscription, 5 marks, in the'W' for Kaiser Wilhelm, 10 marks, in the crown at the top of the cross, 20 marks. Donations were recorded in an'Iron Book', for example at Heidelberg, the donor received a lapel pin, a certificate, or some other token of the donation. Medallions and other associated merchandise were sold as a further source of funds. An iron cross was a popular choice of form the most popular. Other common shapes were shields and coats of arms, but animals and ships were nailed; the figures in human form were knights in armour but sometimes depicted modern soldiers or historical and legendary figures. In addition to Hindenburg, Admiral Tirpitz, Crown Prince of Bavaria and General Otto von Emmich were depicted as Nail Men. Donations were collected to assist the wounded or for widows and orphans of the fallen, but in some cases, for example at Schwäbisch Gmünd, they were intended to help supply front soldiers.
The statues were prominently displayed and there was considerable social pressure to show patriotism by buying nails. The first nail was ceremonially driven by an important personage at a large patriotic ceremony including hymns and specially written patriotic poems which evoked the Age of Chivalry. Clubs, school classes, so on performed group nailing. Vienna: Wehrmann im Eisen, a medieval knight in full armour. Alsergrund: a hunter, in an inn, donations benefitting the dependents of fallen professional hunters. Innere Stadt: a posthorn, in the Trade Ministry, 20 May 1917. Favoriten: a U-Boat, set up by the local branch of the Austrian Fleet Association to raise money for construction of a new U-Boat. Floridsdorf: a shield on a station platform, the armorial oak of Army Chief of the General Staff Count Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf in an inn. Stammersdorf: a shield. Grinzing: a grapevine, created by Professor F. Barwig of the Vienna School of Applied Arts and his students. Hietzing: a Wehrmann. Kaiserebersdorf: an eagle.
Landstraße: a soldier, the'German master in iron', in the banqueting hall of the Third District, first nailed on 15 August 1915, a field howitzer designed by the sculptor Alfred Hofmann, in the covered riding school of the 13th Field Howitzer Division's barracks in the Rennweg. Leopoldstadt: a shield and a soldier. Meidling: a shield. Hetzendorf: an iron cross. Penzing: a Wehrmann. Rodaun: a shield. Roßau: a table in a restaurant, from 12 October 19